Chapter Marksmanship Training M

Section I. INTRODUCTION

6-1. General

Marksmanship training is to teach the grenadier how to fire the grenade launcher and to prepare him mentally and physically to employ it in combat. His previous rifle marksmanship training provides a sound basis for training with the grenade launcher.

6-2. Elements of Marksmanship a. Marksmanship training with the grenade launcher develops skill in—

(1) Sighting, aiming, and sight manipulation.

<2) Position and rapid fire.

(8) Sensing and adjusting fire.

(4) Zeroing procedure.

(5) Range determination.

b. The skills learned from previous marksmanship training with other weapons are similar to those skills required for firing the grenade launcher. Proficiency in all skills listed above is essential and can only be attained by proper training.

Warning: Be sore the sling Is clear of the weapon muzzle prior to firing.

Section II. SIGHT, AIMING AND SIGHT MANIPULATION

6-3. Sighting a. Sighting consists of sight alinement and getting a sight picture.

(1) Sight alinement is the relationship between the front sight post and the rear sight aperture/sight leaf.

{a) Sight leaf (1, fig 6-1). If an imaginary horizontal line is drawn through the center of the rear sight leaf, the top of the front sight poet of the rifle will touch this line. If an imaginary ver-

M16a1 Pictures

(1) With light leaf. Figure 6-1. Correct sight alignment.

M203 Leaf Sight

(2) With quadrant sight Figure 9-1.—Continued.

(1) With light leaf. Figure 6-1. Correct sight alignment.

(2) With quadrant sight Figure 9-1.—Continued.

m 29-31

tic-al line iB drawn through the center of the rear sight, the line will cut the front sight post in half.

(6) Quadrant sight (2, fig S-l). If an imaginary horizontal line is drawn through the center of the rear sight aperture, the top of the front sight post will touch this line. If an imaginary vertical line ia drawn through the center of the rear sight aperture, the line will cut the front sight post in half.

(2) Getting the sight picture includes sight alinement and placement of the aiming point. To get a correct sight picture, aline the sights as described above, and position the top edge of the front sight post on the center of the target.

b. Sight alinement is more important than sight picture. An error in sight alinement results in a miss that becomes proportionately greater as the range to the target increases, whereas an error in sight picture will remain constant at all ranges.

6-4. Aiming a. Initially, the flrer should get correct sight alinement and then shift hia focus to the target and get a correct sight picture. As he presses the trigger the firer continues this shifting of the focus of his eye. With practice these steps become a continuous automatic process.

b. Controlled breathing is an essential element of marksmanship. When firing the grenade launcher the grenadier must practice controlled breathing just as he would when firing the rifle.

6-5. Sight Manipulation a. Sight manipulation is the procedure of placing the quadrant sight in the proper position for firing and placing the proper range setting on the sight to engage the target. Since the sight leaf is a fixed ladder-type sight, sight manipulation is done only during zeroing procedures.

b. The purpose of a aight manipulation exercise with the quadrant aight is to teach the grenadier to place the rear sight at the proper index mark on the elevation scale accurately and quickly. The sight manipulation exercise is conducted as follows:

(1) The exercise ia performed firat from the prone position but should be repeated in all other positions as proficiency increaaes. The exercise may be performed on a range or any other suitable training area.

(2) The rear sight is set initially at 200 meters elevation. This allows maximum sight adjustments either up or down. For this exerciae, use three elements of a standard fire command. The instructor gives the direction to the target—identifies the target—and gives a range (e.g. right front—troops—300). The range element is the command of execution. On the command of execution:

(а) The firer moves the sight arm along the range quadrant until it is alined with the proper index mark (300), takes the firing position, aims at the target, and calls "UP."

(б) The assistant instructor checks to see that the proper setting is on the sight. If an error exists, the flrer is required to make corrections.

(c) The assistant instructor then resets the quadrant sight arm at 200 meters elevation. He raises his hand to signify that the grenadier is ready for another command from the instructor.

Section III. POSITIONS AND RAPID FIRE

6-6. General a. The most commonly used firing positions are the prone, kneeling, foxhole, and standing positions. Supported positions add stability to the weapon and should be used whenever possible; however, the grenadier must insure that no part of the launcher touches the support. The employment considerations, methods of indirect fire, and modifications to firing positions described in chapter 12 for the M79 may also be used with the M208. The grenadier takes the various firing positions with the M208 in the same way as with the

M16A1 rifle (FM 28-9), except that the spot weld is not used with either the sight leaf or quadrant sight.

Warning: Be sure the iliog is clear of the weapon muzzle prior to firing.

There are two methods for holding the weapon:

(1) The left hand grips the magazine of the M16A1 rifle with the left index finger positioned in the trigger guard of the M203 while the right hand grips the pistol grip of the M16A1 rifle.

(2) The right hand grips the magazine of the M16A1 rifle with the right index finger positioned in the trigger guard of the M208 while the left hand grasps the hand grip of the barrel assembly.

c. At ranges up to 150 meters, the grenadier can fire from the shoulder in the normal manner from all positions using the sight leaf or the quadrant sight. However, in order to maintain sight aline-ment at ranges greater than 150 meters he must make the following adjustments:

(1) Use the quadrant sight at ranges in excess of 250 meters.

(2) In the modified prone position, the position of the butt of the rifle stock depends on the configuration of the grenadier's body, and position of the grenadier's hands on the weapon, and the range to the target.

(3) In other firing positions, lower the stock to an underarm position in order to maintain sight alinement.

6-7. Prone Position and Modified Prone Position

а. The prone position is a steady position, easy to take and excellent for initial training. It presents a low silhouette and is comfortable for long periods (fig 6-2).

б. To take the prone position, stand facing the target with the butt of the rifle resting against the right hip, the right hand grasping the rifle pistol grip and the left hand on the hand grip. Spread the feet a comfortable distance apart, shift the weight slightly to the rear, and drop to the knees. Remove the right hand from the weapon, fall forward breaking the fall with the right hand well forward and on line with the right knee and the target. Using the left hand to support the weapon, roll over on the left side and elbow. Place the butt of the rifle into the pocket of the right shoulder. Grasp the rifle's pistol grip with the right hand and lower the right elbow to the ground so that the shoulders are level. This insures that the weight of the body is behind the weapon so that the firer can recover quickly after each round is fired. Grasp the magazine of the rifle with the left hand. The upper body is straight, and the legs are spread a comfortable distance apart. The toes are pointing outward and the ankles are relaxed so that the heels will rest on the ground if possible. The weight of the upper body is relaxed forward onto the left arm.

c. In the modified prone position, the placement of the butt of the rifle stock depends on the configuration of the grenadier's body, and the position of the grenadier's hands on the weapon for ranges greater than 150 meters.

d. Use the quadrant sight at ranges in excess of 200 meters.

6-8. Kneeling Position o. The kneeling position is particularly good on level ground or ground that slopes upward towards the target (fig 6-3).

b. For the kneeling position, stand facing the target with the left hand on the handgrip and the right hand grasping the rifle pistol grip. Face right and place the left foot about 18 inches to the left front with toe pointing in the general direction of the target. Kneel on the right knee keeping the right toe in place. Sit with the right buttock on the right heel. Place the left elbow forward of the left knee, resting the flat portion of the upper arm on the knee. Move the rifle butt into the pocket of the right shoulder keeping the right hand on the rifle pistol grip. Place the left hand on the rifle magazine with left forefinger in

Prone Sniper Black And White Silhouette
Fíqum Prone petition.
Marksmanship Sniping Position

Figure 6-3. Kneeling position.

launcher trigger guard. Pull the rifle well into the shoulder. The right elbow is pulled in close to the body so as to apply rearward pressure to the weapon. The leg completes a solid, three-point base for the position.

6—9. Sitting Position

The sitting position is especially suitable for use on ground which slopes downward to the target. It may be used when the firer's view of the target is obscured. Three variations of the sitting position are described below. Use the variation which best suits you.

a. To take the open-legged sitting position, face the target, face half right and spread the feet wide apart (fig 6-4). Sit down breaking the fall with the right hand, and slide the buttocks well to the rear. Grasp the rifle magazine with the left hand. Bend forward from the hips and rest the left upper arm against the inside portion of the left knee. Move the butt of the rifle into the pocket of the right shoulder keeping the right hand on the rifle pistol grip. Rest the right elbow on the inside of the right knee. Pull down slightly with the left hand and pull to the rear firmly with the right hand.

b. To take the cross-ankled sitting position, face the target, face half-right, and sit down. With legs extended from the body, cross the left ankle over the right ankle. Keep both ankles straight. Grasp the rifle magazine with the left hand. Place the left upper arm across the left knee. Move the butt of the rifle into the pocket of the right shoulder. Lower the right elbow so that the upper right arm is in contact with the right knee. This position can be adjusted by varying the distance the legs are extended (fig 6-5).

c. To take the cross-legged position, face the target, face half-right, and sit down. Cross the left leg over the right leg and draw both feet close to the body. Grasp the rifle magazine with the left hand. Place the left upper arm against the left knee. Move the butt of the stock into the pocket of the right shoulder and take the proper grip on the pistol grip. Lower the right elbow so that the right upper arm is against the right knee (fig 6-6).

6—10. Squatting Position a. The squatting position is good when firing from mud, shallow water, or contaminated areas because only the feet are in contact with the ground. It is best used on level ground or on ground which slopes downward (fig 6-7).

b. To take the squatting position, face the target and face half right. Spread the feet a comfortable distance apart and squat as low as possible, keeping both feet flat on the ground. Grasp the rifle magazine with the left hand. Place the left upper arm inside the left knee, the butt of the

Inside The M60 Machine Gun

Figure 6-i. Open-legged sitting position.

Proper Grip Hand Grenade

Figure 6-5. Croes-ankled sitting position.

stock into the pocket of the right shoulder, and take a proper grip on the pistol grip. Lower the right elbow so that it is against the inside of the right knee.

6-11. Foxhole Position a. Use the foxhole position when prepared positions are available.

b. For the foxhole position, place the right foot against the rear of the foxhole and lean forward until the chest is against the forward edge of the foxhole (fig 6-8). Grasp the rifle magazine with the left hand. Place the left elbow on or against solid support. With the right hand position the butt of the stock in the pocket of the shoulder and take a proper grip on the pistol grip. Place the right elbow on or against a solid support and relax into a comfortable firing position. Do not permit the weapon to touch the support.

6-12. Standing Position a. The standing position is normally used when engaging targets at ranges of less than 100 meters. It is the position for engaging surprise targets while moving.

b. To take the standing position, face the target, face half right, and spread the feet a comfortable distance apart (fig 6-9). With the right hand on the pistol grip of the rifle and the left hand on the rifle magazine, place the butt of the stock into the pocket of the shoulder so that the sight is level with the eyes. Hold the right elbow high to form a good pocket for the butt of the stock and to permit a strong rearward pressure with the right

Service Rifle Pistol And Marksmanship

Figure 6-6. Crow-legged sitting position»

hand. Hold moat of the weight of the weapon with the left hand. Shift the feet until a natural aiming stance is attained.

6-13. Rapid Fire a. Rapid fire is a series of aimed rounds launched as fast as the grenadier can get a sight picture, control the trigger, and reload the weapon. Accuracy in rapid fire, as in slow fire, requires a steady aim, a good position, and proper trigger control.

b. In rapid fire training the firer is required to take positions and reload rapidly. The actions are included in two exercises which are described below for the prone position.

(1) Rapid fire position exercise. This exercise consists of taking the prone position and launching the first grenade in 10 seconds at a preselected target at a known range. The grenadier first takes the prone position. He checks to see that he is aiming naturally at his target. The assistant instructor checks the position to see that it is correct. The grenadier marks the location of his elbows on the ground, rises, keeping his feet in place, and stands ready with the butt of the rifle resting against the right hip, the right hand grasping the rifle pistol grip and the left hand on the handgrip. On command the firer again takes the prone position, breaking his fall with his right hand. He quickly but carefully places his elbow on their marks. He then completes the position, aims at his target, and simulates launching the firBt round.

(2) Rapid fire reloading exercise.

(a) This exercise consists of reloading quickly and smoothly. In 10 seconds the grenadier is required to remove a cartridge case from the launcher, take a dummy round or cartridge case,

Sniper Squat Position
Figure 6-7. Squatting position.

6. CEASE FIRING.

At the command FIRE the grenadier simulates launching the first grenade by pulling the trigger, opens the breech, reloads, and simulates launching the second grenade. The command CEASE FIRING is given 13 seconds after the command FIRE.

c. These exercises are repeated in the same way from all positions until proficiency is attained.

Note. Either dummy rounda or empty cartridge cases may be used for this exercise. Live practice or high explosive ammunition is never used for rapid fire training except on the grenade range during range firing. A recommended method for constructing dummy rounds is to use expanded cartridge cases and wooden plug inserts shaped to the configuration of the projectile. This provides a load it into the launcher, reassume his position, and simulate launching one round.

(b) Before starting the exercise, the grenadier loads a dummy round or empty cartridge case into the launcher. The bandoleer should be so located that the grenadier has easy access to his ammunition. He then takes the prone position and takes natural aim at the target. The assistant instructor also checks to see that the position is correct.

(c) The exercise is executed on the following commands:

t. GRENADIER IN POSITION.

2. AIM AT YOUR TARGET.

S. RELOADING EXERCISE.

A. YOU HAVE 10 SECONDS.

Correct Aim Sights Images

Figure 6-8. Foxhole position, satisfactory training aid for marksmanship exercises. If expended cartridge eases are not available, the dummy round may be fashioned from wood or some other suitable material.

6-14. Pointing Techniques a. Use the pointing technique to deliver a high rate of HE fire when pinpoint accuracy is not required. Although the sights are not used in the pointing technique, the grenadier must first be proficient in sighting and aiming using the sight leaf and quadrant sight. He uses a modified underarm firing position (FM 23-9), enabling him to use his left hand for rapid reloading. Although the pointing technique can be used by modifying any standard firing position, it is to be used during the assault.

b. To use the pointing technique, bring the weapon to a modified underarm firing position (fig 6-10). With both eyes open, concentrate your vision on the target keeping the flash suppressor of the RIFLE in the lower part of the field of view. Point the flash suppressor of the RIFLE at the target and sense the elevation of the weapon system with respect to the range to the target. To make corrections in elevation and deflection sense the impact of the round and make appropriate changes in the attitude of the weapon system.

Rollover Kneeling Position Shooting

Figure 6-9. Standing position.

M16a1 Mark
Figure 0-10. Modified underarm, firing position.

Section IV. SENSING AND ADJUSTMENT OF FIRE

6-15. General

If a first round hit is not made, determine where the grenade landed in relation to the target (sen sing) and make the required adjustments in elevation and deflection to bring the next grenade on target (adjustment of fire).

6-16. Sensing a. Sensing is an instantaneous determination by the grenadier as to where the grenade explodes with respect to the target. Sensings are made in both range and deviation to the nearest 5 meters since the casualty radius of the HE round is 5 meters.

b. Range sensings are made as SHORT, OVER, TARGET, RANGE CORRECT, or DOUBTFUL. If the grenade bursts between the grenadier and target, it is sensed as SHORT. If the burst is beyond the target, it is sensed as OVER. If the grenade hits any portion of the target, it is sensed as TARGET; The burst is sensed as RANGE CORRECT when the grenade ia slightly left or right of the target, but at the correct range. If the grenade is left or right and the grenadier cannot make a positive range sensing the round is sensed as DOUBTFUL.

c. Deviation sensings are RIGHT, LEFT, or LINE.

6-17. Adjustment of Fire a. Adjustment of fire is the action taken by the grenadier using sensing, sight manipulation, using an adjusted aiming point to insure a second round hit.

b. When using the sight leaf the grenadier simply changes his sight alinement or uses an adjusted aiming point.

c. If the first grenade impacts more, than 25 meters over or short of the target, adjust the range quadrant to bring the next grenade on target. If the grenade explodes less than 25 meters from the target, adjust the point of aim to bring the next grenade on target. If the launcher is properly zeroed, deviation errors will be small and can easily be corrected by the use of an adjusted aiming point. Deviation errors will become a problem only when there' is' Sufficient wind to move the grenade out of its normal trajectory. After observing the effect of the wind on the strike of the grenade^ use an - adjusted aiming point by aiming into the wind to bring the next grenade on target For example, if the grenade bursts to the left and short of the target, sense the strike of the round in relation to the target, then adjust an equivalent distance to the right and over the target In order to achieve a tatget hit. Grenadiers should be tatfght to visually follow the flight of the grenade to. the target. This will aid in determining the effect of the wind on the grenade as it moves toward the target. If a grenadier is able to evaluate the wind and compensate for it before firing his first round» his ability to achieve a first round hit is increased.

Section V. ZEROING PROCEDURE 6-18. General

A correct zero is that sight setting in elevation and windage which will enable the grenadier to hit his point of aim at a given range. To get this zero, the grenadier engages a target at 200 meters.

6-19. Sight Leaf Zeroing a. Select a target at 200 meters. The 50 meter mark on the sight leaf is marked in red to emphasize that this range is not to be used in zeroing procedures.

b. Place the sight leaf in upright position.

c. Place the center mark of the windage scale on < the index line on the rear of the sight base.

d. Loosen the elevation adjustment screw on the sight leaf and place the index line of the sight leaf on the center elevation mark on the sight mount,

AND RANGE DETERMINATION

e. Tighten elevation adjustment screw on the sight leaf. ■'«>'• .

/. Take a supported prone p<Qait)on.

g. Aline target with the 200 meter range increment of the sight leaf and the front post sight of the rifle. . •

h. Fire a round, sense the impact of the grenade, and make necessary sight adjustment.

' . (I) Turn sight windage screw clockwise to move the sight leaf to the left. One increment equals 1 Yz meters at 200 meters range.

(2) Raising sight leaf increases range and lowering decreases range. One increment equals 10 meters at 200 meters range.

(3) The rim of a 40-mm cartridge case may be used to turn the elevation adjustment machine screw.

i. Fire two more cartridges and make necessary adjustments after each round. If the last round has landed within 6 meters of the target the weapon is zeroed.

6-20. Quadrant Sight Zeroing

а. Select a target at 200 meters.

б. Insure that the sight is correctly mounted on the carrying handle of the rifle, c. Move the front sight post and rear Bight aperture from the closed to open position.

<1) Depress the rear sight retainer, slide the rear sight aperture to the left until the white index line of the rear sight aperture is alined with the edge of the sight aperture arm.

(2) Move the front sight post to its highest position and then back off 2V& turns.

d. Move sight latch rearward and reposition quadrant sight arm to zeroing range (200 meters).

e. Take a supported prone position.

f. Aline target with the front and rear sights using correct sighting and aiming procedure.

g. Fire round, sense the impact of the grenade, and make sight adjustment

(1) For elevation adjustment, turn front sight post to the right to decrease elevation and to the left to increase elevation. One full turn equals 5 meters at 200 meters,

(2) For windage adjustment, press sight aperture retainer and move rear sight aperture away from barrel to move trajectory of the projectile to the left. Move rear sight aperture toward barrel to move trajectory to the right. One notch on the rear sight aperture equals lVfe meters at 200 meters.

k. Fire two more cartridges and make necessary adjustments after each round. If the last round has landed within 5 meters of the target the weapon is 2eroed.

6-21. Rang» Determination a. The ability of the grenadier to successfully engage targets with first round hits and to adj UBt and shift fire, depends upon his ability to determine ranges. Since the grenadier cannot usually see all of the terrain between himself and the target he uses the appearance of objects method to determine range.

When using the appearance of objects method for range determination, remember to make allowances for the following effects:

(1) Objects seem nearer when—

{a) They are in bright light.

(b) Their color contrasts sharply with the background.

(c) Looking over water, snow, desert, or a uniform surface like a wheat field.

(rf) Looking from high ground to lower ground.

(e) In the clear atmosphere of high altitudes.

</} Looking over a depression, most of which is hidden.

(fir) Looking down a straight road or railroad track.

(2) Objects seem more distant when—

(а) Looking over a depression, most of which is visible.

(c) Only a small part of the object can be seen,

<d) Looking from low ground toward higher ground.

c. For a detailed coverage of range determination training see FM 28-71 and FM 23-12.

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Responses

  • INES
    What is the proper placement of has when firing the m203?
    8 years ago
  • Pauli
    What is Grenade Range Training?
    8 years ago

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