Case Ejection Chute

Pistol Shooting Positions
Position of Bolt at Unlocking Cams

The earn is heavily spring loaded to its open position. The cam is a high strength plastic molding with a brass insert. The insert has a connection means on its side for fastening the lead.

On the surface of the cam that contacts the bolt's vertical pin, the insert is flush with this surface near the end of the contact surface. The action is that as the vertical pin approaches and contacts tliis surface, it is cammed down mechanically. A gun rotation continues the vertical pin still down then touches the electrical insert sending the electrical impulse to the firing pin and the prime to fire the cartridge. The contact surface then ends. The cartridge is fired; and, the firing pin, vertical pin and safety pin are returned to their retracted positions ready for the next firing cycle.

Physical Description of Other Vulcan Gun Parts

The Vulcan is a rotary gun. All gun components rotate except the main housing (and drive, feeder and recoil adapters all of which arc attached to the housing). The drive, electric or hydraulic, supplies the power to accelerate the rotating parts to full speed and to keep them at full speed throughout the burst.

Barrels. The gun uses six barrels, each being five feet long. The barrels are easily slipped into the six holes machined in front of the rotor. A one-third twist of each barrel locks them to the rotor so that they cannot move in or out (a bayonet lock).

Two barrel clamps are used, one at mid-length (called the center barrel clamp) and the other at the muzzles. The center clamp has a key for each barrel that prevents any barrel twisting motion. This keeps each barrel locked fore-aft to the rotor. Also, at the center clamp position, each barrel is equidistant from each neighboring barrel, forming a true cylinder of the six barrels.

The muzzle clamp also locks and positions each barrel's muzzle accurately to each other. This permits each muzzle to aim at the target as it is rotated into firing position and fired.

The barrel cluster, however, is gradually tapered. The rotor barrel holes are machined to produce a slight cone to the cluster. Each barrel is coned toward the ccntcr or rotation of the cluster by about three-fourths of a degree. The slight cone is designed into the cluster to minimize the target bias shift as the gun is fired at various gun rates such as 20U0 spm and 6000 spm. Since the tangential load on the projectile is greater at the higher gun speed, the projectile will be thrown further to the side at the higher speed than it would at the lower speed. The barrel cluster cone minimizes this effect permitting the same aiming point at all firing rates with just a small bias shift of about two mils on the target.

The barrels are made of Chromium-Molv-Vanadium (CrMoV) and are gain twist. The chambers are chrome-plated. All barrels are assembled to the gun without the need for headspace adjustment since the barrel lock shoulders in each rotor hole arc precision machined to each other to the main bearing shoulder and to the gun bolt locking surfaces.

Rotor Assembly. The Rotor Assembly is the main structural member inside the gun housing. The rotor secures and positions the barrels and rotates with the barrels.

The major double row of ball bearings on the forward end of the rotor transmit both radial and longitudal breech loads to the gun housing. A small internal needle bearing is located to the rear of the rotor. It transmits only radial loads to the gun housing, via the end plate. The rotor is positioned radially inside the gun housing by these two bearings and the rear end plate. It is positioned fore-aft by the large forward bearing and the accompanying shoulders on the rotor and on the housing. This allows very accurate location of the rotor so that gun functions of locking, unlocking, feeding, ejection, etc. can be accomplished without adjustments.

There are two gears on the rotor. The forward one meshes with the electric drive output gear. The rear rotor gear meshes with the feeder's gear. The hydraulic drives transmit through an internal spline slightly forward of the rear bearing inside the rotor and replaces the end plate when used.

The rotor provides six track ways for the six gun bolts to ram forward and to extract rearward. The forward tracks are bolted to the rotor. The rear tracks have a quick disconnect feature for installing or removing the gun bolts.

Each gun bolt has a drop lock block that transmits breech load from the bolt face to the rotor's locking surfaces. This establishes the integrity of the gun's six breech locks sincc both the barrel retaining lugs and the gun bolt locking surfaces are in the rotor and about three inches apart.

At the rear ot the rotor in each trackway are clearance cuts for the bolt's lock blocks, that are depressed by the clearing sector and clearing cam used during automatic gun clearing.

Housing Assembly. The gun's housing is a split cylindrical steel casting, bolted together that constrains the gun's rotating rotor, barrels and gun bolts. The housing is stationary, it does not rotate. It docs move 0.250 inches in recoil (via the recoil adapters) when a round fires.

The main cam is accurately machined in the inside diameter of the housing to direct the gun bolts through the gun functions from feeding, ramming, locking, firing, unlocking, extracting and ejecting. The acceleration and deaccelcration parts of the main cam are important to keep gun torque to a minimum while serving on gun part life by being of a cycloipal constant force form.

All other stationary gun parts are bolted to the housing such as the lock and unlock cams, the firing cam and the automatic clearing sector when used.

The gun rotor without gun bolts is installed into the housing by moving it rearward through the housing's largest diameter. The forward bearing is attached to the rotor beforehand. Once the rotor assembly is inside on the housing's forward shoulder, the forward retainer is bolted to the front flange of the housing. The rear end plate can now be inserted into the rotor's needle bearing. The end plate is also mated with the housing rear shoulder with a rabbit fit. A Marlin clamp locks the end plate to housing.

The gun is attached to its mount or system or aircraft by three points. The two points forward arc provided, one each by the recoil adapters. The singular rear mount is a cylindrical hole in the center of the end plate, allowing a fixed ball shape with shaft to be

Marlin Rifle Exploded View

Exploded View of Barrel Clamp

Marlin Rifle Exploded View

Exploded View of Muzzle Clamp

Exploded View of Barrel Clamp

Exploded View of Muzzle Clamp

Marlin Rifle Exploded View

Recoil Adapter inserted into the hole and its shaft retained to ground.

Recoil Adapter. The two forward mounts use quick disconnect pins that arc transverse to the axis of the gun. There is one pin on each side of the gun. The pins' ccnterlines pass slightly below the centerline of the firing barrel. These mounting pins take out recoil and counterrecoil; the shoulders take out transverse loads of the gun. This allows the gun to rotate about the axis of the pins. By connecting the rear ball mount to the gun, those gun movements about the pin are restrained. The rear ball mount takes out only radial loads through the axis of the ball mount shaft and allows fore-aft movement of the gun via the two recoil adapters springs.

The two recoil adapters arc assembled on the housing and bolted. Inside each adapter is a high gradient Edgewater buffer spring. The springs are made up of individual male and female smb washers that interact against each other as the gun recoils and

Recoil Adapter

Ejction Gun
Round Guided into Bolt Ejection of Empty Round
Gun Guide Pin And Housing

Automatic Clearing Sector

T76 Link (Top) and T99 Link (Bottom)

Automatic Clearing Sector

1. Stripper 4. Rear Guide

2. Sprockets 5. Noise Guide

3. Front Guide 6. Link counterrecoils. A high damping force is created, so that during steady firing a positive reduced force and excursion of the gun fore-aft is experienced. During the speed transients at the beginning and at the end of a burst, higher loads with a few complete reverse cycles are seen. The average steady recoil force at 6000 spin is about 3000 pounds. The surge during transients will vary upward to 5500 pounds fore-aft.

Guide Bar. At the feed and ejection position on the housing is located a guide bar and a case ejection chute. The guide bar is attached to the housing with roll-pins. On the guide bar are two ammo guides that somewhat tangentially (to the rotor) guide new cartridges into the gun, and fired cases (and duds) out of the gun. The feed and ejection take place during rear dwell where the bolts are rotating but are not moving longitudinally, A small rim guide on the feed side of the guide bar assures that the ammo will move fore-aft with the gun, and will be perfectly aligned with the bolt's extractor lip as the ammo enters into the bolt face.

1. Stripper 4. Rear Guide

2. Sprockets 5. Noise Guide

3. Front Guide 6. Link

Feeder Stripping Action

On the ejection side of the guide bar, the spent ammo and duds are cammed out of the bolt face (and gun) by the same guides. A case chute, bolted to the gun housing passes the cases or duds out of the gun in

Ejection Bar

6. Feeder Shaft Spring

7. Front Guide 8 Feeder Shaft 9. Nose Guide

10 Mounting Pin Hnles

T12 Feeder; View

T12 Feeder: View of Mouth

1. Feeder Gear

2. Indexinq Pin

3. Rear Guide

4. Stripper

5. Rear Sprocket

1. Feeder Gear

2. Indexinq Pin

3. Rear Guide

4. Stripper

5. Rear Sprocket

6. Feeder Shaft Spring

7. Front Guide 8 Feeder Shaft 9. Nose Guide

10 Mounting Pin Hnles noid lowers the sector into the housing circular cam during automatic gun clearing, and extracts the sector during gun firing.

Automatic gun clearing for the Vulcan is the same as "hold-back" for other guns. It keeps all gun bolts and ammunition to the rear of the gun wrhile the gun is stopped, as in an "open-bolt" condition. This prevents inadvert firings such as "cook-offs" when hot barrel chambers cook-off ammo propellants and explosives of "chambered" cartridges.

As the gun stops firing and starts to decrease speed, the solenoid inserts the sector into the rear dwell cam path. This forces the bolt's roller shaft inwards to a lesser diameter. The roller attains this lesser diameter at the end of rear dwell when it already contains a new cartridge and is about to start its ram function. However, instead of ramming via the main cam, the bolt's roller is cammed to enter the circular clearing cam and stop in a hold back function as the gun comes to rest with open chambers free of cook-off hazards.

There arc two types of automatic clearing used on the Vulcans. Besides the clearing sector assembly, there is a clearing gun feeder. This feeder automatically stops the flow of ammo into the gun as the speed of the gun decreases from a steady state firing rate of 6000 spm to zero firing rate. Since the flow of ammo is stopped at the feeder, while the gun is still rotating, all ammo already in the gun will be cycled out of the gun before it comcs to rest leaving the gun free of ammo.

Feeder. The feeder is attached to the gun housing by two quick disconnect pins. The feeder gear engages the rear rotor gear in an "in-timed" condition so that, as the rotor and the feeder rotates, cartridges are handed off from the feeder sprockets to the gun bolts in the rotor. This happens through a slot in the

T12 Feeder; View

Feeder Ml (T8E1) Top and Feeder T14 Bottom a finite ejection path, with case velocities up to 20 feet per second at full firing rate of 6000 spm.

Clearing Cam ami Sector Assembly. At the rear of the gun housing is the automatic gun clearing cam and sector assembly. The cam is a circular machined groove on the inside diameter of the housing. The sector assembly is made up of a solenoid and an external segment of the circular cam path. The sole

T12 Feeder: View of Mouth

Ammunition Feeder
Feeder Loaded with Belled Ammunition

housing using guides on the housing and on the guide bar.

The feeder sprocket has five pockets, not six as in the rotor, to save space and weight. This produces a six to five ratio between the gears. This also allows the feeder to pass off ammo to the bolt, and to get the feeder sprocket tips out of the bolt's path at an accelerated rate. This pass-off-path of the ammo to the bolt is somewhat tangential to both the rotor and the feeder.

The feeder consists of a shafted sprocket located in the feeder housing that forms an ammo path trom the entrance to the exit. At the entrance linked amino is fed into the feeder via the attached ammo flexible chuting. The linked ammo proceeds through the circular path being pushed by the sprockets. Stripper guides force the links from the ammo in the sprockets. The links are de-coupled from each other and sent overboard. The ammo is delivered to the gun bolts by the sprockets.

A mechanical solenoid controlled clutch was added to some feeders for specific installations. The clutch is a knife blade actuated dog-lock device. It is located between the feeder gear and the feeder sprockets.

This clutch rotationally frees the feeder gear and locks the sprockets to the feeder housing to prevent ammo from entering the gun at the end of a burst while the gun coasts to zero speed to produce automatic gun clearing. While this happens, the feeder gear stays engaged with the rotor rear gear and turns freely with this gear. The feeder is considered to be in a "de-clutched" condition, while the solenoid is de-energized and the gun is clcar.

At the start of a burst, the solenoid is energized along with the gun drive motor. Rotation of the rotor and hcncc feeder gear forces the traveling (solenoid controlled) circular knife ring to set up, in a timed condition, the unlocking of the sprockets from the housing, to locking the sprockets to the gear. This permits ammo to pass from the sprockets to the gun bolts while the gun accelerates to full firing speed, and gun firing commences.

Electric Gun Drives. There are two high performance electric gun drives for the Vulcan. The T45E1 drives the gear to fire at 6000 spm; and the T48 drives the gun to 4000 spm as required by specific installations.

1 Gear Box

2 Connector

3 Manual Brake Release Lever

4 Rear Support

1 Gear Box

2 Connector

3 Manual Brake Release Lever

4 Rear Support

M7 Electric Drive (Top) and T45E1 Electric Drive (Bottom)

M2 Hydraulic Pressure Connection M3 Hydraulic Drain Connection Ml Hydraulic Pressure Connection

Vulcan Brake Chute

Hydraulic T46

M2 Hydraulic Pressure Connection M3 Hydraulic Drain Connection Ml Hydraulic Pressure Connection

The electric drives are bolted to the gun housing with their output gear mating with the rotor's forward gear. The drives have a brake to prevent rotation while the gun is at rest. A manual release is used for gun maintenance.

The '['4501 drive is a dual rotor, connected in parallel, electric motor that can be driven by either two non-parallel 20 Kva or one 40 Kva aircraft generator. It is a four-pole squirrel cage induction motor rated at 34 horsepower for intermittent duty. It operates from a 208 volt, 474 cps, three phase source. It drives the Vulcan gun to 6000 spm steady state rate in 0.4 spin in less than 0.4 seconds.

A DC motor is also available for 4000 spm firing. This is the T35E1 electric drive and operates from 28 VDC supplies.

Hydraulic Drives. Two hydraulic drives are available to power the Vulcan to 6000 spm or to 4000 spm. Both mount to the rear of the gun. They replace the gun's end plate and provide a bearing surface for the rotor's rear needle bearing. They also provide a central hole for the singular rear ball mount. A single Marlin clamp serves the drive to the housing.

The T31 has a ball hydraulic motor that is directly splined to the rear of the rotor. It operates from a 12 gpm 3000 psi supply and requires a pressure at the motor of 2400 psi for 4000 spm.

The T46E1 also has a ball hydraulic motor and operates from a supply of 25 gpm 3000 psi. It has a 2.1 to 1 gear train (planetary), and drives the Vulcan at 6000 spin.

Hydraulic T46

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