O

Need for an aerial machine gun larger in caliber than the conventional rifle bore for use against observation balloons. The French were the first to modify the Vickers to take their 11-mm Des-vigues cartridge in order to provide more ol the The Russians were using a larger caliber Vickers than the other Allies and this fact made it the easiest of the various Vickers to modify for the large French cartridge. An order was placed with Colt's Patent Fire Arms Co., Hartford. Conn., to alter a...

Info

Hispano-Suiza 20 60 Automatic Aircraft Cannon. Experimental Mr e. Manufactured by the British M.A.R. Company the fact that they were doing more to develop the weapon than were the French, ordered its representatives abroad to watch very keenly production and refinement activities on the weapon. Since events were taking shape that might make the two countries allies at any moment, any information requested by our attaches was freely passed on. On 27 July 1937 a procurement authority was sent to...

Email Auto Extraetor

Since the munitions companies pointed out hat the faint strikes were due to lack of impact i the primer resulting from error in the gun, md not as a result of defective materials or workmanship, it was decided to conduct another test 011 an extensive scale at Aberdeen. Ninety of the 20-mm guns, Ml and AN-M2, selected from every facility producing them, were expended in this test with all types of ammunition, both from accepted and rejected lots. A complete record was made of every malfunction...

The Machine Gun

Brings the trigger guard back to its normal position. The so-called acceleratoi was not incorporated in the design of the largei caliber weapon. The device was in reality a strong spring buffer that could be dropped into position to shorten the recoil stroke and speed up by bolt deflection literate of lire. The barrel was machined in such a manner as to have three points of contact with the inside of the barrel jacket. This gave sufficient support but did not create undue friction on recoil. By...

Baldwin Aircraft Cannon Mm

During World War I, an American engineer, A. S. Baldwin, was authorized by our Government to work on the Puteaux aircraft cannon sent to this country from France for the purpose of adapting them for use on American planes. From the wealth of experience gained during the early days of development and the wide reputation he enjoyed as a thorough ordnance man, he was the natural choice of the Army to design an aircraft cannon for use on a flexible mount or a motor cannon to be fired through the...

The Aircraft Armament Board Report

Browning Caliber .80, for Aircraft Use (1) This Browning machine gun belongs to that class of automatic, weapons known as short recoil operated, air cooled and belt fed. It is chambered for the standard caliber .30 U. S. ammunition. The force of recoil is utilized to perform the mechanical operations of feeding, load ing, extracting, cocking and ejecting the empty cartridge cases through the bottom of the receiver while the buffer and driving spring returns the counter recoiling mechanism to...

Hdck

Rhcinmctall 30 mm Automatic Aircraft Cannon, MK-10I. Stance's that permits an unusually short recoil stroke before picking up the incoming round. A safety lock can be so positioned as to make it impossible to depress the solenoid actuator. To fire the MK 101, a loaded drum is attached in its fastening latches on top of the receiver. Air from a cylinder is admitted to the charging mechanism through an electric solenoid valve. This allows compressed air to enter the piston housiftg against the...

Gast Machine

This piece is set in a recess corresponding to the aft end ol the upper portion of the piston. When the latter moves forward under the impulse of the driving spring, the sliding movement of the recoiling mechanism in that direction is slopped at the end of its slideway. The piston with attached firing pin continues on its course. The projection comes in contact with the corresponding cam on the breechblock which is opposite it. The breechblock is thus jacked up at the rear and held in this...

Knorrbremse Machine

Swedish military authorities, upon becoming interested in a strangely designed machine gun, invented by Hans Lauf of Gharlottenburg, Germany, had their government small arms factory manufacture the weapon for testing purposes in 1933. Lauf, in presenting it, described it as a gas-pressure-opera ted machine gun and made many claims for the unusual contrivance. The inventor was well known in the gun world and at the time was a director of the Knorr-Bremse Manufacturing Go. of Lich ten berg,...

BesaZB Machine Guns

The British modifications on the 1926-30 models that became known as the Bren led the ZB firm to bring out an identical gun in every respect except for the caliber. This was changed from the British .303 to the Czech rifle cartridge, 7.92 millimeter. The greatly improved design was called the ZB Model 1934 and the highly efficient weapon was bought or copied by countries all over the world. In 1937 V. llolek, the official in charge of the firm's experimental weapon design, introduced and...

Purvis Henry Rifled Barrel Company

The first working model of a fully automatic machine gun. He set up a small workshop at 57 Hatton Gardens, corner o Clcrkcnwell Road. Bringing with him the milling machine used at Bankside, he purchased additional American lathes, planers, drill presses, and other tools necessary for the work. He did not attempt to make the barrel for his machine gun, but purchased suitable ones from the London office of the Henry Rifle Barrel Co. These barrels, used in Maxim's first experiments, were the...

Birkigt Type Mm Hispanosuiza Cannon

That had been received from England), gave far more satisfactory performance than the other two. It was also stated that the Chatellcrault was light in weight, very compact in construction, and capable of pulling a large belt of ammunition successfully. The latest model tested was de- clared a definite improvement, over the earlier 11. as the original Chatellerault feed was marked. The most serious difficulty found with the basic design of this system was that, to delink the cartridge, a cam...

Uwi

Nordenfelt Machine Gun, Cah .43, Five-Barrel Model. Mounted in Top ot a Fighting Ship to Sweep the Docks of the Enemy. to pass into the trigger comb. With this device the gun could never he full cocked, as the firing springs were not compressed when the action block moved for ward. The stop, as the name implies. was for drill purposes only it allowed the gunner to train gun crews using live ammunition with absolute safety. The .Nordenfelt multibarrel guns as a whole were clumsy contraptions...

Lewis Machine Gun Aircraft

Machine Guns Weapon

Lewis Aircraft Machine Gun, Model 1914, Cal as 305 rounds, which made the gun too clumsy and breech heavy to be handled without tripod. The standard Lewis drum holds 47 rounds in two circular rows and is fastened horizontally by a clip to a top post located to the rear in line with the chamber. During operation the drum is rotated counterclockwise by a ratchet pawl working off the reciprocating piston body. It can be exc hanged in a few seconds, in fact so fast that only a slight pause in a...

Beckersemagoerlikon Automatic Aircraft Cannons

Every conceivable manner, flexible, wing, and engine installation. Up to and during the Battle of Britain, it was the main Nazi aircraft cannon. Its most objectionable feature, according to the Germans, was the GO-shot drum feed. To overcome this, a metallic link-belt feed system was successfully used by the Luftwaffe. With the in- evitablc improvement of aircraft cannon occasioned by the war, the Oerlikon aircraft can- non was replaced, but not before it had served Germany well. Great...

Models of Maxim Guns

At the conclusion of the discussion of Maxim-type weapons in this publication, a tabulation is given, for ready reference, of the various Maxim systems and models used by the nations of the world Holland Model 1918 7.92 mm Germany Model 1899 . Germany Model 1901 . Germany Model 1908 . Germany Mod. 08 13 . Germanv Mod. '08 18 . Germany Model 1914 . Germany Model '14 17 Germany Model 1918 . Germany (circa 1902) . United States Model 1904 . United States Model 1915 . United States Model 1918 ....

Taylor Machine

Because of inertia and lack of encouragement, there was little incentive actually to produce a weapon capable of standing the rigorous tests demanded by the proving grounds. Of the more than 80 patents issued in the United States on machine guns between 4 November 1862 and 2G June 1883, only one other was completed sufficiently to justify trial. This weapon was the Taylor machine gun. The inventor, James Patton Taylor of Carter County, Tenn., made a gun very similar in appearance to the Wilder....

Mathew Sandefur Browning

Would meet he demands of the critical public. The successful partnership between John Moses and Matthew Sandefur Browning resulted from the death of iheir father and the added responsibility of providing for the family as well as from their inherited love for line guns and pride in their ability to produce them. These basic demands and the unlimited resourcefulness which characterized the lives of the two young men were the deciding factors that lifted the J. M. 8c M. S. Browning Co. of Ogden,...

Mg

Its first effort was in the field of rifle caliber machine guns. A pressing need at that time was for a single machine gun using the 7.92-mm rifle cartridge, which would incorporate in it all the special features of modern weapons. It should be capable of use as both a light and heavy machine gun and, if need be. for antiaircraft work against low flying attack planes. The basic design for the weapon was sent to Mauser from Berlin and was the further development of a mechanism patented by Louis...

Tabulation of Hotchkiss Machine Guns

The following tabulation is intended as a ready reference of the various Hotchkiss models used by the nations of the world Model 1895 8 mm Lehel Model 1896 7 mm Mauser Model 1897 8 mm Lehel Model 1900 8 mm Lehel Model 1914 8 mm Lehel Model 1896 7 mm Mauser Model 1896 7 mm Mauser Model 1896 7 mm Mauser Model 1907 7 mm Mauser Model 1914 7 mm Mauser Model 1896 7 mm Mauser Model 1914 8 mm Lehel Model 1906-1912 7.65 mm Model 1898 6.5 mm Krag Model 1898T 7.9 mm Jung TL Model 1900 6.5 mm Mauser Model...

Browning Automatic Machine Guns

M. browning with the Browning Fc ccma.c0r. Armv-IS'avv board meL and recommended stand- ardization not only of rifle cartridges, hut of all small arms ill the service. T he report was as follows The board is of the opinion that there are no conditions in the nature of the service peculiar to the Army, Navy and Marine Corps which require a different caliber for their small arms and machine guns. 'Since the board finds no sufficient reason for a different caliber of small arms and machine...

MK Cannon

While the MK-101 was used by the German Luftwaffe mostly on the Russian front in the Heinkel 129, a heavily armored plane espec ially designed for ground attack, this type ol installation was also employed for tank-destroying purposes. And while it was designed for specific work and its over-all use was limited, it certainly tailed attention to the need for a 30-mm aircraft gun of this type with more fite power. It was soon followed by another Rheinmetall development, the MK-10.-L I bis 30-mm...

Ufz

Floor Bolted Autobody Frame Machine

Drawing of Furrer Machine Gun Action. Furre Machine 3m, Mcdei 1925, 7.5 mm. Lett Side. firing pin to fly fonvard under tension of its spring and strike the primer of the cartridge. This in turn fires the charge. For the first frac-tion of an inch of recoil the barrel is rigidlv con-nected with the barrel extension and bolt. During this time it slides backwards under action of recoil in the guides cut in the stationary receiver. The breech-bolt frame contains the boh which is also moving...

Browning Aircraft Machine Guns

The shoulder at the back end of the extension is hooked over tlie noli li at the bottom of the sear under pressure of the scat spring. During the final lot ward motion of the bolt the tip of the cocking level enieis the V slot of the top plate bracket. This action swings the bottom of the lever out 1 the path ol the firing pin extension, allowing space loi the pin to snap forward to lire the cartridge. When the countcrrccoiling portion is one-sixteenth ol lt m inch from battery, the gun is...

Myy

Abn Machine Gun Repeating Weapons

On 25 September 1933, the commanding olficer in reporting the results summed up the entire proceedings with the statement that while the weapon did function reliably, there was nothing unusual or outstanding enough to warrant replacing similar weapons we already have It was not considered an improvement on cannon then under design in American arsenals. The German high command thought quite highly of the weapon as an antiaircraft and tank gun and used thousands...

Browning Aircraft Cannon

Not satisfied with the results oi tests on the Poole Engineering Co.s Baldwin cannon, the Chief of Ordnance, United States Army, with the consent ol Mr. Baldwin and the Colt's Patent Fire Arms Co., consulLecl John M. Browning. This recognized genius of automatic weapons, who had been connected with Colt's for years, was asked to c heck visuallv the Baldwin i nn and make any suggestions that might increase the reliability of the weapon's action. On 29 November 1920, accompanied by Fred Moore,...

Anti Aircraft Artillery - Hotchkiss 13.2mm

Hotchkiss Machine Gun

Hotchkiss Aircraft Mochinc Gun, 13.2 mm. ir into use on any large scale in World War II, however, the country was overrun by the Ger- mans. The completers, already e uipped with aircraft armament they felt superior, made no attempt to utilize the 13.2-mm Hotchkiss machine gun. The basic principle being the same, the cycle of operation was naturally identical with that of other well-known Hotchkiss suns. On 28 April 1927 representatives of the Okura manufacturing concern in Japan began...

Cannon

Marc Birkigt

Early History of Hispano-Suiza Company The Soci t Fran aise Hispano-Suiza S. A., located in Bois Colombes, France, a Parisian suburb, emerged from World War I as one of the most famous aircraft engine manufacturers in the world. This firm was first organized in 1904 for the manufacture of automobiles in Barcelona, Spain, by a Swiss engineer. Marc Birkigt, with the financial support of the Spanish King Alfonso XII1 hence the name llis-pano-Suiza, meaning Spanish-Swiss . A plant in Paris was...

Principles Of Firearms By Charles Balleisen For Sale

Aircraft and Submarines. 1918. Ader, C. Aviation Militaire en l-'mncr. 1907. Aircraft in ITVn and Comment'. 1918. American Machinist. Artillery and Smalt-Arms Ammunition. 1942. Balleisen, Charles E. Principles of Firearms. 1915. Barnes, G. M. Weapons of World War II. 1917. Barrfs, Maurice. L'Aviation Pendant la Cue nr. 191G. Barileit, W. A. and Gaij.atin, 1 . B. Digest of Cartridges for Smalt Arms. 1 78. Black, Archibald. The Story of Plying. 1943. Blanch, H. J. A Century of duns....

Breda Mm Automatic Cannon

An early experienc e with aire rail cannon that ended in complete failure c aused the Italian Air Force to delay the development ol large-bore aviation weapons until it was altogether too late. And had the Breda 20-mm automatic gun not been designed originally for ground work against armored vehicles and later refined for aircraft use, there would have been no Breda aircraft cannon. In 1934 the Italian Armv introduced this weapon as an antitank gun and mounted it on a carriage similar to that...

Lbbe Mm Aircraft Cannon

A. Liibbe, completed in 1929 a working model o an automatic gun that he considered the last word in aircraft armament. The weapon was also held to be highly desirable for use against armored vehicles. The gun in question was gas operated, had a bore diameter of 20 millimeters and had proved capable of firing at the rate of 3 gt 0 shots per minute. It was air cooled, magazine drum fed and its weight was only 107 pounds without feeder. These features are...

Cannons

When the leaders of the Gentian Air Force, during the latter days of the first World War, ordered the placing of armor around the vital parts of their huge Gotha bombing planes, they realized that they had not only made the rifle-caliber machine guns of the Allies obsolete but their own as well. In order to find some suitable weapon that would deal adequately with the situation and still not violate the St Petersburg Treaty relating to small-bore explosive projec tiles, they turned to the...

Earliest Birkigt Type Cannon

In 1933 Birkigt began work on the devisement of a weapon he later produced successfully. This mechanism could in no sense rise to the dignity of an invention, the principles involved having been long known by those who followed the profession of gun design. A combination of already established methods of operation was arranged in such a manner as to result in a shooting prototype. Its system of locking was covered in a patent application by Carl Swcbilius, one of the most prolific machine-gun...

Madsen Automatic Machine Guns

There came into existence in 1902 an automatic machine gun the parentage ol which has been one ol the most controversial subjects in the history of such weapons. It has bee n officially known under the names. Madsen, Rexer, 1 . R. R. and Schouboe. and was originally manu- laclured by the Dansk Rekvlriffel Syndikat of Copenhagen, Denmark. It derived the title by which it is best known, Madsen. from the name ol the Danish Minister of War of that period, as a tribute to his enthusiasm for the...

The Machine

Machine gun 1,273,078 1G July 1918 Assigned to Warner, James H. McNaii.r, Joseph Treanor New York, N.Y. Centrifugal machine gun and method for feeding same 1,472,080 30 Oct 1923 Mi.infrsmann, William Elizabeth. N.J. High velocity gun 1,326,763 30 Dec 1919 Mejean, Jacques G. Gfnhva, Switzerland Gun actuator 2,341,641 15 Feb 1944 Assigned to General Aircraft Equipment Co. Mejia, Enrique A. Mexico City, Mexico Improvement in many-barreled guns 62,281 19 Feb 1867...

Lairdmenteyne Machine

On 15 September 1913 a test of an English-made machine gun was ordered at Springfield Armory, Springfield, Mass. In the trial that followed it failed so miserably that it is mentioned here only to straighten out the classification of the weapon. It has been referred to as the Coventry machine 31111. the C. O. W. rifle-caliber ma- chine gun, and the Laird-Mentevne automatic gun. The first two designations were acquired because the Coventry Ordnance Works of Cov- entry, England, manufactured and...

Flak

The Germans have long been famous for using a reliable firing mechanism in every conceivable manner in which it could be applied and the MG-151 was certainly no exception. It made practically a simultaneous appearance as an antiaircraft automatic gun and was given the designation of Flak 38. This cannon was de-signed by Mauser engineers, Linderand Froebel, and although similar in appearance and identical in operating principles, it is a distinct weapon and not to be confused with the MG-151 20....

Tai Game Gunbuw

On the right side of the receiver near the breech end of the barrel is an electric switch. It energizes the circuit when the whole counter-recoiling mass is one-sixteenth inch out of battery. The weapon then fires and recoil forces start in before the lx gt lt and barrel strike the receiver. With the building up of the peak powder pressure and for a half inch of free travel during recoil, the bolt and barrel continue rear- ward as one unit. The lugs in the receiver then rotate the linking ring...

9mm Gun Pinwheel To Fire On Tripod

Received so thorough an investigation as did the Hotelikiss revolving cannon. Even though the weapon was considered reliable when adopted arid later events verified this conclusion , for 10 years the gun was iirecl at the French Naval Testing Grounds at Le Havre. During this period every possible point connected with the gun, or its ammunition, was exhaustively studied and reported. When this prolonged trial was finally ended, all the data covering the test were assembled and properly...

Acknowledgments

New England Huntsman Muzzleloader

The help and encouragement received from many sources in the preparation of this work can never be fully acknowledged. The following individuals are listed in at least partial recognition of such contributions. Captain Eugene Tatoin, I KSK, formerly Chief, Re 8, and Mr. James R. Norton, Head Engineer, Re8, Aviation Ordnance, Bureau of Ordnance. Mr. M. Bigelow Browning, Vice President, Browning Arms Company Colonel Leo A. Codd, Executive Vice President. American Ordnance Association Dr. S. G....

9mm Rifle Barrels Canada.

Improvement in repeating ordnance 12.20 23 Jan 1855 Hoffman Harper, Ancf.lo C. Washington, D.C. Mad line gun 1,369,426 22 Feb 1921 Harrin Harry K. Washington, D.C. Machine gun 1,693,228 8 Jan 1929 Assigned 2 3 to Morgan R. Mills Harrington amp Richardson Arms Company Worcester, Mass Recoil operated firearm 812.015 6 Feb 1906 Bye Safety device for firearms 2,495,383 21 Jan 1950 Mulno Harvey, Eari.e M. Springfield, Mass. Automatic firearm 2,397-963 9 Apr 1946...

Bofors Automatic Aircraft Cannon

The name Motors fust appeared in the Swedish public records in November 1646 when an individual named Paul Horsman was granted permission to erect a forge and hammer mill in the mining district of Bofors in central Sweden. It was typical of the many such mills that were later to bring fame to the Swedish steel industry. There was nothing outstanding about this particular establishment until the middle of the nineteenth century when world events enlarged its sphere of activity. As early as 1870...

McClean Machine Gun

Before going into the description and background of the McClean automatic weapons, first patented in 1902 and government-tested both in 1903-05 and in 1916-18. it is necessary to bring attention to the fact that the inventor is often confused with Dr. James H. McLean, patent medicine salesman and so-called machine gun inventor of the manual-operated period. The designer of the weapons under discussion resembles the St. Louis doctor only in the close spelling of the last name. Samuel Neal...

Gatling Machine Guns

The North was deprived of a great ordnance officer when Major General Gorgas joined the Confederacy, but this loss was more than offset when Richard Jordan Galling moved to the North in 1844, hoping to manufacture and market several of his mechanical inventions. Gatling was born in Hertford County, N. C., on 12 September 1818. His parents were Mary Barnes and Jordan Gatling, both descended from English colonists in North Carolina. His father, while still a young man, had invented a machine for...

Medieval Instruments of

Hie trebuchet was a medieval contribution I the rock-throwing devices. It got its power, n from a taut cord or twisted rope, but from heavy counterweight. The throwing beam w swiveled on a strong axle near the top of tl framework. The bottom carried heavy weight and the top a throwing cup. Winches pull back the top so that the bottom weight move up and forward. Upon release, the weight beam swung down like a huge pendulum. Til top struck the brake beam, and the rock wi hurled in the general...

Oex

Army Ordnance became so impatient with the lack of results that it engaged John M. Ihowning and Fred Moore, of Colt's Patent Fire Arms Co., Hartford, to inspect visually the mccha-lism, hoping that these two outstanding otd-lance men could suggest something that would better its performance or increase its efhcicncy. If need be. they were to send the weapon to Colt's lor further development. On 29 Novenmber 1920, Browning and Moore visited the Aircraft Armament Division in Washington, D.C., to...

Si

Rheinmetall 37-mm Automatic Cannon, Flak 18 554 Rheinmetall 30-mm Automatic Aircraft Cannon, MK-101 556 Rheinmetall 30-mm Automatic Aircraft Cannon, MK-103 557 Bolt Assembly of Rheinmctall s 30-mm Automatic Aircraft Cannon, MK-103. Left Bolt Mechanism Disassembled. Right Bolt Mechanism Assembled and Rheinmetall 30-mm Automatic Aircraft Cannon. MK-108 559 Rhcinmetall 30-mm Automatic Aircraft Cannon, MK-108, Disassembled. 1 Blast Tube. 2 Back Plate Assembly. 3 Bolt Assembly. 4 Receiver and Barrel...

Johnson Light Machine

Johnson, Jr., is one of America's gifted gun designers. Born in Boston in 1909, he is a graduate of Harvard University and Harvard Law School. In 1983 he was commissioned in the Marine Corps Reserve and became captain in 1938. As early as 1937 Johnson produced experimentally a prototype light machine gun chambered for the caliber .30 0 gt United States infantry rifle cartridge. Empty, it weighed only 12I O pounds and was capable of delivering a maximum rate of fire of 500 shots a...

Appendix A

Patents on Machine Guns and Relating Mechanisms Upon which the World's Automatic The following patents granted by the United States Patent Office to American and foreign inventors cover the most important machine-gun and firing mechanisms from which have evolved the automatic wreapons we know today. The patents are listed under the inventors and the firms or individuals to whom they may have been assigned. The title, patent number, and date of patent are given for each, together with names of...

Carr Machine

The Navy's Bureau of Ordnance on 14 April 1901 was requested by the Driggs Seabury Gun and Ammunition Co., 43 Cedar Street, New York City, to arrange a test of a new machine gun at the Naval Proving Ground, Indian Head, Md. The inventor of the gun, produced by this company, was Howard Carr of San Francisco. The Navy assured Di iggs-Seabury that it would give the weapon a trial and consider ii for adoption if it proved capable of meeting certain requirements. The date for the test was set for 16...

Ammunition V T W

Rifle invented bv Arthur Savage, a rifle designer tar in advance of his time. By 1915 it was manufacturing, in addition 10 high-power rifles and ammunition, several .22 caliber rifles and an automatic pistol. In that year the corporation was merged with the Driggs-Seabury Ordnance Co., which held a number of basic patents on automatic arms. In 2 years, this plant reached an output of 400 Lewis guns per week. After production was well tinder wav and thousands had been delivered, the Lewis was...

Hotchkiss Mm Aircraft Cannon

During a satisfactory powder Lor die new round ol ammunition hut the American Dupont Co. undertook and solved this ballistic problem for them. The weapon was gas operated, as were all Hotchkiss gun mechanisms. It was magazine fed and air cooled with an announced rate of fire of 180 shots a niinutA The operating mechanism was simple in design and very rugged in construction. There were very few working parts, all of which could be easilv demounted and re- assembled without the aid ol tools. The...

Marlin 1917 Aircraft Machine Gun 1917 Model

1917 Marlin Machine Gun

Remedied by further modifying the action through the addition of greater weight to the piston. The first rearward movement of the bolt Swebilius deserves great credit for accomplishing this most difficult task, especially since it was performed in a few weeks' time. In this short period he made the Marl in gun a reliable automatic arm that was used throughout the war and for 3 years afterwards as the principal synchronized automatic machine gun of the American air force. Later it was also...

Berthier Machine

The French Army, From the earliest days of automatic arms, has considered gas operation as the most logical method of deriving the necessary forces to actuate the firing mechanism. As was customary at the time, practically every young oflicer showing any aptitude in advanced weapon design was given a chance to carry out his ideas. Most notable of these was Lt. Andre Virgilc Paul Marie Bcrthier, who, feeling that the Hotchkiss heavy machine gun was adequate in its field, tried to make for the...

Q

In addition to these marvels, there are certain others which do not involve particular constructions. We can prepare from sah peter and other materials an artificial fire which will burn at whatever distance we please . . . Beyond these are still other stupendous things in Nature. For the sound of thunder may be artificially produced in he air with greater resulting horror than if it had been produced by natural causes. A moderate amount of the proper material, of the size of a thumb, will make...

Bailey Machine

Abn Machine Gun Repeating Weapons

Tinucs to turn, the cam that is engaged with a stud forces it back until the end is reached. At this point it sears off, actuated by the compression of the spring, and strikes against the floating firing pin. As each barrel is fired, the continued rotation of the crank brings up the next one, with its firing pin in position to be struck by the alternate plunger. The weapon cannot possibly be fired until alined with the striker. Accidental firing before being in battery is impossible, as the...

Gardner Machine

Notwithstanding the wide variety of invcn-lions during this era covering all classes of ma- chine guns, few justified the term improved which was invariably mentioned at the beginning of each patent claim. One of the noteworthy exceptions was the Gardner machine gun, invented by William Gardner of Toledo, Ohio, alio during the Civil War served in the Union Army as a volunteer in an Ohio regiment and ruse to the rank of captain. Being unable to finance product ion of the weapon, he sold American...

Madsen Aircraft Cannon

The Dansk Industri Synrlikat of Copenhagen, Denmark, in 1926 announced to military attaches of all nations that its company had produced the pilot model of what it considered to be the ideal automatic cannon for aircraft armament. The weapon, which was given the name Madscn, was 20 mm in bore, employing a rimmed cartridge. Its rate of lire was listed as 180 rounds a minute it was magazine fed, air cooled, and operated from short recoil and it was identical in principle with the already well...

Kjellman Machine

Kjellman Gun

Sweden made the next contribution to automatic weapon development with a very interesting automatic machine gun. Officially known as the Kjellman, it was the result of what could be called two-stage progression. Originally designed for the 6.5-mm Swedish Army rifle cartridge. it was water cooled, belt fed, recoil operated, and had a rate of fire of 500 to 600 rounds per minute. The weight of the weapon, minus water in the jacket, was only 28 pounds, which puts it in tfie lightweight class. The...

Hotchkiss Machine Gun Model

The summer of 1914 found France at a serious disadvantage because of its small stock of automatic arms. Army leaders, however, did feel that they were very fortunate to have available a thoroughly tested weapon simple to construct and reliable enough to give a good account of itself under any condition. In preparation for the coming war, the Hotchkiss machine gun was given a final bit of refinement and went into production as the Model 1914. It soon became evident that machine guns would be...

Chatellerault Machine

The French, ending World War I with the realization that they had been armed throughout the conflict with the worst automatic weapon ever designed, the Chauchat, were the first of the Allies to adopt a post-war machine gun. This new arrival was the Chatellerault, named after one of the French Government arsenals, Manufacture d'Amies de Chatellerault. It was in de-sigri very similar to both the Berthier and the American Browning B. A. R., having many features of each. It first made its...

Gas Impinged Lever Breechblock

Parkhurst, of Hartford, Conn., to correct the manufacturing errors that caused the gun 10 fail. Parkhurst, who had done such outstanding work on the Gardner manually operated machine gun, suggested certain changes in design and submitted them to the company, which not only used the ideas but thanked him through the Navy Department for his contribution. The improved gun then came out as the Hotchkiss '97 model and has been basic ever since. As no water jacket was employed,...

Beginnings of Military Aviation

In this country Congress, having already sponsored a signal failure, was reluctant to give aid to aviation, but in 1908 the Army did show an interest. In October of that, year the first test flight for the United States Army took place at Fort Myer, Va. It reserved the right to pay the designer 325,000 provided the machine met certain specifications, which were incidentally above and beyond anything thought remotely possible. One was that the aircraft's speed must hold a continuous 40 miles per...

Furrer Automatic Aircraft Cannon

The Swiss Air Force in 1933 inirochicerl an aircraft cannon designed by its well known inventor, Col. Adolf Furrer. I bis officer originated a system that employed short recoil for operational energy and a clever method of timing the weapon to fire slightly out of battery while securely locked. This last feature permitted high rates of fire and gave a definite buffing action on the counterrecoil stroke. The first Furrer aircraft cannon was 20-mm. air cooled, belt fed and short-recoil operated,...

Mendoza Light Machine

Senor Rafael Mendoza, a foreman at the National Arms Co., Mexico City, D. F., in 1920 started the design and development of a light machine gun. Twelve years later he felt his working model was at a x gt int of perfection that would justify testing by the Mexican war department for official adoption. l ite gas operated weapon had a non-recoiling air-cooled barrel and a MO shot spring-loaded double-column magazine. Its maximum rate of fire was 500 shots a minute and its weight was I lt S gt...

Hotchkiss Aircraft Machine

The French were in many ways leaders in military aviation. One of their most creditable achievements was not being misled by the blind faith in dirigibles that was sweeping other countries. While I he civilian population was terrified by them, military men always contended that the huge size of the airships would bring about their own destruction. In the matter of arming aircraft, while not the first to fire a machine gun from a plane, the French most certainly capitalized early on this...

Furrer Machine

Adolf Furrer, when serving as director of the Swiss Government's small arms factory at Heme, Switzerland, applied for a patent in 1924 on a machine gun that was to affect the automatic weapons used by Swiss soldiers for years to come. And while it was produced in great quantities in calibers ranging in size from rifle to cannon, the basic operating features remained identical. I lis first gun was known as t he model 1925 Furrer and was a lightweight 18 pounds air-cooled ground gun with a...

Browning Guns in World War I B A R and Browning Machine Gun Model

The United States showed no interest in machine guns until after we were officially at war with Germany, at which time Browning, along with other inventors, was asked to submit weapons with a view of adoption. It is true that there had been earlier trials ol various machine gun mechanisms of both American and foreign man-ulacture. But nothing resulted from them except a passive interest by our Government. Thus, although we had practically two years to prepare after the start of World War 1...

Revelli Machine

A young Italian inventor in the year 1908 applied Lor his first patent on machine guns. It was to be followed by many others during the years in which his name was practically synonymous with Italian automatic weapon design. This prolific designer, later to become a high ranking military officer, was Bethel Abiel Revelli, a resident of Rome. The automatic firing mechanism he had developed was a water-cooled machine gun with a box magazine, chambered for the 6.5-ram service rifle cartridge and...

Semag Automatic Cannon

Semag 20-mm Automatic Cannon fur Infantry. while not supported by a lacked boh, is inclosed in the chamber during the instant of explosion and the rcarwardly acting gas pressure cannot burst it. The primer is ignited well before the bolt has reached battery position. With this arrangement the chamber pressure acts on a member of considerable mass which is moving forward. The energy of this fast traveling piece must first be overcome before it can be put in recoil movement by the exploding...

Wilder Machine

The phenomenal success of the ratling and Gardner guns led many inventors in this country to design weapons that, in their opinion, were superior. In doing so, they hoped to sell their products to the Government, but if no interest was forthcoming, then to any foreign power that would adopt them for service use. One of the most outstanding examples of an attempt to better machine-gun design by sheer engineering ability was the gun invented by Elihu Wilder of Hillsborough, N. H. In 1870 he made...

Themachine

To this class, we think, belongs Myron Col-oney, one of the inventors of the Dr. James H. McLean Peace Makers. . . . Myron Coloney engaged at once with Dr. McLean, and removed to New Haven, Connecticut, where he could obtain the best skill and most able and intelligent mechanics, to superintend and develop these terrible engines of destruction, which are intended to strike terror to the heart of every enemy. Not only those devices but other great inventions, which his fruitful inventive brain...

B S A Aircraft Machine

During the latter days of World War I the British realized that with the advent of armor on planes a machine gun capable of canceling this advantage had to be developed. They first tried to raise the caliber of the verv reliable .303 Vickers, which was done with questionable results. The next attempt was in January 1924 when the Birmingham Small Aims Co., which had produced the successful Lewis gun in great quantities in the war years of 1911-18, presented its design of a larger caliber machine...

Vickers Aircraft Machine

In the early months of 1910 the British Royal Air Force first attempted to adapt the Vickers-Maxim rifle caliber machine gun to aircraft use. Heretofore planes had in most instances served as flying platforms upon which weapons were mounted to be aimed and maneuvered by the operator. The propeller served as an effective barrier against mounting guns permanently to shoot straight forward. If the latter could be accomplished, it would change the craft into a gun-laying device, as had been done...

Darne Machine

Darne Machine Gun

Ation use, having the unusual capac ity of 500 rounds available for continuous fire. The double-barrel Cast machine gun, which was then held in such high esteem by both German and Allied ordnance officers, had a maximum cyclic rate of fire of 1,800 rounds a minute. By mounting two Darnc guns side by side to resemble the much heavier Gast, the arrangement gave a minimum of 2,400 shots per minute. The company was proud of this system of mounting and catalogs appeared in many languages showing its...

Schwarzlose Machine

Schwarzlcse Machine Gun, Model 1907 1912. The breech mechanism of the Schwarzlose weapon is never positively locked. The necessary delay in opening the breech is largely dependent upon the inertia furnished by the elbow-type linkage, the resistance of a strong spring, and the absorption of the first shock of the early stage of peak pressure bv the receiver. However, the major factor is the use of a 20 -inch barrel. Ill is is the maximum length that can be used to insure the bullet's clearing...

Www Italian Brixia Machine-gun Info.com

The Brixia machine gun Model 1920 was devised by engineers of the Brescia Metallurgical Works, formerly the Tempini-Brescia Company, producers of 40,000 Fiat machine guns under Italian Government contract. From their background and a comparative study of all known machine gun mechanisms, they developed what was considered an improvement that fulfilled in all respects the requirements suggested by experience of five years of war. In the weapon s design special attention was paid to 1 Lightness,...

Marlin Aircraft Machine Guns

The mounting of Browning-designed machine guns in aircraft dates back to the Colt Browning model, nicknamed the Potato Digger bv the infantry because the operating lever after each shot swung down in pendulum fashion underneath the barrel. Due to a scarcity of machine guns, a few of these were placed in French and British pusher-type planes during the early stages of World War I. When ibis country entered the conflict, there was desperate need for any kind of mac bine gun. 1 he type that could...

Zb Machine Guns

The arms producing company., Ceskosl oven ska Zbrojovka Akciova Spolecnost v Brne of Brunn, Czechoslovakia, was first formed in 1922. It began as a stock company, with 75 percent of the shares owned by the government, 20 percent by the Skoda Works and 5 percent by the employees. In its early days it manufactured not only automatic weapons but also military rifles and two-cylinder automobiles. The first machine gun from the new company was the light Hotchkiss model of 1922, built through the...

Mascarucci Lock

Were very similar in appearance to standard RevelH components. The purchasing of the Mascarucci patents caused Revel I i to terminate Iiis business connections with l iat after nearlv 20 years' association. Although the company lost the services of one of Italy's most prolific automatic weapon inventors, there is no question that the Mascarucci lock was a worthwhile improvement and the army immediately ordered it into test status for the pur pose of adoption. By early 1929 over 200 had been...

Breda Machine Guns

The locomotive works known as the Societ Italiana Finest o Breda of Brescia, Italy, during the emergency created by World War I, com-menccd production of machine guns lor the Italian Government. Plans and specifications were furnished the Breda firm by order of the military authorities. The first automatic weapon so made was the water-cooled Revel I i, Model 1914. the manufacturing drawings being farmed out to it by the Fiat Co holder of the patents. Breda built a separate plant adjacent to its...

Machine Gun Dreyse

I ihe efficiency of the water-cooled weapon. .u c only a few pounds separated the two dif- 4Vent styles, they looked very favorably on tlie xtremely lightweight Dreyse. The large tripod mount originally designed for it was removed, and a bipod was substituted. This permitted the advancing infantryman to fire from the prone-position. It was thought that this weapon, so mounted, best fulfilled the high command's conception of the primary function of all automatic weapons, namely, to deliver...

Lahti Aircraft Cannon

Finland's highly respectcd small arms designer, Aimo Johannes Lahti, in 1933 produced at the stale manufacturing arsenal at yvaskylii his first prototype 20-nim automatic aircraft cannon, soon destined for use bv the Finnish Air Force. The 84-pound weapon was gas operated, both front and rear seared, and magazine fed f gt 0-shot drum . Charging was clone by means of compressed air and the rate of fire was 550 shots per minute, with a muzzle velocity of 2,750 feet per second. As part of a...

The First Projectile Throwers

Projectile-throwing devices were developed also and used in conjunction with the club and knife. From the first rock throwing and rolling came the sling, bow, and catapult. The bow is one of the earliest projectile throwers devised by man. Some insist it preceded the sling, and attempt to substantiate their claim by the pictures of bows drawn by the pre historic hunter-artists in the caves of southern France and Cantabria in the tenth millenium B. C. However, there are others who con Lend the...

The Fokker Synchronizer

Since the action of the Parabellum was front seared, it was ideal for synchronizing when employed as an observer's gun. It was used in such a manner after Antony II. G. Fokker, the famed aircraft designer, developed a mechanical method of firing safely through the propeller blades. He conceived his idea when shown the crude arrangement of a French plane that had been shot down when attempting to fire through the air screw. Bringing his inventive genius to play after examining the enemy device,...

Hotchkiss Balloon

The French Army is noted for the work of its artillery men in producing some of the world's most outstanding heavy ordnance. Needless to sav, their influence in military planning has been great and when the machine gun became such a lethal reality, they asked for the development of a long-range machine gun capable of inflicting heavy damage 011 observation balloons and on mobile artillery gun crews attempting to bring their pieces into action. This demand resulted in much experimental work on...

Chitral Campaign Maxim Machine Guns

Barrel after the projectile is gone, to accelerate further the recoiling parts. That the engine came before the fuel cannot be questioned. Maxim was already firing his automatic gun over the continent of Europe, using almost any black-powder cartridge of current design. But peak efficiency was not reached until he used the French Lebel service cartridge. The prodigious rate of fire mentioned in his article in Engineering was produced by the first military cartridge in the world having smokeless...

Machine

On 3 December 1932 there was filed in the Italian patent office an application covering the design of a recoil-operated machine gun, which, according to its inventor, Niccolo Mancini, of Florence, Italy, was a decided improvement on existing automatic firing mechanisms. Not having the financial means to exploit his invention, he placed it with the Sistar Go. in Florence. Sistar actually was not a producing organization but a promotion and design firm which specialized in developing and...

Sistar Light Machine

The Operator Io Loading the Magazine. A built-in oil pump on the left side Nof tli receiver sprayed a small jet of oil on the incotv ing rounds as each was positioned for chamber ing. This device was actuated by the reroi1 counter-recoil movement of the barrel e gt sion. The heavy machine gun had ident ical opera-ing parts, but most certainly did not resembi the lighter gun in anv other wav. Its cooling was bv air, but the barrel housing resembled rhe con-...

Machine Gun Hmk88

One of his machines won the Gordon Bennett Gup in 191 5 for lying at the record breaking speed of 124.8 miles per hour. The pilot and others of the racing team sent a sentimental telegram of congratulations to their bon patron behind the bars. Soon after the outbreak of the war M. Bleriot, another famous French pioneer of the air, took over the Deperdussin business to preserve the organization and staff of the firm. It then became known as the Soci t Pour les Appareils Deperdussin, from which...

M

Model 1918 181-186, 331-332, 333 Ml921 334 M2 334-342, 614 Tabulation of models 343-344 See also B.A.R. Colt machine gun Mar-lin aircraft machine gun Buckham, George Thomas 296 Buck ham incendiary bullets 296, 297 Buffalo Arms Corp 339 Buhrle, Emil 515 Burton, Bethel 379 Burton machine gun 379 C.C synchronizing gear See Constantinesco synchronizing gear C.O.W. automatic cannon, 37 mm . . 500-504,

O Q

Rim of the case by the extractor claw fully loos- ens the round at this time. When the frame is held to the rear and the barrel and its chatnbei goes forward on counterrecoil. the empty case is entirely withdrawn from the chamber. At this point an ejector is pivoted downward by a cam on the upper flange of the left side plate. The protruding rear end of the ejector deflects the empty case downward between the side plates clear of the operating parts. The compressed driving spring furnishes t...

Billinghurst Requa Battery

The effect of the failure of the Colt revolving rifle was to turn development of new weapons entirely over to civilians. The military authorities refused to be interested in anything beyond .some means of producing volley fire, similar in arrangement to the early organ gun. The civilian inventors realized they had a difficult sales problem. When they produced a reliable weapon, they arranged to have its performance witnessed and endorsed by public officials and retired oiiicers of high rank. Rv...

Nambu Automatic Weapons

Between World Wars I and II, Japan constantly surveyed the development and experimental work of all nations in an attempt to provide for her own armament, the best in automatic weapons these countries had to olTer. The Japanese have long been noted for their lack of originality and their meticulous effort in copying, and later refining, those things in which they had special interest. Weapons were by no means an exception to this rule, since it was one of the first major powers to use machine...

Scotti Aircraft Mm Cannon

In 1928 Italy, thanks to the talents of one of her best automatic weapon designers, had available for aviation use a highly advanced 20-mm automatic cannon. Because of indecision more than anything else, the nation did not take advantage of the Scotti aircraft cannon and, by failing to do so, contributed greatly to the weakness of Italian tire power that was so evident throughout World War II. Alfredo Scotti, the inventor of the system so named, exploited in full one principle of operation from...

Gak Machine

London, England Recoil-loading firearm 2.11 1,1157 14 Dec 1937 Sanders Sanders, Thomas E. Slough Irujing Estate, England Recoil loading firearm 2,101,957 14 Dec 1937 Assigned to Sanders Small Ai ms Ltd. Sanford, Roy 5. Woodbury. Conn. Cartridge feeding mechanism 2,501,143 21 Mar 1950 Assigned to Autoyrc Co. Feeding mechanism for automatic guns 2 502,891 4 Apr 1950 Assigned io Autoyre Co. Machine gun 1,256,923 19 Feb 1918 Nelson Automatic firearm 2,357.017 29 Aug 1944...

Scotti Machine Guns

In 1928 there appeared the first of a series of machine suns by an Italian designer named Al- fredo Scotti, who maintained offices in Brescia, Italy. In practicing his profession, Scotti always depended upon companies with manufacturing facilities to make and promote the sale of his weapons on a contract and royalty basis. His place in design history rests upon the exploitation of a single principle or system. In itself, it was not original, being based solely on the act of unlocking, bv...

Perino Machine

Barrel extension causes the cocking lever to rotate. The top end of the lever engages the bolt, and its rotation first retracts the firing pin and then accelerates the bolt to the rear. When this movement, starts, a lever attached to the barrel extension engages a gear rack in the bottom of the receiver. This is done to ut ilize all the energy of the extremely long recoil stroke, and to give positive timing between the bolt and barrel cvcle. This linkage arrangement acts as an accelerator both...

Chauchat Machine

In 1903 the French Government, having what it felt was an adequate heavy machine gun, started looking about for a machine rifle as a companion arm. Of the numerous types taken under study, the French Army board became interested in an extremely lightweight automatic arm that could be fired cither single shot or full automatic and be carried by the soldier with as little difficulty as the standard infantry rifle. It became known as the Chauchat. This weapon, while originally made at the French...

Machine Guns Used By The Confederacy

Later, when some Union officers were capturcd by the same Confederate forces, their first inquiry was concerning the strange rapid-firing guns used on them at Seven Pines. It clearly made a great impression on the Northern troops. These weapons were used by the Confederacy all through the Civil War with a great deal of success, as attested by the written reports of various officers and men of the Union army that met this innovation in warfare. One of the most graphic descriptions was...