Tm 9-1010-221-14

Grenade Launcher Sling
AfwiJi-J. Comei rtrAt aUmmmt,
M203 40mm Grenade Launcher
Figure US. Correct tight picture.

most commonly used firing positions are the prone, kneeling, foxhole, and standing positions. Supported positions add stability to the weapon and should be used when possible. The grenadier takes the various firing positions in the same way as with the service rifle (FM 28-9), with the following exceptions:

(1) Hold the thumb of the right hand against the right side of the stock. The safety may injure the thumb when the launcher recoils if the thumb is placed over the top of the small of the stock.

(2) The spot weld is not attained.

The following points are common to all positions. Check for them when training the grenadier.

(1) The launcher should rest in the V formed by the thumb and forefinger of the left hand across the heel of the hand.

(2) The fingers of the left hand are relaxed. The hand is placed so that it will not be pinched by the upper-sling swivel.

(8) The left wrist is straight with the left thumb resting against the fore-end assembly and not on the rear sight base. If the thumb is placed near the rear sight base, injury to the thumb may result

(4) The left elbow is under the launcher.

(5) The right elbow is positioned far enough to the right to level the shoulders and far enough forward to form a good pocket for the butt of the launcher.

(6) The thumb of the right hand rests along the side of the stock. Do not place the thumb over the top of the small of the stock as the safety may injure it when the launcher recoils.

(7) The trigger finger is placed on the trigger so that there is no contact between the finger and the side of the stock.

(8) The grenadier must be relaxed in all firing positions.

c. At ranges less than 150 meters, the grenadier is able to fire from the shoulder in the normal manner from all positions. However, in order to maintain sight alinement as range to the target increases, he must adjust as follows:

(1) Lower the position of the stock on the shoulder or drop the butt from the shoulder to maintain sight alinement. At near maximum ranges the stock will be positioned between the waist and the armpit and held firmly into the body by the upper arm. In the prone position the butt of the launcher will rest on the ground once the stock is no longer against the shoulder.

(2) As contact between the cheek and the stock is broken, care must be taken to keep the head level. Figure 11-3 illustrates the changes which take place as the range-to-target increases.

d. Use the pointing technique to deliver a high rate of HE fire when pinpoint accuracy is not required (fig 11-4). Although the sights are not used in the pointing technique, the grenadier must first become proficient in sighting and aiming. The grenadier uses a modified underarm firing position, enabling him to use his left hand for rapid reloading. Although the pointing technique can be used by modifying any of the standard firing positions, it is most frequently used during the assault.

e. To employ the pointing technique use a modified underarm firing position. With both eyes open, concentrate your vision on the target keeping the muzzle of the launcher in the lower part of the field of view. Point the muzzle at the target and sense the elevation of the launcher with respect to the range to the target. To make corrections in elevation and deflection sense the impact of the round and make proper changes in the attitude of the launcher.

M79 Grenade Launcher Sight

CLOSE RANGE

LINEOF SIGHT

LONG RANGE

Figure IIS. The effect of increasing range.

Garand Thumb
Figure 11-4. Pointing technique.

11-4. Zeroing Procedure

The correct zero of the grenade launcher is that sight Betting of elevation and windage which will enable the flrer to hit his point of aim at a given range. To get a zero, the grenadier engage« a target 200 meters from the weapon position. Use a 200 meter range because this is the mid-range capability of the weapon and allows for maximum changes in elevation. Zero the M79 in the following sequence (fig &-7):

a. Place the center index line of the rear sight on the center mark of the windage scale.

b. Unlock the elevation scale by turning the elevation scale lock screw counterclockwise. Position the top of the elevation scale flush with the top of the sight frame. Lock the elevation scale.

c. Unlock the rear sight carrier by turning the rear sight carrier retainer locknut, push it in, and slide the sight carrier along the elevation scale until the 200 meter index mark on the elevation Bcale is alined with the top edge of the sight carrier. Lock the rear sight carrier in position.

d. Take a prone supported position and aline the target with the front and rear sights using correct sighting and aiming procedure.

e. Fire a round, sense the impact of the grenade, and make sight adjustment.

(1) For elevation adjustment, turn the elevation screw wheel clockwise to increase (or counterclockwise to decrease) the range. One click on the elevation screw wheel moves the impact of the grenade 2% meters at a range of 200 meters.

(2) For windage adjustment, turn the windage knob clockwise to move the impact of the grenade to the right One click of the windage knob moves the impact of the grenade about 11 inches at a range of 200 meters.

/. Fire two more rounds and make necessary adjustments after each round. If the last round has landed within 5 meters of the target, the weapon is zeroed.

g. After the zero has been confirmed, insure that the elevation scale is moved so that the 200 meter index line is flush with the top of the sight carrier.

CHAPTER 12 INDIRECT-FIRE ROLE, M79

200 meters 69* 21% inches

300 meters 58* 19% inches

400 meters 41* 18% inches

Modified Kneeling Position Reference

Figure 12-1. Kneeling position using marked sling method.

12-1. General a. This chapter describes the use of the 40-mm grenade launcher, M79, in the indirect-fire role. Although the M79 is designed for direct fire, it can fire indirect-fire as an expedient means of placing high explosive fragmentation fire on area targets which cannot be observed.

b. By massing the indirect fire of several M79s, the small unit leader has organic firepower with which to suppress fire when the enemy's position is screened by vegetation, in defilade, or located on a steep slope above the friendly unit. During periods of limited visibility this fire can supplement the indirect fires of other weapons supporting the unit

12-2. Employment Considerations a. Employment. When using the M79 for indi-rect-fire, its accuracy is limited. Range adjustment can be made in 25-meter increments to the maximum range of about 400 meters.

b. Sighting System. The sighting system for the M79 is graduated up to 375 meters which corresponds to a 32° quadrant elevation. However, the rear sight carrier can be raised higher so that a maximum quadrant elevation of 40° is possible. At elevations greater than 40°, where the rear sight cannot be used, the range will decrease as the angle of elevation is increased.

c. Adjustments for Elevation and Deflection.

(1) Indirect fires with the M79 are adjusted by moving the barrel slightly for elevation or deflection to bring succeeding rounds nearer the target.

(2) Deflection is attained by sighting over or along the side of the barrel at an aiming point. When opportune, an aiming stake should be used. If time permits, greater accuracy can be attained by placing a string or straight stick on the ground in the direction of an aiming point or stake.

(3) The correct elevation is achieved by estimating the range to the target and moving the barrel either up or down. Table 12-1 (Range Estimate/Elevation) is a guide for setting the proper elevation on the weapon:

Table 12-1. Range Estimate/Elevation

Range Elevation Distance from iront sling swivel to ground

200 meters 69* 21% inches

300 meters 58* 19% inches

400 meters 41* 18% inches

Figure 12-1. Kneeling position using marked sling method.

d. Ammunition.

(1) If available, use the cartridge, 40-mm practice, M407, for training and zeroing. On impact, it emits a puff of yellow smoke which aids the grenadier in adjusting his fire. The possibility of a training injury is greatly reduced by using this round, as there is very little fragmentation.

(2) Ammunition should be conserved in both training and combat.

(3) The projectile takes nearly twice as much time to reach its target when fired indirect. Therefore, wind, snow, or rain may cause the projectile to deviate from its normal trajectory.

(a) Before firing, the grenadier should evaluate the wind and compensate for it, whether it is a cross wind or blowing on the same axis as the grenade. This evaluation (Kentucky windage) will increase his chances of getting a first round hit and reduce the chances of a round impacting closer than desired.

(b) Use caution when a wind 5 miles per hour or greater is coming from the direction of the target. This wind condition must be considered when firing at all ranges and especially when firing at the minimum range of 200 meters.

(1) The responsibility for the use of indirect fire with the M79 should be delegated to the squad leader. The methods of fire control used should be prescribed in the squad SOP. This SOP should state that the grenadiers will not fire indirect fire without specific command.

M79 Indirect Fire

Figure 12-2. Sitting position for indirect fire.

(2) The fire commanda used with indirect fire are the same as direct fire except for the method of fire. The squad leader must designate the target, range, and method of employment. An example of a fire command to use when employing indirect fire is—

SQUAD FRONT

LINE OF RIFLEMEN THREE HUNDRED GRENADIERS, INDIRECT FIRE THREE ROUNDS

(3) An observer may be used when using the M79 for indirect-fire if the grenadier cannot observe the target.

(4) Fire for effect with the M79 should always be three to five rounds depending on the nature of the target,

12-3. Firing Positions

The positions for indirect-fire with the M79 are kneeling, sitting, or squatting.

a. Kneeling (fig 12-1). The kneeling position can be used with any of the three methods of fire described in paragraph 12-4. A modified kneeling position is the most comfortable. Face the target and kneel on the right knee (if firing right-handed), keeping the left foot pointed in the direction of the target. Sit on the right heel and place the left elbow outside the left knee. Place the butt of the stock on the ground against or along the side of the right knee. Grasp the launcher near the upper sling swivel with the left hand and by the small of the stock with the right hand. The right thumb should be against the right side of the stock, parallel to the trigger finger. The weight of the body should rest on the right heel.

b. Sitting (fig 12-2). The sitting position is identical to the direct fire sitting position except for the following variations: keep the right leg flat on the ground and pointed at the target, cross the left leg over the knee so that the left knee will support the left elbow, and place the butt of the stock along-side the right hip. The weapon is held as described in a above. The sitting position can be used with the aiming stakes or Ml5 sight methods.

c. Squatting (fig 12-3). The squatting position is identical to the direct fire modified squatting position except for one variation; the M79 is

Figure 12-3. Squatting position for indirect fire.

placed between the knees with the butt of the stock on the ground. The launcher is held as described in a above. The squatting position can be used with the aiming stakes or Mlo sight methods, although it is the least comfortable of the positions when held for any length of time.

12-4. Methods of Indirect Fire (fig 12-1)

a. The marked-sling method is the best field expedient to use with the M79. To use this method, loosen the sling, take a kneeling position, and place the forward foot in the sling. Before firing, insure that the sling, between the front sling swivel and the boot, is taut and vertical. If not, the rounds will impact at a greater range than desired. An easy way to check is by tying a string or thread to a weight, such as a cartridge case, and letting it hang from the front sling swivel. Then aline the edge of the sling with the string or thread to insure that the sling is vertical. Fire several rounds to determine the desired

40mm Grenade Ammo

f mi range. Then mark the sling, where it is held to the ground by the foot, with tape, paint, ink, or a similar material. The position of the sling keeper and buckle must also be marked so if either is moved the grenadier can return them to their original positions and be assured of constant range accuracy. Remember that the sling may stretch or shrink if it gets wet, indirectly causing the rounds to impact closer or farther than desired.

b. Preplanned indirect fire can be delivered with the M79 using aiming stakes (fig 12-4). The aiming stakes must be placed and their alinement verified during daylight. Preplanned fires should be recorded on a range card or sector sketch. The fore-end assembly of the weapon is placed on top of an elevation support. A slight depression is scooped out of the ground for the toe of the weapon's stock. Adjust the weapon for the range de-Bired and then drive a stake into the ground behind the toe of the weapon's stock to absorb and prevent the weapon from digging into the ground. Place two deflection stakes behind the front elevation support to control lateral movement of the barrel. Place another elevation support beneath the stock of the weapon and two additional deflection stakes behind this support, but closer to gether than the two front stakes, to control lateral movement of the stock.

c. The most accurate way to fire the M79 for indirect fire is with an M15 rifle grenade sight fitted to the weapon's stock (fig 12-5). The M15 rifle grenade sight consists of a mounting scale plate and a sight bar assembly. The mounting plate is attached to the side of the stock of the launcher by two short wood screws. (Insure that the screws do not protrude through the stock or disassembly of the weapon will be a problem.) When the weapon is in a horizontal position, the mounting plate should be positioned so that the two screw holes are vertical. The holes in the stock should be predrilled if possible, to prevent cracking the wood. When the Ml 5 sight is attached to the M79, the degree scale on the mounting plate is not used. A short piece of masking tape can be placed on the stock above the mounts ing plate. The grenadier adjusts his fires until the rounds impact at the desired range. After the sight setting has been determined, the grenadier can draw a line along the top of the sight bar on the tape. Each line should be labeled for the appropriate range. Indirect-Are sighting and aiming with the M16 sight consists of the following three

DEFLECTION STAKES

GRENADE LAUNCHER

DEFLECTION STAKES

GRENADE LAUNCHER

40mm Grenade Hit

RECOIL STAKE

ELEVATION SUPPORT

Figure 1S-4. Preplanned fire* using aiming t takes.

RECOIL STAKE

ELEVATION SUPPORT

Figure 1S-4. Preplanned fire* using aiming t takes.

m ib rifle «rinan siqnt m ib rifle «rinan siqnt

Gun With Duct Taped Grenade LauncherM203 Trajectory

Figure 1$S. M79 %oiih MIS rifle grenade eight.

steps: adjusting the sight, alining the launcher for deflection, and centering the leveling bubble.

(1) Adjusting the eight. By firing several rounds during zeroing, the grenadier can determine -what elevation graduation is required on the M16 sight to cause the round to impact at a given range. This graduation can be marked on the Btock for quick reference.

(2) Alining the launcher for deflection. Take a correct firing position and sight over or along the barrel. Move the launcher so that the barrel is alined toward the target.

(3) Centering the leveling bubble. Raise or lower the muzzle of the launcher until the leveling bubble is centered in its vial. Insure that the weapon is not canted; this can cause the grenadier to miss his area target.

(4) Determining the angle of elevation. If enough light is available, the Ml6 sight will provide a quick easy method for determining the proper angle of elevation.

12-5. Safety Precautions a. The grenadier must keep his head behind and below the muzzle of the launcher when firing.

b. Be cautious, and insure overhead clearance when firing indirect fire. Remember that the M406 40-mm cartridge arms itself 14 to 28 meters from the muzzle of the launcher.

c. Absolutely no rounds should be fired at less than 200 meters.

d. These safety precautions are in addition to those in AR 886-63, and local range regulations.

APPENDIX A REFERENCES

AR 385-68

Regulations for Firing Ammunition for Training, Target Practice, and

Combat.

ASubjScd 7-2

Rifle Squad Tactical Training.

ASubjScd 7-llB(C)(H)10

MOS Technical Training of Light Weapons Infantryman, Infantry In

direct Fire Crewman, and Infantry Direct Fire Crewman.

ATP 7-16

Headquarters and Headquarters Company, Infantry, Airborne Infantry,

and Mechanized Infantry Battalions.

ATP 7-18

Rifle Company, Infantry, Airborne, Airmobile and Light Infantry Bat

talions.

CTA 23-100-1

Ammunition, Rockets, and Missiles for Basic and Advanced Individual

Training (by MOS).

DA Form 2946

Scorecard for 40-mm Grenade Launcher, M79.

DA Pam 108-1

Index of Army Films, Transparencies, GTA Charts and Recordings.

FM 5-25

Explosives and Demolitions.

FM 21-75

Combat Training of the Individual Soldier and Patrolling.

FM 23-8

US Rifle 7.62-mm, M14 and M14A1.

FM 23-9

US Rifle 5.56-mm, M16A1.

FM 23-12 •

Technique of Fire of the Rifle Squad and Tactical Application.

FM 23-30

Grenades and Pyrotechnic Signals.

FM 23-71

Rifle Marksmanship.

TF 9-3292

Grenade Launcher, M79, Operation, Disassembly and Assembly (15 min).

TM 9-1010-205-12

Operator and Organizational Maintenance Manual: 40-mm Grenade

Launcher, M79.

TM 9-1010-205-24P

Combined Organizational, DS, GS, and Repair Parts and Special Tools

List for Launcher, Grenade, 40-mm : M79.

TM 9-1010-221-14

Operator's, Organizational DS and GS Maintenance Manual: 40-mm Gre

nade Launcher, M203.

TM 9-1300-206

Care, Handling, Preservation and Destruction of Ammunition.

TM 9-1300-200

Ammunition, General.

TM 9-6920-210-14

Operator, Organizational, Direct Support and General Support Mainte

nance Manual Including Basic Issue Items List and Repair Parts List:

Small Arms Targets and Target Material.

TV Tape—FP 175

Review of M79 Grenade Launcher.

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Responses

  • Columbus
    How to make a m79 wood stock?
    7 years ago
  • diamanda
    What did the m79 and m203 fire?
    6 years ago
  • belba goodchild
    How to make a grenade launcher?
    5 years ago
  • Neva
    What grenade launche is ised in basic training?
    1 year ago

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