Antitank and Modern Heavy Rifles

The first anti-tank (AT) rifle, the Mauser Tank-Gewehr M1918, was developed towards the end of the First World War in parallel with the MG TuF machine gun which used the same 13 x 92SR ammunition. It was rushed into service to provide infantry with some protection against the Allied tanks until the TuF could be introduced. The M1918 was conceptually very simple: a bolt-action weapon just like a scaled-up infantry rifle but 1.68m long and weighing 17.7kg.

The steel-cored projectile was claimed to be capable of penetrating 20mm of armour plate at 100m range and 15mm at 300m, provided it hit at 90° (performance dropped off sharply with more glancing hits). Given that the thickest armour on contemporary British tanks measured just 12mm, the gun was quite effective. The disadvantages were those which handicapped AT rifles throughout their existence; size, weight and recoil.

The two nations which provided the lineal successors to the Mauser were Britain and the Soviet Union. In Britain, the first experimental AT rifle, the .600/500" Godsal, was actually a contemporary of the Mauser M1918, but was not proceeded with. Little then happened until the mid-1930s, when much experimentation resulted in the Boys Rifle, a bolt-action weapon of brutally functional appearance, chambered for a new .55" (13.9 x 99B) round

Experimental Russian Rifle
Mauser Tank-Gewehr MIVI8 (with M16 rifle for comparison) (Courtesy: MoD Pattern Room)
Browning Crbine

500" Godsal experimental (Courtesy: MoD Pattern Room)

which was similar in dimensions to the .50" sophisticated semi-automatic gas-operated weapon

Browning cartridge except for the larger calibre and the belted case.

fed by a five-round clip. It was relatively fragile and expensive and far less common than Degtyarevs

The cartridge was available in two service AP rival PTRD. This was an extremely simple bolt-

loadings, the W Mark 1 and the improved W Mark action single-shot rifle whose appearance rather

2. Even the performance of the latter was not a resembled a piece of plumbing. Its one refinement great deal better than the Mausers, with penetra- was a recoiling barrel/breech assembly, which as tion of 20mm at 100m range and 70° striking angle. well as helping to absorb the brutal recoil of the

Later in the war a 45.5g tungsten-cored shot was massive cartridge incorporated automatic breech developed which was fired at 945 m/s. It was far opening and case ejection.

more effective, but came too late for service use.

These weapons' combination of portability and

The Boys saw extensive use, with BSA producing power made them the most useful of the AT rifles nearly 69,000 of them. They were fitted to light armoured vehicles as well as available in a shortened version for paratroops. Despite their ubiquity, and they remained in service even after 1945, being used by the North Koreans in the Korean War, albeit primarily for long-range sniping. The their unpleasant firing characteristics and ineffec- cartridge lives on in the post-war KPV heavy tiveness against all but the thinnest armour meant machine gun.

that they were never popular.

Another nation which produced an AT rifle in

The Soviet Union paid even greater homage to this class was Czechoslovakia. The 15mm vz 41, the Mauser in that their first effort, the Sholoklov M39, was simply a Mauser copy chambered for their 12.7X108 heavy machine gun round.

known to the Germans as the PzB 41(t), was a sin-gle-shot bolt-action rifle designed around the 15 x 104 cartridge for the big ZB machine gun (which

Performance was disappointing, leading to the saw British service as the 15mm Besa). Armour rapid development of a considerably more powerful penetration was midway between the two Soviet

14.5 x 114 cartridge, with armour penetration leap- rounds. In German hands, production concentrated ing from 10mm to 30mm (both at 100m/60°), and on a version modified to accept the 7.92X94

after some abortive experiments in 1939^0, two Panzerbusehe round, but the original was supplied very different guns to fire it.

The PTRS (Protivotankovoe Ruzh 'ye = antitank rifle) of 1941, a Simonov design, was a class AT rifles, the T1E1 Cal .60". The 15.2 x 114

in small numbers to Italy and Croatia.

The USA developed the largest of the HMG-

T1e1 Anti Tank Rifle

.55" Boys rifle (Courtesy: MoD Pattern Room)

cartridge was even bigger than the Soviet 14.5mm round and featured impressive ballistics, with target armour penetration of 32mm at 450m. The gun was a gas-operated semi-automatic weapon designed to be fired from a low tripod. It was tested in 1942, by which time the futility of any anti-tank rifle had become apparent and it never saw service. The cartridge was used in several experimental machine guns but was not adopted until it was necked out to 20mm, in which form it became the 20 x 102 round used in the M39 and M61 Vulcan aircraft cannon.

Even the 13mm Mauser was adequate to deal with the great majority of tanks in service in the 1930s, most of which were only designed to keep out standard rifle ammunition. There were already signs, however, that tanks were getting tougher. The French had some massive heavy tanks in service and the first of the British infantry tanks, the A11 (better known as the Matilda 1), boasted armour up to 60mm thick. Even in standard cruiser tanks, frontal armour of up to 30mm was beginning to appear.

The problem was that to follow the conventional route and increase the calibre of AT rifles would result in a significant increase in the size, weight and recoil of the weapon, thus greatly reducing its usefulness to front-line troops. Some nations accepted these disadvantages nonetheless, but others took a different route.

As we have seen, the British and Soviet AT rifles were in a direct line of development from the Mauser M1918 in that they retained a similar calibre (12.7-15mm) and often used cartridges shared with HMGs. The .55" Boys round was actually the subject of various attempts to design a machine gun around it (by Vickers and Rolls-Royce, and even in Italy!). There were two alternative approaches also used: the small-calibre, high-velocity weapons and the big 20mm guns.

The small bores

Designers in Germany and Poland were aware that penetration was improved much more by increases in striking velocity than it was by increases in projectile weight or calibre. They therefore independently designed weapons using their standard military rifle calibre of 7.92mm, but firing massively oversized cartridges to achieve the highest possible muzzle velocity.

The Polish weapon, known as the Kb Ur wz 35 (the kUf being short for Uruguay, as for security reasons the gun was stored in cases labelled "rifles for Uruguay"), the PzB 35 (to the Germans) and the Maroszec (after the leader of the design team), was the neatest AT rifle ever produced: a slim, conventional bolt-action rifle weighing only 9kg and designed around a long, thin 7.9 x 107 cartridge.

Additional Armour Plate Tank

Anti-tank rifles at the Pattern Room 1 (from left to right): 20mm Type 97 (with box magazine), 14.5mm PTRD 14.5mm PTRS, 20mm Solothurn S18-1000, 20mm Solothum S18-100 (Courtesy: MoD Pattern Room)

The muzzle velocity of 1,200 m/s gave armour penetration variously quoted as 33mm, 20mm or 15mm at 100m (the last being at a striking angle of 60°). It was effective against most of the invading German tanks but had been kept so secret that it was only possible to put a small number into action. Captured examples were used by Finland, who also used several other types of ATR as well as developing their own, as we shall see.

The German equivalent was a shorter but much fatter 7.9 x 94 cartridge derived from a necked-down Mauser M1918, technically called the Patronen 318 and generally known as the Panzerbiische. There is some debate about the actual ballistics. Although officially the muzzle velocity was about 1,200 m/s, the measured muzzle velocity in US tests was only 1,080 m/s. This reduced performance might have been a consequence of barrel wear, which was a major problem. Armour penetration of the tungsten-cored bullet was very similar to the Polish round (30mm/100m/90°) but it was available in a variety of weapons: the PzB 38, PzB 39 and M.SS41.

The first of these was similar to the PTRD in that the barrel recoiled, automatically ejecting the spent cartridge, which was manually replaced. It was expensive to make and soon replaced by the simplified, manually operated PzB 39. The M.SS 41 (sometimes referred to as the SS 41, MS 41 or even MPzB 41) was an adaptation of the Czech 15mm gun already described. It was of bullpup design (with the magazine behind the pistol grip) and manually operated by rotating and sliding the grip. Despite the small-calibre cartridge, the guns were not particularly light.

The performance of these weapons was, by most accounts, significantly better than the .55" Boys or the 12.7mm Sholoklov. However, it was still not enough against the rapidly improving Soviet tanks so some of the PzB 39s were converted to grenade launchers, in which form they were known as GrB 39. The barrel was reduced in length from 117cm to 58cm and fitted with a cup to take two different shaped-charge projectiles. The No.41 weighed 425g and could penetrate around 90mm of armour; the No.61 weighed 580g and could penetrate 125mm. Range was about 100m and the low launching velocity made hitting the target relatively difficult.

Most remarkably, an AFV machine gun was devised to fire the Patronen 318, the MG 141. This followed the development of the experimental EW 141 (.Einbciu Waffe), which was semi-auto only. The MG 141 was reportedly produced in small numbers, but the barrel wear, bad enough in the single-shot rifles, must have been extremely severe. It was a Mauser design (similar to the MG 151) which fired at 900 rpm, weighed 22.5kg, was 174cm long and had a 100cm barrel.

Mention should be made of other nations' experiments in producing 7.9mm AT rifles. The French tried necking down a 13.2mm Hotchkiss HMG round; the Spanish produced an 8 x 87 round similar to a short Maroszec for a prototype rifle which reportedly saw action in their civil war; and after experiments with a .55/.303" intended for training, the British considered a .55/7.9mm. None was adopted.

The problem with the 7.9mm AT rifles was that only a limited amount of energy could be pushed down the narrow bore; the big cartridges were already 'over-bore" and highly inefficient, causing severe barrel wear with a life of only about 200 rounds. Velocity could not be increased further without a radically different approach. This led to some experimentation with squeeze- or taper-bore guns, but these only saw service in larger calibres and were not adopted for AT rifles.

The big cannon

The alternative approach to achieving improved penetration was simply to increase the calibre. In practice, the maximum before reaching the artillery category was around 20mm and weapons in this class were developed and adopted by several nations. Nearly all of them used existing cartridges developed for aircraft or AA use and also used similar mechanisms, although usually semi rather than fully automatic.

In comparison with the smaller calibres, the more powerful 20mm cannon suffered disadvantages of size, weight and recoil (requiring at least two men to handle them) but benefited from less sensitivity to range; small projectiles tended to lose velocity, and therefore penetration, at a much higher rate. To illustrate this, a typical 7.9mm AP bullet of 14.3g has a sectional density ratio of .32 while a 20mm projectile of 150g has an SDR of .53, and (projectile shapes being equal) the SDR is directly

Helenius 20mm Rifle

7.92 mm M.SS 41 (Courtesy: MoD Pattern Room)

related to the ballistic coefficient which determines

The SI8-100 was replaced by the much larger the velocity loss; the higher the SDR, the lower the S18-1000, chambered for the long 20 x 138B

velocity loss with range.

Solothurn cartridge also used in the standard

The first of the AT cannon was developed from German AA cannon, the FlaK 30 and 38. This was the 20mm Becker aircraft cannon. By the 1930s the a far more powerful weapon which was capable of design had been developed by Oerlikon and was penetrating 40mm at short range. Power had its offered in various versions, still principally for the price, however: it was 2.17m long and weighed same roles. However, the firm also offered anti-tank 44kg. The SI8-1100 was identical but offered fully rifles using the same API blow-back mechanism, in automatic fire, a feature of somewhat dubious value semi-automatic form: the SSG and SSG36, chambered for the 20 x 72RB and 20 x 110RB cartridges respectively (although the shorter barrels reduced the muzzle velocities in comparison with as the heavy recoil would have made it difficult to hold an automatic weapon on target. These weapons were mainly deployed by the Italian Army but also saw service with Switzerland and the the aircraft and AA guns). SSG stood for Schweres Netherlands. Incidentally there is some confusion

Selbstladegewehr, or heavy self-loading rifle.

surrounding the nomenclature of this weapon, as it

The guns were relatively compact but heavy. has been reported that a few were tried in German Even the low-velocity SSG was credited with penetrating 20mm of armour at 100m/90° (and 11mm at 1,000m); the SSG36, with a much higher muzzle velocity (750 m/s instead of 550 m/s), was appreciably more effective. The problem was that the API blowback mechanism required the gun to fire as the heavy bolt was moving forward, which inevitably affected the gunners' accuracy.

Oerlikon's main Swiss competition was Solothurn, a subsidiary of the German Rheinmetall-Borsig firm which was not allowed to develop AT rifles under the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles. Solothurn also developed 20mm guns, but these fired from a locked breech and were derived from the Erhardt aircraft cannon first conceived in the First World War. This enabled the use of more powerful cartridges as well as a much shorter lock time for more accurate shooting. For complex political and commercial reasons, the Erhardt was actually offered as an AT gun around 1930 by the Dutch firm HAIHA (Hollandische Artillerie Industrie und Handelsmaatschappij), another subsidiary of Rheinmetall.

Further development led to the introduction of the Solothurn SI8-100, a purpose-designed, recoil-operated, self-loading AT weapon using the short, belted 20 x 105B Solothurn round also used in aircraft cannon. It was bought by Hungary and Finland, the version for the latter being known as the S18-154. The relatively low velocity limited its TJw 2Qmm mti_tank uke Ms So!othurn Sl8-1000, effectiveness, although it was still capable of were too heavy to pick up and carry penetrating over 30mm/100m/90°. (Courtesy: Verlag Stocker-Schmid, Diet ikon-Zurich)

Swiss 24mm Tankbusehe

service as the PzB 41. This should not be confused with the Czech PzB 41 already referred to.

A very similar but gas-operated weapon, also using the long Solothurn round, was the Finnish Lahti L39 (popularly known as the Norsupyssy, or elephant gun). This saw service against the Soviet forces in the Winter War of 1939-40 and proved quite successful, aided no doubt by its chief novelty: a small pair of skis to enable the big gun to be towed across snow. It also featured a large muzzle brake of distinctive shape, in an attempt to reduce recoil to manageable levels. Surprisingly, it fired from an open bolt, but this must have been useful later when a fully automatic version was adapted for AA use. This was not the first attempt by Lahti to produce an AT rifle. The L38 was initially developed in 13.2mm calibre but it appears (the facts are not entirely clear) that it was later adapted to take Lahti s own 20 x 113 cartridge used in the naval

AA cannon. Neither rifle appears to have seen service.

Like the Lahti and the Oerlikons, the 20mm Madsen AT rifle was developed from an aircraft cannon. Using Madsen s own large 20 x 120 cartridge, this was the bulkiest of the AT guns, weighing 60kg and firing semi-auto from a thirty-round drum magazine. Introduced into Danish service, it was taken over post-1940 by the Wehrmacht, who reportedly did not like it very much.

Sweden also produced AT rifles, the more conventional being the massive Bofors m/40, which was a multi-purpose weapon also used in A A and AFV roles. The Bofors fired the company's own long, rimmed 20 x 145R cartridge and was mounted on a tripod. It used a long-recoil system capable of automatic fire from an odd twenty-five-round rotary magazine (like a drum only with the cartridges exposed to the elements) sitting above the breech.

Montagen Swede Mauser

Anti-tank rifles at the Pattern Room 2: Swedish ml 42 recoilless in the foreground, with its huge cartridge standing in front (Courtesy: MoD Pattern Room)

Steyr Iws 2000

The massive 24mrn Th.41 in firing position (Courtesy: Verlag Stocker-Schmid, Dietikon-Zurich)

Tank Firing Main Gun

Another solution to the problem of transporting large anti-tank rifles; this is the Swiss 24mm Tankbusehe 41

(Courtesy: Verlag Stocker-Schmid, Dietikon-Zurich)

Anti Tank Rifle

Anti-tank rifle cartridges (from left to right): 7.92 x 57 (for scale), 7.92mm Panzerbüsche (7.92 x 94), 7.92mm Maroszek (7.92 x 107), modern .50" Browning SLAP APDS (12.7 x 99), 13mm Mauser T-Gewehr (13 x 92SR), .55" ßüjtf (13.9 x 99£j, 14.5mm PTRDIPTRS (14.5 x 114), Oerlikon SSG (20 x 72£J, Solothurn S18-100 (20 x

Oerlikon SSG-36 (20 x 110RB), Japanese Type 97 (20 x 725j, Solothurn SI8-10001Lahti L39 (20 x 138B), Swiss Tankbüsche 41 (24 x 138)

Anti-tank rifle cartridges (from left to right): 7.92 x 57 (for scale), 7.92mm Panzerbüsche (7.92 x 94), 7.92mm Maroszek (7.92 x 107), modern .50" Browning SLAP APDS (12.7 x 99), 13mm Mauser T-Gewehr (13 x 92SR), .55" ßüjtf (13.9 x 99£j, 14.5mm PTRDIPTRS (14.5 x 114), Oerlikon SSG (20 x 72£J, Solothurn S18-100 (20 x

Oerlikon SSG-36 (20 x 110RB), Japanese Type 97 (20 x 725j, Solothurn SI8-10001Lahti L39 (20 x 138B), Swiss Tankbüsche 41 (24 x 138)

The other Swedish weapon was the exception to the rule and the most remarkable of the European AT rifles, the 20mm Carl Gustav m/42 recoilless. Such weapons are profligate in their use of propel-lant as most of the charge is used to generate the back-blast needed to counteract the recoil. The cartridge is therefore simply gigantic, with a case 180mm long and with a rim diameter of 48mm. The light and handy gun was necessarily single-shot, with an artillery-type breech.

The Japanese also adopted the 20mm calibre for their only AT rifle, the Type 97. The 20 x 125 cartridge was a large and powerful item and the gun used a gas-unlocked delayed blowback mechanism similar to the Hispano s. Provision was also made for the barrel and receiver to recoil in order to steady the weapon. However, reports that the gun could fire full-auto are incorrect; the armourers manual for the gun shows no means of achieving selective fire and the Japanese nomenclature is Jidoho (autoloading gun) instead of Kikanho (automatic cannon). This gun's claim to fame is that it was available with an armoured shield which helped to raise the travelling weight to 68kg. The gun was probably of more value when converted for use as an aircraft cannon, in which form it was renamed the IJA 20mm Ho-3 (fixed) and Ho-1 (for flexible mounting).

The largest of the AT rifles (although approaching the light artillery category) was the Swiss Tb 41 (Tankbiische 41). This short-recoil self-loading weapon was designed around the 24 x 138 cartridge and was essentially the same gun as the Pzw-Kan 38 AFV cannon. It weighed 53kg empty and was available on tripod or wheeled mountings. The calibre may be only a fraction less than the 25mm

Hotchkiss AT gun, but the French weapon was much bigger and heavier, and definitely out of the AT rifle class.

Anti-tank rifles: the verdict

The main conclusion in studying the history of AT rifles is that they were a considerable waste of time and resources. They seemed like a good idea during the rearmament boom of the mid- to late 1930s, offering the power to defeat most contemporary tanks in a package handy enough to make them infantry weapons, but no sooner had the fighting started than the deficiencies became apparent.

Even the best of the weapons was only marginally effective against early Second World War tanks and AT riflemen soon found that they had to wait until they were suicidally close, or until they could shoot at the thinner side armour. As tank armour rapidly increased in thickness, the AT rifles could not keep up. A weapon which was primarily devised to assist the morale of front-line troops began to have the opposite effect. They reportedly saw some use as long-range sniping rifles, starting as early as the First World War when the M1918 was used in the counter-sniper role as it had the ability to punch through the armoured shields sometimes used by snipers. This hardly justified the sums spent on them.

It is sometimes, not unreasonably, asked whether AT rifles were effective even when they were able to penetrate the armour of an AFV. It is admittedly unlikely that the small projectiles would do much damage to the vehicle; the most they could hope for would be to disable one or two of the crew as the shot bounced around inside. This concern might have lain behind the rather optimistic addition to the base of the Patronen 318 cartridge of a small tear-gas capsule. The main effect of AT rifles may have been psychological: the knowledge that their armour could be penetrated might be enough to make AFV crews more cautious about pushing forwards and exposing their vehicles to fire. At any rate, armies still find it worthwhile providing AP projectiles for HMGs and modern versions of the AT rifle.

With the benefit of hindsight, AT rifles could have remained effective for longer if they had made use of some of the ammunition developments stimulated by the war. APCR projectiles offered huge improvements in short-range penetration. The later APDS ammunition was at least as good at short range and much better at longer distances. While proving highly effective in anti-tank artillery, such projectiles never saw service in AT rifles.

Modern rifles

The new forms of ammunition developed for HMGs, such as multi-purpose and SLAP (APDS) rounds, have helped to restore interest in the concept of a large-calibre, shoulder-fired rifle as a combination long-range sniping/anti-sniping and

Snipers Model

ftglgj

Barrett M82A1; a modern .50" calibre rifle, with M16 for scale (Courtesy: MoD Pattern Room)

anti-materiel weapon. Light armoured vehicles are generally vulnerable to SLAP rounds and soft-skinned vehicles (including parked aircraft) can be severely damaged by the new APHEI shells. Furthermore, even main battle tanks can have their effectiveness reduced by hits on their relatively vulnerable externally mounted equipment such as night-sights. Such weapons are also useful in disposing at a safe distance of unexploded battlefield ordnance such as mines, and they are even attracting interest as vehicle-mounted HMG replacements in circumstances in which weight is at a premium.

New rifles in .50" Browning, 12.7 x 108 and even 14.5 x 114 have been introduced in many countries in recent years. Most of these are bolt-action weapons but some, such as the Barrett M82, are semi-automatic and one, the Czech LCZ B-30, even offers selective fire. Efficient recoil-reduction techniques make the new weapons much lighter and handier than the old AT rifles, at around 10-16kg. Precision shooting is possible at 1,500m, with the maximum effective range being around 2,000m.

A less extreme approach to long-range sniping is offered by rifles designed around the .338" Lapua Magnum cartridge (8.58x71), such as the Accuracy International bolt-action and the Barrett Model 98A autoloader. These weapons extend the accurate sniping range from about 850m for 7.62 x 51 NATO sniping rifles out to 1,400+m. The British Army recently selected the .338 Accuracy International as the L115A1.

US forces have deployed more than one type of .50" calibre rifle in recent years, particularly those by Barrett and Harris, and at least thirty other nations have also purchased quantities of rifles of this type.

Most of the rifles use standard HMG ammunition, but there are some exceptions. Steyr has developed a specialised IWS 2000 anti-materiel rifle, designed around a plastic-cased 15.2mm round intended to fire a fin-stabilised APFSDS projectile of 5.5mm calibre. This is launched at an extremely high muzzle velocity and is capable of penetrating 40mm of armour at 1,000m. A simpler development with a similar purpose is the South African Mechem NTW 20/14.5 AMR. It is designed around the 20 x 82 cartridge used in the Vektor GA-1 automatic cannon. While relatively low-powered for a modern 20mm, it is claimed to penetrate 20mm (AP projectile) or 15mm (SAP) at 'normal battle ranges'. A barrel chambered for the Russian 14.5X114 cartridge is available when greater effective range is required. The gun is a simple bolt-action weapon weighing 26kg and can be broken down into two sections for easier carrying. Finland has produced the Helenius 20mm APH RK20 using the old ShVAK rimmed cartridge, while Croatia has developed the semi-recoilless RT20 AMR around the 20 x 110 HS 404 cartridge; part of the gun gas is ducted backwards, over the gunner's shoulder.

Silenced heavy rifles

Another type of special-purpose large-calibre weapon is the silenced sniping rifle. Apart from the need to fit a large silencer to the barrel (or preferably design the barrel with an integral silencer) it is also necessary to hold the muzzle velocity down to subsonic speeds of around 320 m/s in order to avoid the revealing 'crack' of a supersonic bullet passing by. Conventional large-calibre machine gun rounds are therefore far too powerful for this purpose.

Perhaps the most famous of the early weapons of this type was the British De Lisle carbine of the Second World War. This fired a standard .45" ACP pistol (11.5 x 23) round from a bolt-action rifle. It was certainly silent, but the light, round-nosed bullet quickly lost velocity, limiting the maximum range.

The next attempt was an experimental American weapon tested in Vietnam. It was similar in principle to the De Lisle but chambered for a much more effective cartridge, the specially developed .458 x 1V" Barnes (11.5 x 38B), which was made by shortening the .458" Winchester Magnum big-game round. The solid bullet was still round-nosed but was twice the weight of the De Lisle s, which in conjunction with its higher muzzle velocity extended its useful range. The gun was long and heavy, however, and was not popular in service.

The idea has been revived in modern weapons such as the Whisper range of rifles. These are chambered for special cartridges based on commercial hunting ammunition, modified to take bullets which are very heavy for their calibre and highly streamlined to retain as much velocity and range as possible. Most of these fit into the small-arms category, but the .458" (11.6X44B), based on a cut-down .458" Winchester big-game cartridge, and the .500" (12.7 x 57B), which uses a cut-down and expanded .460" Weatherby case, qualify for our heavy weapons class. The rifles in which they are used are adapted versions of normal commercial bolt-action hunting weapons, with weights in the region of 5kg.

+3 -1

Responses

  • reagan
    What shoots 15.2x 114?
    5 years ago
  • alvise
    What type rifling did 13.2MM Hothkess guns have?
    4 years ago
  • hildifons
    How effective was 15mm Besa?
    3 years ago
  • FRANCISCO
    How to form 7.92x94 ammunition?
    2 years ago

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