Birth of the Ammunition Productivity Team

As a result of discussions both in New York and London during the summer of 1951 between the Secretariats of the Anglo-American Council on Productivity, it was agreed that much benefit was likely to be derived l'rom the visit to America of a u.k. Team concerned with an easily-defined field within the overall re-armament programme. 2. However, the period of gestation was not as straightforward as had been hoped and the Team did not sail until January 15, 1952. In fairness to all concerned on...

Administration

Each arsenal is commanded by a military officer with the rank of colonel. Supporting him are a number of junior military officers, each of whom has direct overall control of a separate administrative function, together with one civilian, who is Director of Personnel. These officials form the top-level administration responsible for the overall executive control of the arsenal. To assist the commanding officer in an advisory capacity there is a Management Improvement Officer of military rank...

Composition of the Team

Although the Ministry of Supply undertook to approach industry with the request to nominate members of the Team and, at the same time, agreed to provide the Leader and Sccrctary, it was made clear that the Team was not actually sponsored by a Government Department. 4. In view of the wide field to be covered and the very limited guidance that could be given to industry in the choice of nominees the greatest credit is due to the firms who agreed to spare such valuable members of their stall for...

Contractorownedcontractoroperated Coco Plants

In addition to the invitations to bid for operating Government plants on a cost-plus-fixed-fee basis, invitations are issued for the manufacture of ammunition by contractor-owned-contractor-opcrated plants. The tenders must be as completely informative as those required for operating Government-owned plants, and must include The unit cost of producing the item The wage-rates of the labour employed The percentage of overheads included in the price Complete statement of all new plant required to...

Rwg

8 Mission Arsenals Technical Control (also Inspection within the Arsenal) Inspection at Govern ment-owned-contractor-operatcd (G.O.C.O.) plants Inspection of contracts with industry FIGURE 6 Chain of inspection control general procedures and methods, emanating from the higher level of co-ordination and control. At the same time difficulties restricting the application of the principle are still experienced in respect of differing specifications, standards and special procedures which had not...

U S Ordnance Districts

Louis Small Arms Ammunition Plant

It has been shown above that overall procurement planning, and to a limited extent the actual placing of contracts, is carried out by the centres the main procurement agencies are, however, the Ordnance districts. The u.s. is covered by fourteen such districts. Each district maintains up-to-date lists of available capacity within its area which is considered suitable for the manufacture of the various types of ordnance equipment, i.e., weapons, ammunition, vehicles, etc. Cups CoresClipt...

Documents Room

Organisation for procurement of small arms ammunition 14. For ammunition the demand is normally placed on the districts by the appropriate centre. The districts then go out to tender and these are referred back to the centre wilh the districts' recommendations. 15. Each district is commanded by an Ordnance Corps officer and is responsible to the u.s. Chief of Ordnance. (Figure 5, facing page 14, shows a typical district organisation.) 16. The district has its own legal, manufacturing,...

Plants

The manufacturing plants visited were very large units, and all but one had been engaged in the manufacture of the same, or a similar, store during World War II, often with some of the same executives in control. 1.1. They can be grouped under the following headings RE-ACTIVATED PLANTS All these were Government-owned-contractor-operated plants. We understood that the previous contractors were using the original equipment in the same buildings as were employed during the war. and the layouts...

The Ammunition Centres

Gun Silencer Diagrams

The centres are organised to function thus Receive the ammunition programme from Washington Broad procurement planning over the specified Place contracts but see also duties of Ordnance Districts, paras. 13 to 16 Progress deliveries Advise u.s. Chief of Ordnance. Each of the centres Joliet and St. Louis is directly controlled by military personnel, and is responsible for procurement within the calibres and types of store for which it is concerned on a nation-wide basis. 6. The centres...

Shell bodies

Special features affecting productivity American shell 105-mm. and 120-mm. appear to be designed with a view to easy mass production. Details of the 105-mm. shell are shown in Figure 20. The following special features were noted 1.1. The use of a thin base plate .03-in. thick, secured by automatic stitch welding followed by an automatic post annealing of the weld. This was an extremely quick operation. The base of the shell received no further machining. Frequent testing of the fixing was...

Large And Small Business

Mention has already been made of the G.o.c.o. plants, necessarily large in scope, that have been established throughout the country. At the other end of the scale are the small-business organisations. Both during the last war and in the post-war years very considerable pressure has been brought to bear from the highest levels in an effort to encourage the use of what is termed small business. The term is self-explanatory, and it is known that these smaller concerns did a fine job during the...

Quality Control

This is a tool of management in the plant, operationally integrated with production, and is the responsibility of a plant chief inspector. There may be a quality control manager either separate or combining the responsibilities of chicf inspector. Q.c. may be effected by means of 100-per-cent. inspection, percentage examination or statistical methods, using the control chart technique for sampling by variables or attributes. In the early stages of production inspection will necessarily be on a...

Manufacturing research and development arsenals mission arsenals

There are eight such establishments, which are responsible for manufacturing research and development, for running pilot lines of production, and for producing all the manufacturing data as to methods and processes and all the inspection requirements for the successful completion of the store in question. These are termed mission arsenals, as their mission is clearly defined in their administrative terms of reference. Except in some limited aspects they are not manufacturing arsenals in the...

Component design for production

By reason of its design the American store is often easier to produce in quantities than the British equivalent. Design changcs to facilitate production seemed to be more readily conccdcd to the American manufacturer than to his British counterpart. It was known that tolerances on American shell dimensions were generally wider than our own. As we had virtually no access to component drawings of other stores we were not able to determine whether the same was true of them, to the improvement of...

Machine tools

As the machine tools and tooling equipment are referred to in detail in Part II of the Report it is only intended to comment broadly here, mentioning but a few salient items. 2.1. No new techniques such as cold extrusion were seen, but there were some examples of improvements to both processes and machine tools. In one arsenal we saw an interesting new machine, which unfortunately was not running, for the mouth annealing of cartridge cases by the employment of induction heating. The use of...

Plants arsenals and other establishments visited

General American Transportation Company, East Chicago, Indiana Mr. W. I. Jones, General Manager 1949 North Cicero Avenue, Chicago Mr. J. Kcllman, Vice-President 1826 Diversey Parkway, Chicago Mr. James S. Knowlson, President 4. h.q. Chicago Ordnance District, 209 West Jackson, Chicago Colonel Robert K. Haskell 5. u.s. Ordnance Ammunition Centre, Joliet, Illinois Brigadier-General J. Holmes, Commanding 6. u.s. Small Arms Ammunition Centre, St. Louis, Missouri Lt.-Col. T. Wood, Commanding...

Orientation of the Team before it left the UK

It was realised that before the Team sailed for America it was desirable that all members should be given an opportunity to appreciate the various problems affecting productivity in relation lo supply in the re-armament programme in the u.k. this covered management, engineering practice and control. Arrangements were accordingly made for the Team to visit R.O.F., Woolwich R.O.F., Wigan R.O.F., Radway Green Messrs. Ferranti Ltd., Manchester Inspectorate of Armaments, Woolwich 9. In addition,...

Calculation Of The Requirement

The calculation of the requirement for x rounds of a specific type of ammunition is made by the General Stai and passed to the Office of the Chief of Ordnance. 4. According to the nature of the ammunition, i.e., small arms, field artillery, rockets, etc., this requirement is then passed by the Industrial Division of u.s. Chief of Ordnance to the appropriate ammunition centre for small arms it would be dealt with by the St. Louis Ammunition Centre while calibres larger than 30 mm. are handled...

Terms of reference

The terms of rcfercncc were drafted by the Team at its first meeting in November, 1951, and could, of necessity, be set out only in the very broadest terms. We also attempted to sub-divide the field to be covered into the various calibres of ammunition in which we were interested and gave examples of the new techniques about which we were anxious to obtain further information. 6. The terms of reference as submitted to the a.a.c.p. were as follows B. Typical plants, both in arsenals and...

Double Action Ammunition Taper Presses

Throat Ammo Case

Twenty-millimetre case safety feature on cupping press Third and fourth draws. As for second draw. Trimming. The trimming machines arc the Peters bench type of orthodox design, made by Peters Engr. Co., 3452, Ludlow Street, Philadelphia. The machine is hopper-fed and operates at 40 strokes a minute. An air jet ensures that the cut-off ring is diverted down a chute into a waste box beneath the machines. Indent and heading. The indent and flattening operations are carried out...

Inspection Staff

The following approximate figures were obtained to indicate economies in personnel resulting from the introduction of quality control technique since World War II World War II 2,400 1952 1,200 It may be noted that with empty production and filling in the same plant, conditions are more favourable for the elimination of separate empty proof. DuplicatinR on proccss inspection Example 2. c.o.c.o. plant product 105-mm. shell forgings and finished shell bodies rate Only in production three weeks...

Top Level Direction And Control

The responsibility is taken at the highest level for giving clear direction on the policy to be followed in regard to quality assurance and control by all branches of the supply organisation. At this level, under the approval of the secretaries for the respective armed Services, it is the responsibility of the Standardisation Agencies of the Munitions Board in the Department of Defense to develop standard methods and practices for use by the three Services. The guiding principles formulated by...

Differences between GOCO and COCO plants

2.1. g.o.c.o. plants operate on a cost-plus-fixed-fcc basis whereas c.o.c.o. plants operate by direct competitive bidding which includes their own finally-accepted overhead and profit. 2.2. g.o.c.o. plants use Government-owned plant and buildings, which may already have been completely amortised, whereas c.o.c.o. plants include new plant and amortise it over a period 0Vote existing g.o.c.o. plants may not always be complete and some may have to follow a procedure similar to that operating in...

Joliet Ammunition Centre

It is not intended in this Report to describe the detailed functioning of both Joliet and St. Louis, but the following brief description of Joliet will show the broad organisation of these centres. 8. The mission of this centre is as under Mass production of standard Army ammunition other than small arms, including propellants, explosives and chemicals Supervision of certain ammunition modifications Co-ordination and direction of procurement of components Supervision of renovation and...

Buildings

Bullet Case Draw Press Machine

The standard building for the cal. .30 and cal. .50 has two floors, the annealing furnaces, washing, drying and storage space for components being located on the upper floor and the case and bullet manufacturing machines on the ground floor. It is customary in the u.s. to have the primer inserting and cartridge filling shops adjacent to the manufacturing shops, with the result that cases and bullets can be transferred from the latter to the former shops by mechanical conveyors. No protective...

H

Factories Producing Amunition

Layout for first three operations on steel fuze body Stewart Warner plant FIGURE 45. Indicating the amount of metal removed by broaching in the manufacture of steel fuze bodies Stewart Warner plant is a fuze with a 75-second run and is for use with field artillery. The M.502 fuze was being brought into production as new manufacture. The mechanisms of both fuzes arc typical of the Junghans design and as such are well known to us. They involve the use of a laminated plate construction,...

The British Ammunition Productivity Team

Merrill Ransford, Team Leader Chief Inspector of Armaments, Ministry of Supply Colonel W. Paget Careless, Team Secretary Military Assistant to Deputy Controller of Supplies Munitions Production , Ministry of Supply Deputy Chief Tool and Plant Engineer, Ferranti Ltd. Assistant Production Manager Ammunition Department , I.C.I. Ltd. Foreman, Controlled Inspection, R.O.F., Birtley Technical Manager, Greenwood amp Batley Ltd. Works Manager Fuze Factory , Ferranti Ltd. Superintendent,...

Io Fuzes

The M.48 fuze which we saw being produced at the Stewart Warner Corporation plant in Chicago was an optional delay percussion fuze which differed in design from, but performed the same function as, the British fuze 410. The information we gained was far less detailed than we could have hoped, owing to the speed at which our tour of the plant had to be carried out. Moreover, as we were unable to handle any components, a careful assessment of the standard of finish could not be made. The...

Small arms up to and including mm

The term small arms ammunition in the u.s. covers all types of ammunition with bullets up to and including 30 mm. in diameter. It is only recently that 20 mm. and 30 mm. have been included in the small arms category. In all the u.s. s.a.a. factories visited the case and bullet manufacturing operations were, with few exceptions, similar to those in the u.k. s.a.a. factories. In general the u.s. machines are of different design from those in the u.k., although in some instances the same type of...

Steel artillery cartridge cases

Amunition Cartridge Cases

Two plants only were visited which were concerned with the manufacture of steel artillery cartridge cases. The first was that of the ekco Corporation at Chicago, Illinois. This plant was in process of installation, however, and no production was seen. The ekco Corporation has another plant at Massillon, Ohio, manufacturing 105-mm. recoilless and 90-mm. cases. This plant was in production but permission could not be obtained to visit it. The second plant visited was that of Frankford...

Qyp

The manufacturing divisions are each under a military officer lieutenant-colonel reporting direct to the commanding officer. A chart showing the organisation of the branch headed by the Director of Personnel referred to in para. 1.2 is given in Figure 8. The functions of the various divisions are briefly as follows Pitman-Dunn Laboratory. This is a flexible scientific organisation active in ballistics, electronics, explosives, mechanical engineering, lubricants, electro-plating and finishing...

Material

Elongation 15 figure 20. One-hundred-and-five-rnillimetre heat-treated shell 1.5. The shell was zinc phosphated prior to painting. The shell was painted internally with air-drying acid-resisting black bitumastic paint, and externally with olive green air-drying paint. This was carried out in one operation, the shell being located base downwards on a conveyor and sprayed, any excess of paint in the base of the cavity being removed by a swab. 1.6. general methods of...