Repeating Weapons

Chinn, Lieutenant Colonel, USMGR Prepared for the Bureau of Ordnance Department of the Navy The series of books entitled The Machine Gun was begun with the belief that the next best thing to actual knowledge is knowing where to find it. The research summarized within the covers of these volumes has been compiled by the Bureau of Ordnance, Department of the Navy, in order to place in the hands of those rightfully interested in the art of automatic weapon design, the world's...

Description of the Weapon

The Bcresin was designed primarily for aircraft use however, the earliest model, the BS, was readily adaptable to antiaircraft use and was applied to a variety of ground armament, especially on armored vehicles. The weapon is gas operated. The firing pin is not spring loaded. It protrudes beyond the bolt face just far enough to detonate the primer when it is driven by a pivoting piccc striking the receiver. Removal of the empty cartridge case from the face of the bolt is accomplished by a rib...

Detail Description of Recoiling Parts

The principal recoiling parts are barrel, breech ring, brcech-opcrating mechanism, breechblock, rammer, and loading tray. Breech Ring. The breech ring is attached to the barrel receiver and contains the breech operating mechanism. The loading tray is attached to the rear of the brecch ring. The feed operating cam is located on the top right of the breech ring. The rammer buffer is on the rear left of the breech ring. Breech - Operating Mechanism. The breech-operating mechanism is pinned to the...

Cycle of Operation

To fire the Shkas the gunner introduces the loaded belt into the first flute of the circular feeder and then raises the folded handle on top of the receiver, pulling it down and to the left as far as it will go. The rounds arc moved around by a ratchet movement and cammed out of the belt until ten are in the cage and the first cartridge indexed. The button on top of the hand grip is pushed in and the bolt assembly is pulled back until the rear sear engages the gas piston, holding the...

General Data

System of operation Gas, piston operated. System of locking Lateral stirrup-shaped piece moves across receiver into locking recess. System of feeding Disintegrating belt. Method of charging Pneumatic (manual on free gun). Method of cooling Air. Barrel length 64.96 inches. Barrel removal Not quick change. Chamber pressure 47,200 psi. Bore Number of grooves 10. Groove depth 0.0138 inch. Groove width 0.205 inch. Pitch 5 34' 27. Direction of twist Right hand....

Mounting

A front bracket is attached on the framework of the fuselage of the plane. The transmission for the machine gun drive mechanism consists of a drive pinion, mounted on the side of the bracket and engaging the drive gear of the machine gun. The drive pinion is connected to the engine through a flexible shaft. The gear ratio between the motor and the machine gun is determined by selecting the proper number of teeth on the drive pinion the ratio in turn imparts the proper rate of fire in relation...

Confidential Security Information

Stripping ihe DS, continued operating slide and belt group have been removed together. The next step is the removal Figure 3-23. The DS. field stripped. weapons however, with the exception of the rotary feed, the mechanism is very similar to the drum-fed models. Although there arc superficial external resemblances between this gun and the DS, the similarity in the mechanism is confined to the locking action.

Detail Description of the Nonrecoiling Parts

The principal fixed parts are gun housing and cams, loading mechanism, rammer housing, and firing lever. Gun Housing. The gun housing contains a mounting for the recoil system at the front end. The breech ring is pinned to the recoil system (hydro-pncumatic). Loading Mechanism. The loading mechanism is fastened to the top of the open portion of the housing. The loading mechanism is actuated by the cam surface on the top right of the breech ring. As the gun recoils this cam surface causes the...

Detail Description of the Model B

A comparison of the detail descriptions of Model A and Model B points up an interesting difference in connection with the minimum burst for each model. Model B is fully automatic, but single shots can be fired hy manipulation of the lever that serves as a disconnector. Wrhen individual rounds are fired, only the left gun can be fired, there being no means for firing the right gun singly. Since manually cocking the guns was not possible, it is assumed that some other means was provided in the...

Manually Charging the

When the gun is in battery and the breech is closed, it is charged by means of the hand crank. This hand crank Ls geared to a rack which in turn operates a gear having a lug that will bear against the cam. Rotation of the hand crank causes the gear to rotate and move its lug against the cam. This cam is keyed to the shaft of the operating lever and thereby lowers the breechblock. This rotation of the operating lever causes the gear to rotate and move the gear rack forward, compressing the...

Disassembly by Groups

To disassemble the Shkas, the following procedure is adhered to. 1. Push the ammunition follower release lever inward, and turn in a counterclockwise direction until it is approximately at right angles with the barrel of the gun. 2. Depress the cocking handle catch, and pull the cocking handle to the rear. 3. Depress the backplate lock plunger, and slide the backplate lock to the rear then unscrew the backplate lock groove (right hand thread). 4. Turn the handle 180 , and remove. 5. Turn the...

Description of the KM

This gun can be identified easily, as it has a barrel jacket that extends its full length. Tt is very compact and rugged in construction. Reports claim other with a pistol handle arrangement underneath. Records show that these versions were used extensively in tanks. Shvak guns were also mounted in turrets of aircraft, but with an automatic fire interrupter. On 20-mm Shvak cannon, the markings are MP for motor, KP for wing, TP for flexible, and SP for synchronized. Attempts to scale up the...

Automatic Operation

The initial condition of the various elements of the gun just as it fires is as follows The gun is in battery. The breechblock is closed upon the round and the breech opening springs are compressed. The feed tray is outboard with a new round held in it. The rammer piston is forward, and the rammer arm is rotated out of the path of the gun. The operating piston is forward and the floating piston is rearward. The fuze setter piston is forward. The control valve is iri position to connect port 5...

The Machine Gun

Assembly views of a Soviet 23-mm NS Cannon. The XS 23 can be mounted in either the wing or fuselage. The latter mounting is more popular but necessitates synchronization, which causes a lower cyclic rate. The plane in which this gun is usually mounted will accommodate only three, or at the most four, guns. The fire power is, accordingly, inadequate for air-to-air combat. The gun is effective in close ground support, especially against armored vehicles. The NS 23 aircraft cannon was...

General Data on Later Models

Caliber 7.62-mm (special aircraft cartridge). Rate of fire 1,800-2,000 rounds minute. System of operation Gas piston actuated. System of locking Propped breech (Berthier). Bolt is forced down in front of lock shoulders. System of feeding Belt and revolving cage. Method of charging Manual. Method of cooling Air. Rate control Rate can be varied by gas regulator. Barrel weight 2 pounds 10 ounces. Barrel length 23 2 inches. Barrel removal Not a quick change barrel. Chamber pressure 44,000 psi. Bore...

General Data for the NS

Rate of fire 600 to 700 rounds minute. Gun weight 121 pounds with all accessories attached. System of operation Short recoil. System of locking Rotating bolt. System of feeding Pneumatic. Method of charging Pneumatic. Method of cooling Air. Rate control None. Barrel weight 28 pounds. Barrel length 57 4 inches. Barrel removal Not quick-change barrel. Chamber pressure 47,000 psi. (maximum). Bore Number of grooves 10. Grot> ve depth 0.014 inch. Groove width 0.190 inch. Pitch 12' right, uniform....

Beresin Nd Vya

The rifled part of the barrel are removed with a very light emery-. Clean with patches of cotton cloth on a ram rod, then with oil, passing the cotton patches through until they come out clean. Inspect the chamber for longitudinal small scratches. The transversal scours and scratches must be removed, as thev cause jamming of the barrel therefore, it is of the utmost importance to clean the bore well at all times. During the inspection of the chamber of the gun, make certain that there are no...

Cycle of Operation for Drum Fed Models

To fire the drum-fed models, the gunner places a loaded drum into its holding catches on top of the receiver. The cocking handle on the right side is pulled completely to the rear until the spring-loaded hold-back engages its locking recess in the bottom of the gas piston. The weapon is now cocked and ready to fire. By placing the right hand around the grip of the shoulder stock, the safety is depressed. Pressure backward on the trigger disengages the sear, allowing the compressed driving...

Skoda Designs

Barrel extension and left bolt to move forward, strip a round from the left loader, and chamber it in the left barrel. As the round is chambcrcd, the firing pin lever strikes the firing cam and fires the round. Blowback forces the left bolt, right barrel and extension rearward against the recoil buffer. The extension docs not engage the top sear, as the sear is held out of engagement by the firing lever. The barrel and extension are held back, however, by hydraulic locking action in the recoil...

Confidential Security Information Degtyarev And Goryunov

The 7.62-mra Degtyarev Company Machine Gun. produced in large numbers, and it has been referred to as a failure however, its weakness appears to have been in difficulty of production rather than in performance. This weapon uses either a metallic belt or a canvas belt, the latter being the belt of the Maxim machine gun. For this reason, there is a rather large clearance in the feed way. The rate of fire can be adjusted by rotating the buffer. DK (Degtyarev Heavy). This 12.7-mm gun...

The Machine Gunconfidential Security Information

Saw Light Machine Gun Shoulder

The weapon's general system of operation may be described as gas piston actuated with propped breech locking. The bolt comes to battery first, and the continued advancc of the gas piston cams the rear end of the boll over in front of its locking shoulder. This shoulder is in the right side of the receiver. Backing up the bolt from the side of the receiver has been frowned upon by earlier machine gun designers because side loads arc transferred to the normally thinner walls of the receiver....

General Description

This was a development project for a 75-mm high velocity gun for mounting in aircraft and to have automatic feed. In order to reduce recoil to a minimum, the design called for twin rear Venturis, as in recoilless guns, and a muzzle brake. The gun was to employ a revolving drum-type magazine and spring rammer operated by means of mechanical linkages and ratchet and spring assemblies, power being supplied by gas take-off from behind the rear part of the muzzle brake. A conventional cartridge with...

General Description of Model A and Model B

The design of this mechanism was begun in 1937 by the Skoda Works. It shows signs of having been inspired by both the Gast and the Becker, German guns of World War I which are described in Volume of The Machine Gun. This weapon is operated by short recoil and blow-back, is fed by twin loaders operated by bolt recoil, is fired by percussion firing mechanisms, and utilizes a hydro-spring recoil mechanism. Unlike most twin guns, which fire independently, each gun is dependent upon the other, for...

And Aircraft Cannon

Bolt Action Sniper Rifle Images

Soviet machine guns and aircraft cannon are usually named for their designers. A short designation is devised by using letters from the name of the person credited with the design and some other identifying symbols, such as, some word or phrase from the name of the gun, arsenal mark, caliber, or year of manufacture. A table which follows explains some of the designations found on various Soviet machine guns, aircraft cannon, and related small arms. This system was established after the...

Weapons Included in This Chapter

Desert Eagle Operating Mechanism

Shortly after the invasion of Finland bv the U. S. S. R., the Russian Air Force replaced the small-bore rifle calibcr Shkas with the 12.7-mm Beresin Aircraft Machine Gun. The Shkas was a comparatively intricate and well finished gun, the cost of which necessitated that it be kept in operating condition as long as possible by repair and replacement of parts. In contrast to the Shkas, the Beresin was deliberately expendable, that is, the Soviets' plan was to discard the entire gun after a short...

Cycle of Operation for the DS

To fire the DS., the gunner retracts the bolt to the rear sear and places the first round in the belt over the belt feed pawls that are an integral part of the curved feed slide. The rim of the cartridge is positioned behind a rib in the feedway, preventing it from moving forward and stubbing when being engaged by the cartridge extractors. The trigger is depressed, allowing the bolt to go home. As the mechanism approaches batten- position, two spring-loaded jaws located in the top half of bolt...

Mm Machine

That the mechanism is practically trouble-free and that unusually high rates of fire of 1,800 rounds per minute have been attained. The Shkas is belt fed and gas operated. It weighs 251 2 pounds and is chambcrcd for the Russian 7.62-mm cartridge with a muzzle velocity of 2,750 feet per second. Although it is admittedly complicated in appearance, it is reliable in every rcspcct. An interesting departure was made from the heretofore orthodox practice of feeding ammunition to a gun of this...

Cycle of Operation for the NS Series

Air Cycle Machine Operation

The cycle of operation for all guns of this scries is similar and the following explanation which relates specifically to the 23-mm NS would apply to any of the other Nudelman designs. Charging is accomplished pneumatically through a system involving two cylinders, one to move the bolt rearward against its drive spring and one to charge the feeder springs. Both cylinders receive air under pressure simultaneously through a solenoid-controlled valve. During charging, air under pressure acts on...

Dual Ammunition Supply

Catling Gun

The apparent explanation for the Soviets' use of a dual ammunition supply in wartime is the extraordinary prestige enjoyed by Shpitalny. It is a curious fact that ever since the introduction of fiiearms into military forces, Ordnance Departments have been stumbling into the dual-ammunition trap, usually in a situation involving a war or national emergency. The cartridge case for the Shvak 20-mm ammunition is a Soviet ordnance item that shows evidence of desperate haste in design. It shows few...

Detail Description

The tube has a replaceable liner. The gun rides on ways and is retarded in its rearward motion by a constant force hydraulic recoil system and a compressed air recuperator. The brccch is closed by a conventional horizontal sliding breechblock. The principle of operation of the breech block is the same as in the Skoda 50-mm PAK. The breech opening and closing springs arc compressed by the charging rod striking the pad as the gun comes into battery. The extractors prevent the block from...

History and Background

The world-famous Skoda Works was established in 1859 by the Count of Waldstein in Pilscn. then a city in Austria-Hungary. M. de Skoda becamc proprietor a few years later. The factory engaged in various types of metal working and mechanical engineering, as well as the construction of war mat riel. The company's early record in the production of automatic weapons included the second successful automatic firing mechanism, which was patented in 1888 and appeared soon afterward. This weapon was...

Procedure To Strip Dshk

PART VII WEAPON DEVELOPMENT IN THE SOVIET UNION 1. Background of Soviet Arms Infantry Armament in the Nineteenth Introduction of Maxim's Automatic Machine Madscn Machine Guns Used from 1900 to Weapons Used in World War Development of the National Armament Wehrmacht Soviet Production in Types of Soviet Aircraft Armament in World War Basic Data on Machine Guns and Cannon Used for Arming Airplanes of the Air Force of the Red Soviet Armament after World War 2. Maxim Type Machine Gun and Federov...

Detail Description of the Model A

Machine Gun Mechanism Technical Detail

A comparison of the detail descriptions of Model A and Model B points up an interesting difference in connection with the minimum burst for each model. Model A is fully automatic, being able to fire a minimum burst of two rounds by releasing the firing lever immediately after the bolt moves forward. The guns fire alternately until one of the loaders becomes empty or until the firing lever is released. Both guns arc held in the full recoil position after the last round has been fired thus the...

Security Information

The 12.7 mm DShk with feed cover hinged up. showing the link stripper and the rotary sprocket The normal burst is given as four to six rounds with a shorter one of two of ihree shots being permissible. The whole magazine may be fired by one pull of the trigger this is done only when desperate circumstances warrant it. Fire by normal bursts is regarded as the most expedient method, since it is very effective against most targets. Fire against small bodies of troops in skirmish line...

Assembly of Components

The applied safety on this weapon is a safety lever located on the right side of the trigger frame, which, when rotated until the lever points to the front of the gun, prevents the trigger from being pulled to the rear The only mechanical safety is the cam-ming down of the bolt just as it reaches the forward position, thereby locking the bolt at the instant of firing and not allowing the lug on the gas piston rod extension to hit the rear end of the firing pin. SECTION 2. SHVAK 20-MM AUTOMATIC...

Mm Flak

Weight of feed tray with 4 rounds 57.2 pounds. Barrel length 185.13 inches. Barrel removal Not quick barrel change. Direction of twist Right hand. Form of twist Constant. Method of headspace Factory established. Location of feed opening Top. Location ejection opening Rear. This 55-mm fully automatic anti-aircraft gun was initiated at the request of German authorities. It was designed to use a type of auto loader similar to that used on the 75-mm FLAK R4, described in the following section.

Mm

The automatic loader stated that he hoped to obtain a rate of 100 rounds per minute and was confident that with further trials and redesign, the gun would be able to fire at a rate of 120 rounds per minute. This gun is very simple and has a small number of parts which may be divided into two groups the fixed parts and the recoiling parts. The breech operating mechanism is particularly interesting and was considered by the Germans to be worthy of

Shkas And Shvak

Shvak 20mm

Another version of the 20-mm Shvak flexible gun. Figure 4 9. 20-mm Shvak Machine Cannon, arranged ior forward ejection. Figure 4-10. One version of the 20-mm Shvak, mounted as a flexible gun. One of the outstanding features of this weapon is the method of solving blast tube difficulties, a troublesome problem in all installations of aircraft cannon In fighter aircraft. The Soviets' simple solution was to thread the end of their standard barrel and then screw on for whatever length...

Section Beresin Aircraft Machine

Rate of fire 700-1,000 rounds minute. Muzzle velocity 2,800 fcet sccond. Gun length UBS and UBK 53 inches. Gun height 6.3 inches. UBT 55 inches. BS Not standardized. Gun weight 47 pounds 56 pounds. Gun width 5.9 inches. System of operation Gas. System of locking Lateral stirrup-shaped piece moves across into recess in receiver. System of feeding Disintegrating belt. Method of cooling Air. Method of charging Pneumatic manual on free gun . Barrel weight 13.5 pounds. Barrel length Rifled part, 35...

Malfunctions

.As a safety precaution, this weapon has two plate dowels incorporated in its drive gear. In the event of a stoppage, these dowels are sheared off and must be replaced before firing can be resumed. To replace the dowels, the crank spindle nut is unscrewed and the drive gear is removed. The several dowels are replaced by new ones, and the drive gear and crank spindle nut arc put back. If a cartridge becomes wedged because of the explosion of a hang-fire or a de-bulleted cartridge, the barrel is...

Mm Ammunition

Soviet rifles, carbines, and rifle caliber machine guns lire a rimmed, bottle-necked 7.62-mm round. Rimmed ammunition is not well suited for use in automatic weapons, but clever gun designing has overcome the drawbacks of this old-stvlc round. The basic cartridge is the Model 1908. or light ball, cartridge the Model 1930, or heavy ball, cartridge is used for infantry machine guns. In addition to these types, explosive, tracer, incendiary, and other usual kinds of cartridges arc made. Many...

Ns And N Series

Barrel Machine Gun

Figure 6 31. 3ui el. banel sleeve, recoil spring collar and barrel retainer for 23-mm NS Gun. Figure 6 31. 3ui el. banel sleeve, recoil spring collar and barrel retainer for 23-mm NS Gun. Figure G-32. Receiver assembly oi 23-mm NS Gun showing feeder cam plate and mechanical sear linkage. Figure 6-33. Receiver, bu er, barrel extension and bolt for 23-mm NS Gun. Figure 6-33. Receiver, bu er, barrel extension and bolt for 23-mm NS Gun. iSSlffiSSgip r i ig.ip - .mm Figure 6-35. Synchronized version...

Weapons Used in World War I

Guns Used The Axis Powers World War

Desperate shortages of arms occurrcd in Russia soon after World War I began. Agents were sent to various friendlv or neutral countries to buv weapons to bolster the sagging armies. Machine guns were extremely difficult to obtain, for most of the producing nations were in the war at the outset. France and England supplied some but soon Russia, like several other nations turned to the United States for supplies. The Mossin was manufactured in the United States repeating the history of the Russian...

Illustrations

PART VII DEVELOPMENTS IN THE SOVIET UNION piece Soviet women armorers preparing belted ammunition for a 20-mm aircraft cannon. 1-1 Exhibit in the Museum of the Tula Arsenal on the occasion of its 235th Anniversary The rifle shown in the early version of the 3-Line 7.62-mm Mossin, and in the background is the portrait of its 4 1-2 The Smith and Wesson Russian 5 1-3 The 4.2 Line 10.6-mm Gatling Gun, made in the United States for the Czar is t 5 1-4 The 4.2-Linc 10.6-mm Cartridge, standard in the...

Disassembly

Gun Figure

A special wrench is sent with each gun. This all-purpose tool together with a loaded cartridge arc sufficient for the complete disassembly and assembly of ZB-80 Machine Gun. The horizontal lever arm is turned until it projects out of the main housing top cover. If resistance is felt, the operating lever is pressed continually, and the drive gear is turned until the crank disk driver can be engaged in the crank disk and the operating lever turned. Then both crank housing studs are extracted and...

Description of the Maxim Action

Rifling Machine

This gun derives its operating energy from short recoil with an assist from a muzzle booster. After recoiling inch, the bolt is unlocked then the recoiling forces and remaining high residual pressure in the chamber accelerate the bolt assembly to the rear. The rccoil movement causes a cam lever action that moves the entire feed block slide to the right. The feed pawls move over to engage the incoming round in the belt, which is being held in position by the bottom belt-holding pawl, and at the...

And Her Satellites

Madsen 1902

BACKGROUND OF SOVIET ARMS DEVELOPMENT Infantry Armament in the Nineteenth Century By the eighteen sixties, the World powers, including Russia, were becoming interested in new types of weapons to replace the old conventional armaments. This interest was stimulated by our War between the Slates. During this war, officers of many European countries had visited the United States and had seen all manner of new weapons tried. At this time and up to approximately the turn of the century, the Imperial...

Cycle of Operation for the DShK

To fire the DShK, the gunner raises the feed cover and places the end of the belt on the rotating drum, aligning the first link so as to engage the link stripper when feeding commences. The cover is then closed and the feed operating lever is operated by hand several times until the first cartridge has moved around to the feed lips. During automatic fire this feed lever is operated by the retracting handle, for every shot. The pawl of the feed lever presses on the projection of a ratchet, on...

General Data on Maxim Model

Muzzle velocitv 2,620 feet seconds with heavy pointed ball yellow tip bullet . Gun length 43.4 inches. Gun weight 39 pounds without mount and with water jacket empty 145 pounds on mount with full jacket. System of operation Short rccoil with muzzle booster assist. System of locking Toggle joint. System of feeding Belt, fabric. Method of charging Manual crank arrangement. Rate incrcascr Muzzle booster over barrel end. Barrel removal This is not a quick change...

General Data on SG Stankovaya Goryunov

Muzzle vclociy 2,620 feet second with heavy pointed ball yellow tip bullet. Gun length 44 inches. Gun weight, with tripod less shield 77 pounds 14 ounces. System of operation Gas piston actuated. System of locking Propped bolt. System of feeding 250-round canvas belt or multiples of 50-round metallic link belt. Method of charging Manual. Method of cooling Air. Rate control Gas port type. Barrel length 28 inches. Barrel removal Quick change. Chamber pressure...