Reviews

Free J5 Tactical Flashlights and Survival Gear

Free J5 Tactical Flashlights and Survival Gear

The Last Man Standing Review

The Last Man Standing Review

First Gun T-shirt Free

First Gun T-shirt Free

Light Defender Tactical Laser Can Save You By Dazzling Your Enemy

Light Defender Tactical Laser Can Save You By Dazzling Your Enemy

Doomsday Medicine Chest Review

Doomsday Medicine Chest Review

Jumpstart Liberty Review

Jumpstart Liberty Review

Free Survival Multitool Plus Bonuses Review

Free Survival Multitool Plus Bonuses Review

Spec Ops Shooting Review

Spec Ops Shooting Review

Legally Concealed Courses Review

Legally Concealed Courses Review

The Strikelight Tactical Flashlight Review

The Strikelight Tactical Flashlight Review

Defensive Handgun Training Drills Book Review

Defensive Handgun Training Drills Book Review

My Experience with Shipping Container Home Made Easy

My Experience with Shipping Container Home Made Easy

Articles

Cleaning From The Breech

Black Diamond Breech Plug

When you are finished shooting for the day or for the season and plan to store the in-line muzzleloader away, it is recommended that you clean the firearm thoroughly. This includes removal of the breech plug and cleaning the corresponding threads in the barrel. Follow these instructions for thorough cleaning 1. Disassemble your in-line muzzleloader as detailed on pages 10 and 11 of this manual. 2. When using the in-line muzzleloader breech plug wrench, remove the breech plug by turning it...

Sniper Mission Insertion Equipment

Sniper Gear And Equipment

H HARNESS AND QUICK RELEASES SNIPER EQUIPMENT FULLY DONNED, FRONT VIEW SNIPER EQUIPMENT FULLY DONNED, FRONT VIEW SNIPER EQUIPMENT FULLY DONNED, SIDE VIEW SNIPER EQUIPMENT FULLY DONNED, SIDE VIEW SNIPER OBSERVER WITH HAHO EQUIPMENT DONNED, FRONT VIEW SNIPER OBSERVER WITH HAHO EQUIPMENT DONNED, FRONT VIEW EQUIPMENT TO BE PREPPED FOR WATERBORNE INSERTION. NOTE THAT THE SCOPE HAS BEEN REMOVED FROM THE RIFLE AND WATERPROOFED TORQUE WRENCH REQUIRED TO REMOUNT IN ORDER TO MAINTAIN ZERO. SCOUT...

Loading And Unloading

Before attempting to load or unload the rifle, be certain the muzzle is pointing in a safe direction. MAGAZINE CAPACITY AND CARTRIDGES. Magazine capacity is 3 cartridges with Magnum calibers, 4 cartridges with caliber 220 Swift and 5 cartridges with all other calibers. Do not put more cartridges into the magazine than is specified in the foregoing. Each M-77 rifle is chambered for a specific caliber. Know the caliber of the rifle you are loading and load cartridges of only that caliber into the...

Headstamp Markings on Ammunition Introduction

Headstamps

A cartridge headstamp is a mark, or series of marks impressed, or sometimes embossed, on the head of the cartridge case during its manufacture. The mark can consist of numbers, letters, trademarks, figures or any combination of these. Systems of headstamp markings are used worldwide. They can be in any language, numbering system or can relate to any calendar. From these impressions, one can, depending on the type of ammunition and its origin, determine the manufacturer, calibre, type, date of...

Priming Compounds and Primers Introduction

A priming compound is a highly sensitive explosive chemical which, when struck by the firing pin or hammer of a weapon, will explode with great violence, causing a flame to ignite the propellant. This explosive chemical is often mixed with other chemicals which provide oxygen to assist in the production of the flame, a fuel to increase the length and temperature of the flame and ground glass as an abrasive to assist in the initial ignition of the explosive. In the realms of forensic science,...

Vault Lock Rifle Action

On closing the No. 2 VAULT LOCK action, the hammer is left cocked and on SAFE as shown here and to fire the rifle the safety must first be pulled back. One of the author's FM No. 2 VAULT LOCK rifles. It has a stock and forearm made of myrtlewood, a Bushnell scope in Buehler mounts and an engraved receiver, engraving done by Neil Hartliep. Close-up of the engraved action on the rifle shown in Fig. 3-H. It is shown here opened. Wfr ' gt - Amateur gunsmith Ronald Van't Hof made this fine FM No. 2...

High Standard pistols

The presently named High Standard Manufacturing Corporation, of Hamden, Conn., started out in 1926 as the High Standard Manufacturing Company, in New Haven, Conn., when C.G. Swebilius and three other men began the manufacture of gun barrel drills. At that time the firm had three employees. In 1932 the firm acquired the Hartford Arms and Equipment Co., of Hartford, Conn. This firm had developed and produced a single-shot pistol, a repeating pistol, and an automatic pistol. Although this firm was...

Supermatic Trophy Pistol

Standard Magazine Spring Replacement

IN late summer of 1958 High Standard Manufacturing Corp. of Hamden, Conn., introduced 4 ten-shot detachable-clip cal. .22 semi-automatic pistols featuring detachable barrels and an improved lockwork to provide crisp and uniform sear disengagement. These guns were designated Supermatic Trophy, Supermatic Citation, Olympic Citation, and Supermatic Tournament. The first 3 guns are regularly available with 10, 8, and 6barrels. The fully-adjustable rear sight is mounted on the slide of the 63A...

U S Model Rifle Enfield

How Disassemble The 303 British Rifle

Rifle, Cal. .30, Model of 1917, is of basic Mauser turn-bolt type with dual front locking lugs, one-piece bolt, and staggered column box magazine. Developed during World War I, it was a modification of the British Pattern 1914 Service Rifle. In 1913 British Ordnance developed an experimental Mauser-type bolt-action rifle chambered for a cal. .276 rimless cartridge loaded with a 165-gr. pointed bullet at 2800 feet per second f.p.s. . The intent of these experiments was to develop a...

Colt Automatic Pistol

Colt Automatic Calibre Disassembly

Text by LUDWIG OLSON Colt's of Hartford. Conn., is among the world's leading suppliers of .25 ACP pocket automatic pistols. Their first pistol of this type was developed by John M. Browning, the famous U.S. arms designer, and introduced in 1908. Approximately 500,000 of this excellent blowback-operated arm were produced. This pistol was discontinued in 1946. and Colt's did not re-enter the .25 ACP pocket pistol field until 1958 when they introduced the Junior...

Bernardelli Model Pistol

Indicator Assembly

Illustrations By DENNIS RIORDAN Text By LUDWIG OLSON Produced by the well-known firm of Vincenzo Bernardelli in Gardone V.T., Italy, the Bernardelli Model 60 semi-automatic pistol is designed for informal target shooting and self defense. This modern blowback-operated arm was introduced in 1959. It is made in .22 long rifle and .32 ACP calibers and was also formerly offered in cal. .380 ACP. The Model 60 is handsome and of simple construction. It has a V i barrel attached rigidly to a...

Intermediate Range Wounds

Contact Gunshot Wound Rifle

An intermediate-range gunshot wound is one in which the muzzle of the weapon is held away from the body at the time of discharge yet is sufficiently close so that powder grains expelled from the muzzle along with the bullet produce powder tattooing of the skin Figure 4.7 . These markings are the sine qua non of intermediate-range gunshot wounds. Just as there is a gradual transition from loose-contact to near-contact wounds, there is also a gradual transition from near-contact to intermediate...

Revolver Barrel Removal

Barrel Vise Mag Combo

Ful not to set the clamp up too tightly on a shotgun barrel if it is a new barrel, or a barrel you are going to use again, as you may crush it. But when setting it up on a high-power rifle barrel, oil the threads on the bolts holding the two parts of the clamp together, and pull the nuts up tightly with a long-handled socket-wrench, Removing a round barrel from bolt-action receiver, using Parmalee Removing a round barrel from bolt-action receiver, using Parmalee A shotgun barrel has a fairly...

The Japanese miscellany

Japanese aircraft armament was characterised by a wide variety of different types most of which used their own unique ammunition. This is partly explained by the fact that the air forces were divided between the army and navy, although a similar situation did not prevent a high degree of commonality in US aircraft guns. Certainly the Imperial Japanese Army and Navy IJA and UN respectively followed wilfully different procurement policies and seemed unconcerned about the benefits of...

Savage Ml Ii Accurate Loads

For more information, please visit our web site at www.savagearms.com WARNING THE USE OF SMOKELESS POWDER IN A MUZZLE LOADER NOT SPECIFICALLY DESIGNED FOR SMOKELESS POWDER MAY CAUSE SERIOUS INJURY TO THE SHOOTER, BYSTANDERS, AND OR DAMAGE TO THE FIREARM. The loads specified are for average hunting applications seasons. For best accuracy during hot days or if the barrel is getting warmer, reduce the powder charge in V2 grain increments. In extremely warm conditions, a reduction of 10 or more may...

Stippling Powder Tattooing and Pseudo Powder Tattooing

Powder Stippling Skin Gunshot

Stippling consists of multiple punctate abrasions of the skin due to the impact of small fragments of foreign material. If this material is gunpowder, the author calls this form of stippling powder tattooing. If the material is not powder, but the punctate abrasions produced appear identical to those due to powder, the phenomena is referred to as pseudo-powder tattooing. Most stippling of a non-gunpowder origin does not resemble powder tattooing and can easily be differentiated from it. The...

Improvised Homemade Shotgun Shells

410 Shotgun Cartridges

If, for whatever reason, you cannot buy your .410g shells from a store, you may need to construct your own improvised .410 ammunition. The following document illustrates how .410 shells can be easily and quickly constructed with just a few simple tools and components. 1 15 32 11.9mm brass tube. 2 13 32 amp 7 16 brass tube. The first step in constructing these improvised .410 shotgun shells is to purchase some lengths of brass tubing. This material is commonly available from most good hobby and...

Mauser Rifle Argentine Model

Mauser 1891 Magazine Follower

The Argentine Model 1891 Mauser military rifle was adopted in that year, and the initial production contract calling for 180,000 rifles and 30,000 carbines was granted to Ludwig Loewe amp Co. of Berlin. Additional arms of this pattern were made later for Argentina by Deutsche Waffen und Munitionsfabriken DWM in Berlin. DWM had taken control of Loewe in 1896. 7.65 mm. Mauser cartridge loaded originally with 212-gr. round-nose bullet to a muzzle velocity of approximately 2060 feet per second....

Puttin it all together

M16 Automatic Lower Receiver

Reassembly of the lower receiver is next. For the parts needed to convert the AR-15 to M-16 configuration, other than the M-16 auto-sear jarts, refer to drawings page 13. numbers 1. sear spring, 2. sear pin, 3. sear bushing, and 4. sear tody parts 1 3. and 4 are normally assembled when you purchase them are M-16 hammer, lisconnector, trigger, selector switch, and bolt carrier, shown on page 11. The AR-15 parts and their M-16 counterparts are shown on pages 10 and 11. Jtep 1 Install the M-16...

Browning Auto 5 Ejector Spring

Browning Locking Block

Browning Arms Co. added the BL-22 lever-action .22 caliber repeating rifle to its line of sporting arms in 1969. Generally similar in appearance to Winchester lever-action repeaters developed by John M. Browning in the late 1800's, this small-game and plinking rifle is produced for Browning in Japan. It weighs only about five lbs., and fires .22 long rifle, long, and short regular and high speed cartridges interchangeably, without adjustment. Capacity of its tubular under-barrel magazine is 15...

Remington 721 Trigger Assembly

Remington 721

5 Drive out bolt stop pin 5 , and remove bolt stop and bolt stop spring 7 . Drive out sear pin 40 , and remove trigger housing assembly unit, sear safety cam 39 , and sear spring 41 . Weight of trigger pull is adjustable by turning trigger adjusting screw 46 clockwise for a heavier pull, and counterclockwise for a lighter one. Overtravel can be reduced by turning trigger stop screw 53 clockwise until firing pin will not release when trigger is pulled. While keeping pressure on trigger, trigger...

Remington Nylon 76 Parts

Remington Nylon Parts

IMake sure rifle is unloaded before starting disassembly. When action is open, colored magazine follower should be visible through ejection port. Push safety 49 to the rear on safe position, and work lever 35 to cock rifle. Unscrew and remove the two cover screws 13 , and lift receiver cover assembly 48 from stock 59 . Like the Nylon 66, the Nylon 76 features a one-piece stock, receiver, and fore-end produced from high-strength Du Pont structural Nylon. Due to this unusual construction,...

Drop change instructions see table page

Using Benelli Shims

The shotgun comes with the original drop given at the factory for the various markets. If the desired level of comfort for handling and aiming is not obtained and the drop requires adjustment, use the special kit provided. The kit, which permits two additional drops to suit all markets, consists of metal stock locking plate set plus plastic drop change shim see fig. 13 . Each unit is marked with the corresponding letter. Before attempting any work on your Be-nelli make sure that the chamber and...

Disassembly Of The Luger Pistol

Open breech by activating toggles E . With empty magazine in place, breech will remain in open position. 2. Remove magazine by depressing release button A located on left side immediately behind the trigger. 3. Remove grip screws G and wooden grip panels from both sides of the gun. To avoid damaging, the screw heads use a screwdriver of the proper size. 4. Remove sear bar retaining screw H which is located on the left side immediately above the trigger. 5. With a pin punch of the proper size...

Entrance Versus Exit Wounds Entrance Wounds

Bullet Entry And Exit Wounds

Most entrance wounds, no matter the range, are surrounded by a reddish, reddish-brown zone of abraded skin the abrasion ring Figure 4.16 . This is a rim of flattened, abraded epidermis, surrounding the entrance hole. Fresh entrance wounds have an abrasion ring with a moist, fleshy appearance. As the abrasion ring dries out, however, it assumes the more familiar appearance. Figure 4.16 A The bullet indents the skin, punching a hole through it and abrading the margins of the entrance wound in the...

Robar pistols Jieffeco and Melior

The Jieffeco pistol was designed by H. Rosier and, in its first form, appeared in about 1910. It is advertised in the ALFA Catalog of 1911. An earlier form was designed by Rosier around 1906-07, but this did not come on the market. The Jieffeco pistols were made by Robar and DeKerkhove, in Liege, Belgium, under S.G.D.G. patent No. 24875. S.G.D.G. Patent Without Government Guarantee The brand name or mark Jieffeco was no doubt derived from the name Jannsen Fils et Cie., who owned it and for whom...

The Forensic Aspects of Ballistics

Barrel Rifling

Rifles and handguns have rifled barrels, that is, spiral grooves have been cut the length of the interior or bore of the barrel Figure 2.1 . Rifling consists of these grooves and the metal left between the grooves the lands see Figure 1.13 . The purpose of rifling is to impart a rotational spin to the bullet along its longitudinal axis. This gyroscopic effect stabilizes the bullet's flight through the air, preventing it from tumbling end over end. This spin does not, however, stabilize the...

Lyman Great Plains Rifle and Great Plains Hunter

Lyman Great Plains Hunter Pictures

The rifle carried across the Great Plains by western pioneers and fur trappers was the culmination of percussion firearms development. This Great Plains rifle was designed and built by such famous makers as Hawken, Gemmer and Demick to the specifications of experienced backwoodsmen. Only the best and most reliable designs and finest workmanship were acceptable. Today, as in the 1800's, the experienced black powder shooter is looking for a very special rifle. The Lyman Great Plains Rifle, with...

Suicides Due to Handguns

Suicide Gunshot Imprint

The location of the self-inflicted wound varies depending on the type of the weapon, the sex of the victim, and whether the victim is right- or left-handed. In individuals who shoot themselves with handguns, the most common sites for the entrance wound are the head 81 , the chest 17 , and the abdomen 2 , in that order Table 14.1 . There is some difference by sex Table 14.1 in that a smaller percentage of women 72 shoot themselves in the head than do men 83.5 . Table 14.1 Sites of Suicidal...

Ammunition Specifications For Glock Pistol

Homemade Glock Parts

GIOCK pistols are designed to be fired with NATO specification ammunition. Therefore the following guidelines and specifications are provided so that proper ammunition will be selected for use in GLOCK pistols to assure proper functioning. Any deviation from these specifications may lead to improper functioning and possibly void the warranty on GLOCK pistols. GLOCK pistols will function properly with the new generation of 9x19mm ammunition including all p and 147 grain sub-sonic ammunition...

What is the maximum altitude that a bullet will attain

308 Bullet Flight Characteristic

As with many other subjects that one comes across in forensic firearms examinations, this has little real relevance in everyday case examinations. There was an occasion, however, when a commercial airliner which had been flying in the air space above Northern Ireland was found, on landing, to have a 7.62 mm calibre hole in one side of the tailfin. Unfortunately, the airline concerned was unwilling to have the tailfin dismantled and taken apart due to the costs involved, and it was not possible...

National Guard Sniper School

Robinson North Little Rock, AR 72199 Co-locatcd at Camp Robinson with the Guards Marksmanship Training Unit and home to the annual Winston P. Wilson Matches, this is the course I cofounded with Lt. Col. Gary Schraml at Camp Ripley, Minnesota, in 1983, which moved to Arkansas a decade later. Other than Ft. Benning, this is the only school authorized to award the Armys B-4 sniper certification. The course is conducted in two two-week phases to better fit Reserve Component...

Shell Lifter Height Adjustment

Mec Reloading Chart

It is necessary for the shell lifter to be level with the track in which the shells ride around the machine. To adjust shell lifter height 1. Make sure the reloader is at the top of its stroke. 2. Loosen the wad guide mounting screw slightly enough so you may turn it on the wad guide rod . 3. Using a 1 z inch open-end wrench, loosen the lock nut, Figure 52. 4. Put a straight edge in the track above the shell lifter, Figure 53. 5. Raise or lower the shell lifter as required by turning the wad...

Improvised Gun Barrels

Tube sizes for improvised firearm barrels from .22 rimfire to 12 gauge shotgun. Seamless Mechanical Tube SMT and Seamless Hydraulic Tube SHT . All the tube sizes listed here offer an excellent 'Bullet to Bore' fit. All will require chambering with the appropriate calibre of chamber reamer.

Remington Model Rifle

Dissassembling Remington 510

1 Before starting to disassemble rifle, unload it. Lift bolt handle 3 , push safety lever 25 forward, pull trigger, and withdraw bolt assembly from rifle. When replacing bolt assembly, firing mechanism must be cocked. This is indicated by red band on safety indicator 24 protruding from rear of bolt sleeve 4 . If mechanism is uncocked, cock it by pushing bolt into receiver 20 as far as possible, and lifting bolt handle. With safety lever forward, hold trigger rearward, and slide bolt assembly...

Cal .22 Mechanism Rifle

Mossberg 46b Firing Pin

.22 long rifle, smallbore target rifle was introduced in 1954 by O. F. Moss-berg amp Sons, Inc. Weighing only 8 lbs., it is for those who prefer a medium-weight, moderate price target rifle. The turnbolt action of this rifle is basically similar to that of the Mossberg Model 44-US which was a training rifle used by the Army in World War II. Cocking occurs as the bolt is rotated open when the action is cocked, an indicator projects from the rear of the bolt. Dual extractors are provided, and the...

Llama Pistol Identification

Gun Cross Section

Automatic pistols made by Gabilondo from 1914 to 1933 were based on Browning F.N. models of 1903, 1906, 1910, and 1922. In 1931 it was decided to modernize their line by undertaking the manufacture of the external hammer, recoil-operated system originally designed by Browning and used by Colt and the Fabrique Nationale. Work on a new design began in 1931 and culminated in 1932 with a Spanish patent issued on April 12th of that year. The first pistol produced was an exact copy of the Colt Mod....

Disassemble and Clean the Bolt

Mauser Bolt Cocking Sleeve

The preservative grease inside the bolt will cause the rifle to fail to fire. To clean the bolt, you must become knowledgeable about its disassembly and reassembly. You may require some help here as this is somewhat difficult it requires some strength in your hands and you are dealing with a very powerful firing pin spring, so pay careful attention . a. Check the position of the safety lever. It should be in the vertical upright position. If it isn't, put the bolt back in the rifle and close...

Remington Model A Rifle

Extractor Bolt Action Disassembly

Offered as a simple reliable arm at low cost, the Remington Model 514 .22 rimfirc single-shot rifle was introduced in 1948. This turnbolt takedown rifle fires .22 short. long, and long rifle regular and high speed cartridges interchangeably and without adjustment. It was initially offered in a 514A version with open rear sight and a 514P version with an aperture rear sight on the receiver. Both have a 24 round barrel and a one-piece walnut stock. Several...

Browning Swedish Model Pistol

Husqvarna Vapenfabrik Parts

The Swedish Model 1907 semiautomatic pistol was designed by John M. Browning, the U. S. arms inventor. Chambered for the 9 mm. Browning Long cartridge, this well-made blowback-operated pistol was produced by Fabriquc Nationalc FN in Belgium and Husqvarna Vapenfabriks Aktiebolag Husqvarna Arms Factory, Inc. in Sweden. Of concealed-hammer type, the pistol is simple and compact, and has a good grip and balance. It has a detachable 7-round magazine, a manual safety, a grip safety, and a slide stop...

He Says Hes Number

Ppks 380 Accuracy

He advertises himself as the foremost manufacturer of suppressed firearms today . . . the standard of quality and performance the others try to match. He could be telling the truth. Whether Jonathan Arthur Ciener really is number one isn't the point. The only people who count in judging that are the military and intelligence technocrats who evaluate his designs with standard issue adoption in mind, and they're not talking. So, only history will really determine if Jonathan Arthur Ciener was the...

Nra High Power Service Rifle Loads

The purpose of this section is to provide the NRA High Power competitor with a quick reference for the most requested loading data. Although most of the data in this section is also found in other listings throughout the loading guide, some portions of this data were developed for inclusion only in this section. This section is broken down into three parts. The first is for the three service rifle cartridges the 5.56mm, the 7.62x51mm and the .30-06. In developing the 5.56 data we used...

M240 Gas Regulator Collar

Machine Gun Mag M240

Barrel and barrel adapter have left-hand threads. M240B M240D M240G M240N Place catch spring 34 into barrel catch 33 . Install barrel catch 33 into carrying handle assembly 27 . Hold carrying handle assembly vertically, place firmly against front shoulder of barrel 12 . DIRECT SUPPORT MAINTENANCE OF BARREL ASSEMBLY M240 M240C, NSN 1005-01-044-1026, PN 11825985 M240B, NSN N A, PN 12976817 M240D M240G M240N, NSN 1005-01-408-5897, PN 12976818 M240E1, NSN 1005-01-251-9701, PN 12597035 cont _ Screw...

Blackpowder Paper Cartridge

Charlie Hahn Sharps Cartridge Tubes

Principle owner of either company and severed his relationship with the Sharps management within two years after the initial company was formed in 1851. Richard Lawrence of the firm Robbins amp Lawrence then became the chief engineer of the Sharps action, refining it for mass production and making many mechanical improvements in the ensuing years. If you enjoy history, the Sharps story is a fascinating read. Christian Sharps first appears as an apprentice at the Federal Arsenal at Harper's...

Alkartasuna Alkar pistols

Alkartasuna Fabrica de Armas was one of the Spanish pistol manufacturers of lesser importance, but they did play a part in World War I and many specimens of their product are to be found in this country, having been brought back by returning soldiers. This firm was organized during World War I, in 1917, to manufacture under license the Ruby automatic pistol originated by Gabilondo y Urresti in 1914. Information supplied by Gabilondo y Cia. states that the Alkartasuna firm was founded by...

Jose Cruz Mugica History

The Mugica automatic pistols are a product of Gabilondo y Cia., sold by Jose Cruz Mugica, a manufacturer of shotguns in Eibar. A 1958 communication from the former states that the Mugica is the same as the Llama produced specially for Mr. Mugica to fill an order from Siam. In 1951, however, the Mugica firm issued a four-page pamphlet describing in some detail several models of the Mugica pistol he was offering for sale. The three models illustrated all bear Mugica's markings, including his...

Rifle Lee Enfield Mark

Lee Enfield Firing Pin Removal Tool

The cal. .303 British Short Magazine Lee-Enfield Rifle, Mark III was approved for the British Service on Jan. 26, 1907. It was an evolutionary development of the Short Magazine Lee-Enfield Rifle, Mark I, which was adopted on Dec. 23, 1902. The Mark III version is dimensionally similar to the earlier Mark I but is heavier. It weighs 8 lbs. IOV2 ozs. as against 8 lbs. 2Vi ozs. for the Mark I. The weights given do not include the bayonet. The Mark III is fitted with a magazine cutoff so that...

Remington 521-t Magazine

Remington 513t Sling Swivels

The Remington Model 521T smallbore target rifle, chambered for the cal. .22 long rifle cartridge, was first offered by Remington Arms Co., in 1947. Designed for young target shooters, this moderately-priced rifle filled the gap below the more expensive and heavier Remington Model 513T and Model 40X target rifles. Thomas E. Wessel of Whippany, N. J., is a technical illustrator long interested in firearms. The turnbolt action features dual locking lugs and extractors and is of cock-on-opening...

Single Action Army Revolver

1873 Single Action Army Blueprints

A military weapon extracting the jt . discharged shells singly combining strength and simplicity of action not liable to get out of order readily taken apart and easily cleaned having entire exchangeability of parts, with a high order of finish. Commended for durability and actual service in the hands of a soldier. . . The above succinct report, by the judges of the Centennial Exposition held in Philadelphia in 1876, is as relevant today as it was over 80 years ago. It is a striking fact...

Gun Barrel Rifling Machine Homemade

Homemade Muzzleloader Revolver

Weight complete with light barrel 47.3 lbs. Weight of Light Barrel 14.4 lb. Weight complete with heavy barrel 49.9 lb. Weight of Heavy Barrel 17 lb. Length of Weapon with barrel 72.4 in. Length of Receiver without barrel 43.6 in. Length of Barrel with flash hider 41.6 in. Length of Rifled Bore approx. 32 in. Number of Lands and Grooves 8 Twist Right Hand, one turn in 15 in. Headspace. Barrel Changing Fixed Headspace Timing Locking Fixed Timing Feeding Rotating Sprocket, Disintegrating Operation...

Measurement of bore and groove diameters

In a barrel having an even number of lands and grooves the bore diameter is the distance between the tops of opposite lands. In a barrel having an odd number of lands and grooves the bore diameter is the diameter of a circle which would touch the tops of all of the lands. The groove diameter for a barrel having an even number of grooves is the distance from the bottom of a groove to the bottom of the opposite groove. The groove diameter for a barrel having an odd number of grooves may be...

Firearms And The Evidence They Provide

Forensic Guns

A firearm is a weapon that is capable of firing a projectile and using an explosive charge as a propellant. The broadest category of firearms includes two types handguns and long guns. Handguns are designed to Semiautomatic pistol Courtesy of the author Semiautomatic pistol Courtesy of the author be fired while held in the hand, and long guns are designed to be fired from the shoulder. Handguns include revolvers and pistols, examples of which appear in the accompanying photographs. Pistols are...

Cement Log Bunker Army

Overhead Protection For Soldier Shelters

Two or more individuals armed with rifles or machine guns design the following two positions for use. Although these are beyond the construction capabilities of nonengineer troops, certain construction phases can be accomplished with little or no engineer assistance. For example, while engineer assistance may be necessary to build steel frames and cut timbers for the roof of a structure, the excavation, assembly, and installation are all within the capabilities of most...

Relining Rifle Barrel

Rifle Barrel Relining Tool

A shows steps in boring oat old barrel, the relining tube and the assembly of same. B is gas burners and barrel rest necessary for soldering liner in barrel. C is the two types of tinning tools for coating inside of old barrel and D is spring clamp After the liner is cut off flush with each end of the barrel and fitted to the action, the extractor cut is made, the liner is then chambered for the cartridge and the muzzle end is finished with a countersink...

Ricochet Analysis Introduction

Projectile Ricochet

When a bullet strikes any surface, there is a critical angle at which the bullet will bounce off or ricochet from the surface rather than penetrate. After ricocheting from the surface, the missile will lose a considerable amount of its velocity anything up to 35 in test firings and, invariably, lose its stability. This is contrary to the popular belief that a ricocheting bullet will carry further than one fired at the elevation for maximum range. The actual degree at which a bullet will...

The plastic cartridge case

Cased Telescoped Cartridges

Cartridge case design has so far changed much less than projectiles. Despite the practical advantages of the cartridge case it has always been regarded as something of a nuisance by weapon designers. It adds greatly to the weight of ammunition and complicates weapon design because of the need for mechanisms to extract and eject the fired case from the gun. Other types of cartridge case have occasionally been tried, many of them making use of modern plastics. Attempts to produce entirely plastic...

General wound ballistic concepts

9mm Wound Ballistics

There are three concepts generally held by most as to the effect of a bullet striking a human being. The first is that the bullet 'drills' its way through leaving a small entry and an equally small exit hole. The second is that the bullet leaves a small entry hole and an enormous exit hole. The third is that when someone is shot by anything other than an air rifle, the impact is enough to lift the person off his feet and send him flying through the air. Basically, all three concepts are...

Gunshot Wounds Pictures

9mm Gunshot Wounds Chest Ray

X-rays are invaluable in the evaluation of gunshot wounds. They should be taken in all gunshot wound cases, especially those in which there appears to be an exit wound. X-rays are useful for a variety of reasons 1. To see whether the bullet or any part of it is still in the body. 3. To locate for retrieval small fragments deposited in the body by a bullet that has exited. 4. To identify the type of ammunition or weapon used prior to autopsy or to make such an identification if it cannot be made...

Methods of measuring barrel pressure

Homemade Guns And Homemade Ammo

Assuming that the weapon is in good condition and that the correct type of ammunition is being used, it is the pressure produced in the barrel which ultimately decides whether the bullet will either reach the muzzle, exit from the barrel at an acceptable velocity or destroy the weapon completely. Often weapons are received with reloaded or home- made ammunition and for safety sake, it is often necessary to determine whether the ammunition is in fact safe to fire. At other times, it is necessary...

Audible Pop or Reduced Recoil

An audible pop occurs when only a portion of the propellant is ignited. It is normally identifiable by reduced recoil and is sometimes accompanied by excessive smoke escaping from the chamber area. To clear the rifle in a combat environment Place the rifle in Condition 4. Move take down pin from left to right as far as it will go to allow the lower receiver to pivot. Remove the bolt carrier group. Inspect the bore for an obstruction from the chamber end. Insert a cleaning rod into the bore from...

Invector Interchangeable Choke System

Choking Firearm

All current Auto-5 shotguns have barrels that are threaded to accept the Browning Invector-Plus Interchangeable Choke System. You may confirm this by glancing on the right side of your barrel where the specifications are inscribed, and where the choke markings are normally located. All older Auto-5 models and the Auto-5 Buck Special are conventionally choked. The word, INVECTOR denotes that the barrel is threaded. The degree of choke tube is indicated twice on each choke tube Inscribed on the...

Penetration potential

The penetration of various materials can be of great assistance in the investigation of shooting incidents. It is also of considerable general interest if for no other reason than to show how often the movie makers and novel writers make appalling blunders. In the past, one of the standard tests performed to assess bullet and cartridge performance was the penetration of pine boards of various thicknesses. This, as with any other type of penetration test, is plagued with inaccuracies. Many...

Ithaca Shotgun Disassembly

Homemade Shotguns Disassembly

A number of these improvements met with little favor despite their virtues, and a few led to litigation ancl considerable controversy. Perhaps the most widely acccptcd of Manton's designs was the elevated rib for sighting double-barrel arms, and second was his patent brccch complete with drain hole, which made it possible for double-barrel guns to be constructed in a more streamlined form. Less popular were his V-shapcd priming pan and his gravitational safety...

How To Replace The Fireing Pin On Wichester

Extractor Lever Pin Franchi

Stevens amp Co., later J. Stevens Arms amp Tool Co., made single-shot, break-open shotguns with exposed hammers. In 1920 the firm was purchased by the Savage Arms Co., who continued the use of the Stevens name on many of their products. Savage-Stevens used other brand names as well, including Springfield. Around 1929 the first shotgun to be called the Model 94 was merchandised as a Springfield. It had many desirable features such as two way top snap, rebounding exposed...

Remington Nylon Rifle

Remington Nylon Cal

HART Text By LUDWIG OLSON Introduction of the Remington Nylon 66 cal. .22 semi-automatic rifle in 1959 heralded a new concept in firearms. Featuring a one-piece stock, receiver, and fore-end produced from structural nylon, this unusual blowback-operated rifle was designed by a team of Remington engineers headed by Wayne E. Leek. The designation Nylon 66 was taken from the name of the high-strength DuPont nylon selected for the rifle. Chambered for .22 long-rifle...

Winchester Model Rifle

Percussion Derringer Blueprints

In 1925, Winchester Repeating Arms Co., New Haven, Conn., announced production of the Winchester Model 54 bolt-action rifle chambered for the revolutionary cal. .270 WCF cartridge. Both rifle and cartridge were immediately successful. The action design of the Model 54 was basically that of the Mauser 98. It had a one-piece bolt with dual front locking lugs, cock-on-opening action, and a Mauser-type staggered-column, integral box-magazine. The Model 54 was made in several grades and chamberings,...

Assembly Disassembly Of The System

Muzzleloading Diagrams

This System 1 has three 3 basic parts groups This System 1 has three 3 basic parts groups 1. The Barrel Assembly - This assembly includes the barrel, breech plug with nipple, ramrod, thimbles and sights. It is held to the receiver by a takedown bolt which anchors the barrel lug to the receiver lug. 3. The Receiver Striker Trigger Assembly - This assembly is held in the stock by two screws one located at the rear of the trigger guard and the other is the front trigger guard screw on those models...

Firearms And Fingerprints In The Crime

Visible Fingerprints

The roles of firearms and fingerprint examiners in the crime laboratory are numerous and varied. Firearms examiners are frequently called upon to do many things that do not fall under the traditional heading of firearms identification. Examples include serial number restoration with chemical etchants, gunshot residue analysis for barium nitrate, and shooting incident reconstruction. Similarly, fingerprint examiners must be proficient in specialized methods of photography, the application of...

Browning Bar High Power Rifle

Mossberg 935 Gas Cylinder Assembly

The Browning semi-automatic centcrfire rifle was a spin-off of Fabrique National's FN development of military weapons. It has a gas-operated mechanism with a rotating bolt head which engages shoulders in the rear of the barrel. Its box magazine can. but need not. be detached from the hinged floorplate for loading. M. Ernest Vervier was its principal designer. When introduced in 1967. the rifle was availabe in Grades 1 no engraving and 11 light engraving chambered only for the .30-06 cartridge....

Firearms Examination Equipment

Bullet Tool Marks Forensic Science

The specialized equipment used by firearms examiners includes microscopes, measuring tools, testing tools, and balances. These tools enable the examiner to carry out the various aspects of firearms examination and comparison. The need for proficiency with microscopes emphasizes the importance of examiners having an academic background in science. Other equipment, such as measuring and weighing devices, are also familiar items to anyone who has a science background. The firearms or tool marks...

Cycles Of Functioning

Cycles Function

The soldier must understand the rifle components and the mechanical sequence of events during the firing cycle. The eight cycles of functioning feeding, chambering, locking, firing, unlocking, extracting, ejecting, and cocking begin after the loaded magazine has been inserted in the weapon. a. Feeding Figure 4-3, page 4-4 . As the bolt carrier group moves rearward, it engages the buffer assembly and compresses the action spring into the lower receiver extension. When the bolt carrier group...

Difference Between Models

The M249 has been designated as two separate models, the Automatic Rifle AR and Light Machine Gun LMG . The basic M249 is the same for both versions. However during handoff, the LMG version is fielded with additional equipment as identified below. AR ROLE STD LIN M09009 - The AR role is to replace selected M16 rifles. The magazine cartridge NSN 1005-01-334-1507 100 round assault pack is included for the M249 AR model. LMG ROLE STD LIN M39263 - The LMG role is to replace selected M60 machine...

Detail of Breech Trigger Mechanism

Trigger Mechanism For Omega Cal

Assembly amp Disassembly Of The T C Omega Muzzleloader This T C Omega Muzzleloader has two 2 basic parts groups 1. The Barrel and Action Assembly. This assembly is held in the stock by two stock screws one is located about 1 in front of the trigger guard, and the other is approximately 4 ahead of the first. 2. The Stock Assembly - molded composite material or wood. Note The barrel and action assembly can be broken down further by removal of the trigger action assembly. This is recommended for a...

Dan Wesson Model W Revolver

Dan Wesson Model Spring Change

Illustrations By DENNIS RIORDAN Text By LUDWIG OLSON When viewed casually, the Dan Wesson Model W-12 cal. .357 Magnum revolver appears to be of conventional double-action, swing-out-cyl-inder design. It is unusual, however, in that its barrel can be quickly and easily interchanged with one of different length. The grip also can be readily interchanged with one of different shape and size. This versatile solid-frame revolver is produced by Dan Wesson Arms which was organized in 1968 at Monson,...

Gunshot Wounds of the Brain

Gunshot Injuries Mechanism

Gunshot wounds of the brain constitute approximately one-third of all fatal gunshot wounds. Wounds of the brain from centerfire rifles and shotguns are extremely devastating. Such injuries are described in Chapters 7 and 8. This section will deal with gunshot wounds of the brain caused by low-velocity weapons handguns and .22 rimfire rifles. When a bullet strikes the head, it punchesout acircular to oval woundof entrance in the skull, driving fragmentsof boneintothebrain. Thebone chips...

Section I Preparatory Marksmanship Training

Preparatory marksmanship training for the MK 19 covers the firing positions, the MK 19 fighting position, use of the T& E mechanism, and manipulation exercises. Thorough instruction during the preparatory training and exercises helps ensure efficient use of time and ammunition during range firing. Use the basic sitting, standing, and kneeling positions during training and range firing of the MK 19. a. Sitting. When the tripod is used in the low or high position, sit directly behind the gun...

Figure Grouping procedures

Eotech Zeroing Target

Shot grouping is a form of practice firing with two primary objectives firing tight shot groups and consistently placing those groups in the same location. Shot grouping should be conducted between dry-fire training and zeroing. The initial live-fire training should be a grouping exercise with the purpose of practicing and refining marksmanship fundamentals. Since this is not a zeroing exercise, few sight changes are made. Grouping exercises can be conducted anywhere...

Planning And Preparation Of A Sniper Mission

The purpose of this lesson plan is to ensure that all Special Warfare scout snipers pocess the ability to plan, prepare and carry out a assigned sniper mission. All aspects of planning and preparation of a sniper mission are contained in this lesson plan, from the sniper employment officer's responsibilities to the sniper team's responsibilities in planning, preparing, and executing a mission. A sniper patrol is always tailored for the mission it is to execute. 1. DEFINITION. A sniper...

Figure Zeroing procedures

M16a1 Wound

The purpose of battlesight zeroing is to align the sights with the weapon's barrel given standard issue ammunition. When this is accomplished correctly, the point of aim and point of impact are the same at a given range such as 250 meters for the M16A1 and 300 meters for the M16A2 A3 A4 and M4-series weapons. This sight setting provides the highest hit probability for most combat targets with minimum adjustment to the aiming point. 1 When standard zeroing procedures are followed, a properly...

Chapter Advanced Rifle Marksmanship Phase Iv of Basic Rifle Marksmanship

Alternate Prone Firing 7-2. Kneeling Supported Firing 7-3. Kneeling Unsupported Firing 7-4. Standing Firing 7-5. Modified Supported Firing 7-6. Urban Operations Firing 7-7. Modified Automatic and Burst Fire Section II. Combat Fire 7-8. Rapid Semiautomatic 7-9. Automatic or Burst 7-10. Suppressive 7-11. Quick Section III. Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical 7-12. MOPP Equipment Fire 7-13. NBC Dry-Fire and Live-Fire Section IV. Night Fire 7-14. Unassisted Night Fire...

Japanese Arisaka Model Mm Carbine

Type Stock Clean Arisaka

Few guns have been as maligned as the Japanese Model 1905 Type 38 cal. 6.5 mm. rifle. During the early stages of World War II, ill-informed observers were calling the gun a piece of junk. The 6.5 mm. cartridge was considered totally inadequate for military use. Few correspondents took the time to find out how good the gun and cartridge really were. The Arisaka is basically a modified Mauser. It was developed under the supervision of Col. Nariaki Arisaka, Superintendent of Tokyo Arsenal, and...

J C Higgins Model Rifle

Mossberg 935 Tube Supports

Higgins Model 33 slide-action rifle, introduced in 1955, is produced by the High Standard Mfg. Corp., Hamden, Conn., for sale by Sears, Roebuck amp Co. Of hammerless, tubular magazine construction, it shoots .22 long rifle, long, and short rimfire cartridges interchangeably, in both standard and high-velocity loadings. Magazine capacity is 25 short, 20 long, or 17 long rifle cartridges. The Model 33 weighs 5 lbs. 2 ozs. and has an over-all length of 4134. Barrel length is 23V . The...

Characteristics Of Fire

Trajectory Bmg Cal

The gunner's knowledge of his machine gun is not complete until he learns something of the action and effect of the projectiles when fired. This section discusses various characteristics of machine gun fire, including trajectory, cone of fire, and the beaten zone. a. Trajectory. The trajectory is the curved path of the projectile in its flight from the muzzle of the weapon to its impact. The major factors that influence the trajectory are the velocity of the round, gravity, rotation of the...

How To Make A Shotgun Barrel Dent Raiser

Shotgun Barrel Dent Raising Tool

Various methods which may be necessary in fitting a loose forearm. A shows tightening the forearm by straightening out the curve of the spring in the vise jaws. B shows curved spring type forearm being peened out to lengthen it. C shows a sliding-type forearm catch being lengthened by peening the end with a ball pien hammer. a little too long to fit, then reharden the spring and draw it to the proper temper, then file the end until it is the proper length to fit. The sliding-type fore-end catch...

Identifying the Use of a Sound Suppressor

Inertia Bullet Puller

Sometimes the backyard gunsmith does not fully accomplish his goal of converting a semiautomatic weapon to fully automatic, resulting in a weapon that will occasionally fire in the fully automatic mode. Actual test-firing is often the only way to confirm this. The firearms examiner can load two or three rounds initially and attempt to get the weapon to fire multiple rounds with one pull of the trigger. If this is unsuccessful, a full magazine may be used. By examining the internal workings of...

Alternate Qualification Courses

Units should conduct rifle qualification on a standard record fire range. Convenience and comfort should not be the prime consideration when choosing a range. The KD alternate course is used by all components of the active Army, US Army Reserve, and Army National Guard when a standard record fire range is not available. The 25-meter alternate course is used when neither a standard record fire nor a KD range is available for rifle qualification. Units are permitted to use the 15-meter scaled...

Czech commercial pistols

The Praga-Known as Praga Mod. 1921, this 6.35 mm. pistol is of the vestpocket type and was designed by Vaclav Holek for A. Nowotny who built the factory known as Zbrojovka Praga in 1918. Advertisements printed in 1922 state that the pistol was made in Vrsovice, a suburb of Prague. The pistols will be found to be marked ZBROJOVKA PRAGA PRAHA PATENT CAL. 6.35. Specimen No. 2599 the earliest seen by the author bears the date on the barrel 13-10-21, Specimen No. 3724 bears the date 18-10-21 and No....

How Many Rounds Does A Erma Luger 22 Hold

Luger Pistols Mechanisms

- Luger pistol is extremely popular JL with both collectors and shooters. For many years, there was a demand for a cal. .22 rimfire version of this pistol. and between the World Wars the Erma-Werkc in Germany introduced a .22 caliber Luger conversion unit. In 1964, Erma brought out a .22 pistol which has the same general appearance and size as the German Model 1908 9 mm. Luger. However, these pistols differ from each other mechanically and in several other respects. Chambered for the .22 long...

Remington Model Shotgun

Homemade The Shotgun Trigger And Hammer

Barrel lock nut stop plunger pin 7. Barrel lock nut stop plunger spring 8. Barrel lock nut stop plunger 21. Barrel lock compensator screw 25. Barrel adjusting bushing lock screw 26. Barrel adjusting bushing lockt 47. Trigger plate pin spring pin 50. Left cartridge stop plunger screw 52. Left cartridge stop plunger to other major part. t Parts No's. 16. 17. 26. 27. 28, 30 to be factory disassembled only. 65. Trigger lock shown 120' rotated for clarity The Remington Model 31 slide-action...

Armor Piercing Bullets

Armor-piercing AP ammunition has a projectile or projectile core constructed entirely from a combination of tungsten alloys, steel, iron, brass, bronze, beryllium copper, or depleted uranium. The most effective AP bullets are usually confined to rifle bullets, as velocity and range are important factors in AP requirements. Some revolver and pistol ammunition is described as metal piercing but, although it would be effective against vehicle bodywork and some body armor, it would be ineffective...

Bullet Hole In Clothing

Powder Tattooing Gun Shot Wound

Figure 12.4 Intermediate-range gunshot wound of chest from .22 Magnum revolver. Note the absence of powder on the outside of the clothing with powder tattooing of the underlying skin. by another, different conclusions may be reached as to the range from which the individual was shot. In view of these facts, one can see why examination of the clothing is part of the autopsy. This examination should be conducted not only with the naked eye but with the dissecting microscope. The presence of one...

Full Disassembly Trigger Group and Breech Bolt

Trigger Group Shotgun

NOTE All current production A-500 shotguns have an improved trigger group assembly. You can confirm this by the letter H' stamped on the trigger guard See Figure 10 . If your trigger guard does not have the letter H stamped on it then please contact our Browning Service Department toll tree at 1-800-322-4626 for information on how to get the improved trigger assembly installed on your A-500. If a malfunction occurs, or if the action becomes excessively dirty, it is advisable to disassemble the...

Assembly Disassembly Of The Thunder Hawk

This ThunderHawk has four 4 basic parts groups 1. The Barrel and Receiver Assembly - This assembly is held in the stock by two stock screws one is located about 1 in front of the trigger guard and the other is the rear trigger guard screw. 2. The Stock Assembly - Molded composite material or wood. 3. The Striker Assembly - The striker assembly is housed in the receiver, under spring tension. It is secured by the large receiver end cap at the rear end of the receiver. 4. The Trigger Assembly -...

Figure E Slow fire silhouette target

M16 Paper Qual Target

Nine rounds from a supported fighting position and nine rounds from a prone unsupported position. Placement of all 18 bullets also indicates that the firer's rifle zero may be too far to the right. With a better firing performance, sight adjustments can be made while using this target. The analysis procedures used on the zeroing target may be applied to shot groups on these silhouette targets. The shot-group center on each target indicates aiming techniques. The comparison between the targets...

Location And Discription Of Major Components

Trigger Housing Assembly For M240

A BARREL ASSEMBLY - Houses cartridge for firing and directs projectile. B BUFFER ASSEMBLY - Absorbs recoil of bolt and operating rod assembly at the end of recoil movement. C DRIVING SPRING ROD ASSEMBLY - Provides energy for returning bolt and operating rod assembly to firing position. D BOLT AND OPERATING ROD ASSEMBLY - Provides feeding, stripping, chambering, firing, extraction, and ejection of cartridges using the projectile propelling gas for power. E TRIGGER HOUSING ASSEMBLY - Controls the...

To Uncock Decock The Revolver

Revolver Eject Cartridges

If your revolver is cocked, and you wish to let the hammer down to its forward position against the frame , proceed as follows USE EXTREME CARE WHEN ATTEMPTING TO DECOCK THE REVOLVER, AS THE THUMB SLIPPING DURING THIS PROCESS CAN RESULT IN AN ACCIDENTAL DISCHARGE IF THE TRIGGER IS HELD TO THE REAR. 1. Make certain that the revolver is pointing in a safe direction See Rule 2, Page 39 . 2. Make certain both hands are dry and not impeded in any way - gloves, bandages, cold, etc. 3. Grasp the...

How To Check Smokeless Powder For Deterioration

Although modern smokeless powders contain stabilizers and are basically free from deterioration under proper storage conditions, safe practices require a recognition of the signs of deterioration and its possible effects. Deteriorating smokeless powders produce and acidic odor and may produce a reddish brown fume. Don't confuse this with common solvent odors such as alcohol, ether and acetone. Powder deterioration can be checked by opening the cap on the container and smelling the contents....

This Relatively Inexpensive Kit Can Create A Gold Or Silver Finish On Your Favorite Firearm

Dry Plating

The plating kits from Texas Platers are available in several models, ranging from the Gunsmiths' Special which can be used to plate several guns to kits for plating only one or two pistols. Illustrated are the components available for plating with copper, brass, silver, nickel or 23K gold. The more precious metals have become relatively expensive. Right In setting about replating this derringer, author made certain the rig was hooked up correctly to batteries. H53 W. FIVE-MRS PKWY. DAM-AS,...

Bullet performance and wounding capabilities

This is another of those subjects surrounded by myth and misinformation. In many ways, this is understandable as the number of factors influencing how a bullet reacts on entering a human body is so diverse as to make a scientific study of the subject virtually impossible. If the body were made uniformly from a material of constant density, it would be extremely simple to simulate the effects of a bullet. The body is, however, full of voids with a hard bone skeleton and is associated...

Centerfire Rifle Wounds

Star Shaped Gunshot Entrance Wound

Wounds from centerfire rifles may be classified as contact, intermediate, or distant. Contact wounds of the head are the most devastating, producing a bursting rupture of the head Figure 7.7 . Large irregular tears in the scalp radiate from the entrance site. Powder soot and searing are typically present at the entrance. Rarely, virtually no soot will be present. In some contact wounds of the head, the entrance may be difficult to locate because of the massive destruction. Large pieces of the...