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Smith, Stoeffel—Riflemaker of Pennsylvania, 1790-1800.

Smith, William—Riflemaker of Saint Mary's, Auglaize County, Ohio, 1849-54, before and after.

Smith & Wesson—Horace Smith and Daniel B. W'esson established in Norwich, Conn., in 1855 and produced Volcanic arms. Moved to Springfield iu 1856 where the firm continues to date.

The S. & W. "First Model Revolver No. 1" caliber .22 short, has a hinged hammer-nose. (F. H. Harrington's patent of June 15, 1858.) Has also a smoke shield or plate to the rear of the cylinder. Marked on cylinder "Patented April 3, 1855 & June I5> 1858." About 3,000 were made from November, 1857, to January, 1859. Grips square, Colt pattern; brass frame, usually silver plated. The first were made to employ B. B. caps but in the spring of 1858 the .22 short rim-fire cartridge was invented.

Have produced revolvers for the U. S. services in .38, .44 and .45 calibers. The S. & W. Schofield, adopted in 1873, had a tip-up barrel, held in place by a spring just before the hammer. The pres-sent S. & W. Model 1917 is, in the opinion of the writer, "tops" in the field of revolvers.

Smith & Williams—Gunmakers of Rutland, Vermont, 1864-68.

Sneider, C. Edward—Baltimore, Md. Patented a breech-loader, March 20, i860, which was manufactured by T. Poultney. Secured a second patent in 1865. This later patent was a bolt-action needle-gun.

Sneider, C. W.—Produced shotguns at 214 W. Pratt St., Baltimore, moving to 209 S. Sharp later. Active about 1884-87.

Sneli, Chauncey and Elijah—Riflemakers of Auburn, N. Y. Elijah, . the elder, was activc from 1820 or before until his death in 1834. Succeeded by his son, Chauncey, who continued until about i860.

Snively, William—Riflemaker of Flint's Mills, Washington County, Ohio. Active from before 1858; quit in 1865.

South Boston Iron Works—Cyrus Alger & Co., Foundry Street, Boston, Mass. Established 1809, incorporated 1827 and ceased operations about 1891.

Cyrus Alger (1782-1856), the first president, was interested in artillery and, due to his enthusiasm for the subject, his firm became one of the most important sources of ordnance supply in the nation. Began the production of iron cannon in 1828 and in 1834 made the first rifled cast-iron cannon. In 1835 began the manufacture of malleable-iron cannon, the process of which Alger patented on May 30, 1837.

Began the production of bronze cannon in 1836. Made the gigantic "Columbiad" mortars, the largest cast in the country, in 1842.

Cyrus *\lger died in 1856, his son and successor, Francis, in 1861.

In 1843 Alger improved shells and fuses and in 1855, six breech-loading, slotted (interrupted) screw-breech guns were made for the British Government.

During the Civil War, hundreds of pieces of heavy ordnance were turned out, an average of 400 workmen being given employment. In 1869 the last cast-iron rifle—10-inch—accepted by the government, was delivered.

The demand for greater accuracy, greater range and maximum safety for gun crews brought about the construction of built-up forged steel guns. The South Boston Co. attempted to keep pace with developments. On January 5, 1880, a navy contract for a 6-inch breech-loader, constructed on this plan, was received. This gun was accordingly produced but the jacket was imported from Firth of Sheffield, England.

In 1886 a 54-ton breech-loading rifled cannon of cast steel was turned out. This ended the history of that branch of foundering at these works and their heavy gun lathes were removed to Water-vliet Arsenal the following year.

cf. Pp. 66063, Vol. II, "History of American Manufacturers," Bishop, Philadelphia, 1864.

P. 315, Vol. II, "History of the Manufacturers of the U. S.," Clark, N. Y., 1929.

Many references, "Gun Making in the United States," Capt. Rogers Birmie, Washington, 1907.

Speed, Robert—Riflemakcr of Boston, Mass., 1820-40.

Spencer, Christopher M., Spencer Repeating Rifle Co.—Boston, Mass. Established 1862, capital $100,000. Took over the plant of the Chickering Piano Company on Tremont Street. Manufactured the Spencer magazine rifles and carbines. First patent was issued Spencer in i860, when he was but 19 years of age. An improved model was patented in July, 1862, and the cut-off feature added in 186^.

The Spencer was extremely popular during the Civil War and until 1880. The government purchased 94,000 of these arms during the period 1862-65.

The Spencer Rejxrating Rifle Company was purchased by Winchester in 1869.

Spies, A. W.—Broadway & Fulton Sts., New York. Produced firearms and edged weapons, active 1832 until his death in i860.

Spies, Kissan & Co.—New York, N. Y. Successors to the above. Active until 1876 or later.

Spiller & Burr—Macon, Georgia. Produced revolvers for the Confederacy which are now very rare. These were a close copy of the Whitney except with a brass frame.

Spitzer—Father and son, gunsmiths to the Virginia Council of Safety, 1776. Following the Revolution, the younger located in Newmarket, Va., where he was active until about 1820. Their early location is unknown.

Sporleder, Louis—Gunmaker of Walsenburgh, Colo. 1867-75 and after.

Sprague & Marston—New York, N. Y. Produced W. W. Marston patent 1849 pepperbox.

Springfield Arms Co.—Springfield, Mass. Made James Warner's revolvers, patent January 7, 1851, July 15, 1851 and June, 1856.

Warner was the company manager and his revolvers were very similar to the Wesson & Leavitt exccpt that they possessed a ramrod. He later (February, 1864) patented a breech-loader which was in use during the Civil War. The government purchased 4,000 of these arms which, however, were produced elsewhere and not by Springfield Anns Co.

Springfield Armory—Springfield, Mass. On April 26th, 1782, Congress authorized the establishment of a "good and efficient magazine for the reception of the public ammunition." Based upon this authorization a magazine was constructed "on the high ground known as the Training Field" and remained in operation until its demolishment in 1842.

The actual production of arms was provided for by Act of April 2, 1794, and 245 muskets were made the following year.

From that time until the present the armory has been enlarged and equipped to meet the demands placed upon it during times of emergency. A peak production rate of 1,500 arms daily was attained in November, 1918.

The reservation embraces 297 acres, has a land valuation of $614,000 and the buildings and equipment are appraised at $11,543,-L3I. (1933 )

Sprinkle, Michael—Gunsmith. lie was the first settler of Shawnee-town, III., arriving in 1800. Doubtful as to production.

Stafford, T. J.—New Haven. Pistol manufacturer, single shot, breakdown, barrel is hinged to tip down to load. Patent of March 19, i860.

Stamm, Jacob—Ridemaker of Sardinia, Brown County, Ohio, 1859-64, before and after.

Stamm, Philip—Born in Germany about 1797. Came to America and established in Brown County, Ohio, in 1842. An excellent worker in iron and wood, he made many guns and pistols. His shop was located in or near the town of Ripley and he was active until his death in May, 1862.

A second gunsmith by the name of Phillip Statin is found at Ripley in 1864-66. He was probably the son of the above. *

Standard Arms Co.—103 F St., Wilmington, Delaware. Produced a repeating rifle, gas-operated and similar to the Mondragon, 1910-11.

Stannard, F. P.—Gunmaker of Janesvillc, Wisconsin. Active 1874-82, before and after.

Statler, William—Gunmaker of Logan, Ohio, 1868-74.

Starr Arms Co.—Yonkers, N. Y. Manufacturers of Eben T. Starr's revolver, patent of January 15, 1856, #14118. The government purchased 47,952 of these arms during the period 1861-65. Also made Starr's patent September 14, 1858, #21523, breech-loaders. This arm employed a cap and paper cartridge and saw some service during the Civil War.

In 1865 he received a patent on a breech-loader taking a rim-fire cartridge. This arm was submitted to the U. S. trials in 1865 but was not adopted.

Starr, Nathan S.5 Starr & Son, N.—Nathan S. Starr, the elder, was born April 14, 1755, at Middletown, Conn., son of Jacob and Pris-cilla Starr.

On October 15, 1798, he received a government contract for 10,000 cavalry sabers at $5.00 each and 4,000 artillery swords at $4.00.

Nathan, the younger, was born February 20, 1784, and entered his father's shop in 1798. He received a patent on a breech-loading arm, May 3, 1839, #1411 and died in Middletown on August 31, 1852.

Starr produced a handsome sword of honor which was presented by the State of Connecticut to Commodore Isaac Hull in 1825. This sword is now preserved in the Navy Department at Washington.

A partial list of the government contracts held by Starr follows: October 15, 1798, io,oco horsemen's swords at $5.00, 4,000 artillery swords at $4.00; January 11, 1813, 11,000 sabers, 1,165 added later on January 5, 1819; 10,000 sabers for cavalry, 4,000 swords for artillery; December 6, 1823, 4,000 rifles, complete, at $14.50; March 17, 1840, 6,000 rifles, complete, $14.50.

State Gun Factory—Fredericksburg, Virginia. A state-owned gun manufactory established by Virginia in 1775 with Colonel Fielding

Lewis and Charles Dick in charge, Dick remained in this connection until 1782 at which time he gave employment to 19 workmen and 5 apprentices. (Many references, Calendar of Virginia State Papers, McRae, Richmond, 1886.)

Steel, John—Steel and two sons were active as gunsmiths as early as 1771. On July 7, 1775, they were collectively appointed Armourers to the Colony of Massachusetts Bay. Produced muskets for the state and active 1787 or later.

Stein, Mathias—Gunmaker of Milwaukee, Wis., 1868-75.

Stein, William—Gunmaker, 309 Federal Street, Camden, N. J., 1868-75, before and after.

Stephens & Co., John—Musket makers to the Board of War, Philadelphia, Pa. The minutes of the board for April 9, 1777, contain a memorandum "paid ¿160 on account of Arms making by Them. N. B.—27 guns delivered this day." (P. 28, Pennsylvania Archives, Second Series, Vol. I.)

-Jterewith—A Committee of Safety musket maker of Maryland, 1775.

Stevens, A. C.—Riflemaker of Hudson, N. Y. Active 1855-75, before and after. Produced a number of heavy, percussion match rifles with false muzzles.

Stevens & Co., J.; Stevens Arms & Tool Co-—Stevens was active 1852 or before, and the J. Stevens & Co. was established at Chicopee Falls, Mass., 1864.

In 1886 the business was incorporated as the J. Stevens Arms & Tool Co., which was taken over by Westinghouse in 1915. Following the W7orld War, the Savage Arms Corporation secured control, which they exercise to date. Produced rifles, shotguns and pistols.

Stevens, Martin—Riflemaker of Stoughton, Mass. Active 1859-68, before arid after.

Stinger, Thomas—Riflemaker of Lycoming County and Jersey Shore, Pa. Active about 1835-50.

Stillraan, Ethan—Born at Westerly, Rhode Island, 1768. As a young man he was employed, for a time, at the New York Iron Works, near Stonington, Conn. In 1798 he moved to Farmington where he and his brother, Amos, contracted to make t,ooo stands of arms for the government at $13.40 each. It is noted in his autobiography that he cleared $1,000 on this transaction.

In 1803 he transferred to Burlington, Conn., where he built a shop for repairing and making rifles. In 1808 he secured a second government contract for 2,500 muskets at $10.75 each, deliveries of 500 each year for five years. A report, dated October 7, 1812, indicates 825 arms had been delivered.

In his autobiography, Stillman recounts his subsequent troubles with the benign powers of the Republic: "Because I did not make 500 the first year, they took me and my bondsmen with a special writ for Si2,000 each, there being five of us in the aggregate, we were holden for S6o,ooo. Wc must get bail or go to jail. We sent to three courts, Pierpont Edwards was the judge and we got it put over each time. The fourth time they withdrew the suit but I finally lived it through and made the guns, but it took my farm to pay my debts.

"There were eighteen other men in New England who contracted to make guns at the same time, that did not do as well as I did. All fell in debt to the U. S. One of them died and left his bondsmen in debt to the U. S., $7,000. Another was so much in debt that he jumped in the river and was drowned. I was acquainted with both of them. I finished my contract of arms, arranged my business, paid my debts and in the fall of 1818 I moved to Brookfield, N. Y."—Charles D. Cook in the Magazine Antiques, by permission.

Stocking & Co.—Alexander Stocking. Produced pistols and revolvers at Worcester, Mass., 1849-52, and after.

Stossmeister, Charles—Rifiemaker of Cincinnati, Ohio, 1857-63, before and after.

Strong Firearms Co.—New Haven, Conn., 1880. Sold out to Winchester in January, t88t, and the plant was destroyed by fire in 1883. Revived soon thereafter and active until 1891. Produced rifles, rifled sub-caliber tubes, yacht cannon and ammunition.

Stowell, Elson J.—Brooklyn, N. Y. Pistol maker, active 1873-78.

Stuart, Charles—Riflemaker of Binghamton, N. Y. about 1850-70.

Stull» Jerry and Samuel—Riflemakers of Millwood, Knox County, Ohio, 1858-61. before and after.

Sukalle, W. A.—1120 Washington St., Phoenix, Arizona. Rifle barrel maker, present.

Surkamer, Fred—54 W. Lake St., Chicago, 111. Guns to order. Established 1891 and succccdcd in 1935 by E. Mirz.

Sutherland, Samuel—Gunsmith to the Confederacy at Richmond, Va.,

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