Government

Trapdoor Springfield & Ruger, Marlin, Sharps, Winchester

The result of a quite rigorous test program, the .45-70 Government cartridge was adopted by the U.S. Military in 1873 for use in the new single shot "trapdoor" Springfield rifle. It continued to be the official service cartridge for 19 years until it was replaced by the .30-40 Krag. It also became a popular cartridge for sporting use and many repeating and single-shot rifles were chambered for it.

Reportedly, some National Guard Units were armed with .45-70 caliber Springfields, as late as 1940. American firearms companies stopped chambering for the .45-70 in the mid 1930s. However, the .45-70 refused to die. It has, in fact, staged a comeback and is currently chambered in Marlin, Ruger, and Browning firearms.

As a short range cartridge, the .45-70 is suitable for all North American big game. Its greatest limitation is the significant amount of bullet drop beyond 150 yards, which makes sure hits very difficult.

There are a great number of firearms chambered for the .45-70, many of which vary tremendously in strength. The older firearms such as the 1873 "trapdoor" Springfield should not be loaded beyond 18,000 P.S.I. (see our data in the next section and also under "Obsolete Cartridges"). Other more modern firearms can be loaded to the SAAMI pressure limit of 28,000 P.S.I. (See section on Ruger, Marlin, Sharps, Winchester).

While there are many Accurate propellants suitable for loading to the SAAMI Maximum Average Pressure limit of28,000 P.S.I., best results for the lower pressure loads and with cast bullets will probably be obtained with Accurate 5744.

.45-70 GOVERNMENT (Trapdoor Springfield)

Gun

TEST BARREL Max Length

2.105"

Barrel Length

24" Trim Length

2.085"

Primer

CCI 200 OAL Max

2.550"

Case

REM Nickel OAL Min

2.490"

CAUTION! This data is intended only for firearms safe for use with smokeless propellants. A firm crimp is required for all smokeless powder loads.

START LOADS

MAXIMUM LOADS

Cartridge

Bullet

Powder

Grains

Vel.

Powder

Grains

Vel.

P.S.I.

Length

Comment

3GG (L) PB

5744

27.9

14G5

5744

31.G

1597

18,500

2.550"

Clements

34G (L) HP

5744

27.G

1314

5744

3G.G

1494

14,600

2.520"

LY457122HP

2495

51.3

1B28

2495

57.G

185G

18,000

4350

53.1

1384

4350

59.G

1573

17,900

Compressed

3100

54.G

1255

3100

BG.G

142B

15,100

Compressed

8700

54.G

1G59

8700

BG.G

12G3

10,400

Compressed

378 (L) RNGC

5744

25.6

1247

5744

28.5

1418

15,100

2.565" *

LY457483

2495

45.G

1479

2495

5G.G

1B81

14,500

4350

48.6

1259

4350

54.G

1431

15,400

3100

5G.4

1159

3100

5B.G

1317

13,900

8700

54.G

1G15

8700

BG.G

1153

8,300

4G5 (L) FN

5744

24.3

122B

5744

27.G

1394

16,100

2.550"

Penny's

4G5 (L) PB

5744

24.7

1192

5744

27.5

1355

18,800

2.560"

Clements

42G (L) FN

5744

25.6

121G

5744

28.5

1375

16,100

2.600" *

LY457193

2495

45.G

1457

2495

5G.G

1B5B

17,700

4350

5G.4

1297

4350

56.G

1474

16,200

Compressed

3100

54.G

1251

3100

6G.G

1422

18,200

Compressed

8700

54.G

1G25

8700

6G.G

11B5

11,700

Compressed

475 (L) RNGC

5744

24.3

11G2

5744

27.G

1253

18,800

2.680" *

LY457406

2495

4G.5

1377

2495

45.G

15B5

16,000

4350

4G.5

11G7

4350

45.G

1258

16,100

3100

44.1

1G74

3100

49.G

1221

16,300

8700

54.G

915

8700

6G.G

1G4G

15,900

5GG (L) FN

5744

23.4

1G7G

5744

26.G

1217

16,100

2.635" *

SAECO #22

2495

39.6

1348

2495

44.G

1532

18,400

4350

37.8

1G34

4350

42.G

1175

16,300

Compressed

3100

4G.5

1GG1

3100

45.G

1138

16,500

Compressed

8700

49.5

842

8700

55.G

957

9,800

Compressed

5GG (L) PBRN

5744

22.5

1GB3

5744

25.G

12G9

18,700

2.850"

Lyman

5GG (L) schmitzer

5744

22.7

1G72

5744

25.3

1219

17,500

3.010"

Lyman

52G (L) FN

5744

21.B

1GBG

5744

24.G

12G5

16,300

2.655"

Penny's

53G (L) postell

5744

2G.1

1G3B

5744

22.4

1178

18,600

2.950"

Lyman

START LOADS

SMAXIMUM LOADS

Cartridge

Bullet

Powder

Grains

Vel.

Powder

Grains

Vel.

P.S.I.

Length

Comment

53Q (L) RN

5744

25.6

1Q24

5744

2B.5

12BQ

1B,4QQ

2.B3Q" *

LY457124

2495

41.4

1237

2495

46.Q

14Q6

11,600

4350

43.2

1167

4350

4B.Q

1326

16,600

3100

49.5

1196

3100

55.Q

1359

16,900

8700

5B.5

932

8700

65.Q

1Q59

15,BQQ

57Q (L) JONES SPR 4QQ JSP

5744

19.B

949

5744

22.Q

1Q79

1B,5QQ

2.B70"

American

5744

23.4

1Q31

5744

26.Q

1172

17,200

2.56Q"

* Over SAAMI Maximum OAL

.45-70 GOVERNMENT (Ruger, Marlin, Sharps, Winchester)

Gun

DOUGLAS

Max Length

2.105"

Barrel Length

24"

Trim Length

2.0B5 "

Primer

WLR

OAL Max

2.550"

Case

WW

OAL Min

2.530"

A firm crimp is required for all smokeless powder loads.

start LOADS MAXIMUM LOADS Cortridge

Bullet

Powtier

Grams

Vel.

Powder

Grams

Vel.

PP..SS..II..

Length

Comment

3QQ (L) PB

5744

34.2

1651

5744

3B.Q

1B77

2B,QQQ

2.550"

Clements

33Q (L) HP

2015

45.Q

1697

2015

5Q.Q

192B

23,2QQ

2.520"

2495

53.1

173B

2495

59.Q

1975

19,200

Compressed

2700

52.2

1627

2700

5B.Q

1B49

26,100

37B (L) RNGC

5744

27.4

1337

5744

3Q.5

152Q

2B,QQQ

2.565"

*

2015

44.1

16Q2

2015

49.Q

1B21

23,4QQ

2495

49.5

17Q3

2495

55.Q

1935

23,BQQ

2700

51.3

1525

2700

57.Q

1733

25,6QQ

4350

54.Q

1427

4350

6Q.Q

1622

21,5QQ

Compressed

3100

54.Q

13Q7

3100

6Q.Q

14B5

19,BQQ

Compressed

4Q5 (L) FN

5744

27.Q

1327

5744

3Q.Q

15QB

2B,QQQ

2.550"

2015

4B.6

1465

2015

54.Q

1665

26,BQQ

2495

4B.6

15B5

2495

54.Q

1BQ1

22,200

Compressed

2700

4B.6

1465

2700

54.Q

1665

26,BQQ

4350

5Q.4

1297

4350

56.Q

1474

16,2QQ

Compressed

3100

54.Q

1251

3100

6Q.Q

1422

1B,2QQ

Compressed

4Q5 (L) PB

5744

29.7

139B

5744

33.Q

15B9

2B,QQQ

2.560"

Clements

475 (L) RNGC

2015

39.6

1461

2015

44.Q

166Q

26,3QQ

2.725"

*

2495

45.Q

153B

2495

5Q.Q

174B

24,3QQ

Compressed

2700

44.1

13Q9

2700

49.Q

14BB

26,9QQ

4350

52.2

1425

4350

5B.Q

1619

26,3QQ

Compressed

3100

54.Q

1331

3100

6Q.Q

1513

25,7QQ

Compressed

5QQ (L) FN

2015

37.B

1379

2015

42.Q

1567

25,900

2.550"

2495

44.1

147Q

2495

49.Q

167Q

24,400

Compressed

2700

42.3

1244

2700

47.Q

1414

25,900

4350

52.2

1392

4350

5B.Q

15B2

24,200

2.795"

Compressed

3100

54.Q

1314

3100

6Q.Q

1493

25,000

2.795"

Compressed

.45-70 GOVERNMENT-Ruger, Marlin, Sharps, Winchester (continued)

START LOADS

MAXIMUM LOADS

Cartridge

Bullet

Powder

Grains

Vel.

Powder

Grains

Vel.

P.S.I.

Length

Comment

500 (L) PBRN

5744

27.9

1287

5744

31.0

1463

28,000

2.850"

Lyman

500 (L) schmitzer

5744

28.3

1281

5744

31.5

1456

27,500

3.010"

Lyman

530 (L) postell

5744

26.5

1196

5744

29.5

1360

27,500

2.950"

Lyman

570 (L) jones

5744

23.8

1098

5744

26.5

1248

26,400

2.870"

American

SRA 300 HP

5744

31.5

1500

5744

35.0

1704

27,900

2.550"

2015

53.1

1904

2015

59.0

2164

25,100

2495

59.4

1914

2495

66.0

2175

22,100

Compressed

2700

58.5

1706

2700

65.0

1939

25,200

Compressed

4350

63.0

1597

4350

70.0

1815

20,100

Compressed

3100

63.0

1500

3100

70.0

1705

18,300

Compressed

HDY 350 RN

5744

28.8

1327

5744

32.0

1508

27,100

2.550"

2015

47.7

1700

2015

53.0

1932

25,400

2230

48.6

1648

2230

54.0

1873

26,200

2460

53.1

1748

2460

59.0

1986

26,200

2495

54.9

1810

2495

61.0

2057

27,100

Compressed

2520

54.0

1836

2520

60.0

2086

28,000

2700

54.9

1579

2700

61.0

1794

26,900

4350

58.5

1527

4350

65.0

1735

22,700

Compressed

3100

58.5

1399

3100

65.0

1590

21,600

Compressed

SPR 400 FN

5744

27.9

1261

5744

31.0

1434

27,500

2.560"

*

2015

44.1

1550

2015

49.0

1761

24,000

2230

44.1

1532

2230

49.0

1741

23,100

2460

51.3

1695

2460

57.0

1926

28,000

2495

49.5

1616

2495

55.0

1836

23,800

Lt. Compressed

2520

48.6

1626

2520

54.0

1848

23,800

2700

49.5

1415

2700

55.0

1608

25,900

4350

54.0

1382

4350

60.0

1570

21,300

Compressed

3100

54.0

1278

3100

60.0

1452

20,100

Compressed

8700

54.0

873

8700

60.0

992

14,300

Compressed

HDY 500 RNSP

5744

27.9

1309

5744

31.0

1488

28,000

2.580"

2015

36.0

1251

2015

40.0

1422

23,800

2230

37.8

1287

2230

42.0

1462

26,000

2460

39.6

1328

2460

44.0

1509

25,400

2495

41.4

1353

2495

46.0

1538

26,400

2520

39.6

1262

2520

44.0

1434

28,000

2700

41.4

1168

2700

46.0

1327

23,600

4350

52.2

1410

4350

58.0

1602

25,300

2.825"

Compressed

3100

54.0

1268

3100

60.0

1441

26,400

2.825"

Compressed

8700

54.0

909

8700

60.0

1033

10,000

2.825"

Compressed

* Over SAAMI Maximum OAL

* Over SAAMI Maximum OAL

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Deer hunting is an interesting thing that reminds you of those golden old ages of 19th centuries, where a handsome hunk well equipped with all hunting material rides on horse searching for his target animal either for the purpose of displaying his masculine powers or for enticing and wooing his lady love.

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