Info

Shoulder-fired rockets, ranging in size from 66 millimeters to 3.5 inches, are relatively light rockets used primarily against armored targets. They are also used for screening and practice. The 66mm rocket is distinguished by the fact that it is issued with a disposable launcher, as one unit. The rocket launcher unit constitutes a complete Light Antitank Weapon (LAW) System. a. Depending on the type of warhead, these rockets are designated HEAT, practice or smoke (WP). b. The 66-mm LAW system...

Figure Hermetically sealed container for proximity fuze

Large ground-to-ground rockets are shipped unassembled, with the motor (fig. 5-4) and the warhead (fig. 5-5) packed separately. d. Certain PD fuzes are assembled to rockets. Others are packed separately in hermetically sealed containers or wooden boxes. Some proximity fuzes are packed in hermetically sealed containers (fig. 5-6), overpacked in metal (fig. 5-7) or wooden (fig. 5-8) packing boxes others are packed in the same container with the assembled motor and warhead, but are not...

Cartridges

(1) Replaceable cartridges are used in aircraft stores ejectors (fig. 13-5), parachute cargo releases, aircraft fire extinguishers (fig. 13-6), parachute drogue guns, and cable cutters (fig. 3-7). (2) Cartridges are also used in reefing line cutters (aircraft seat catapults), and parachute ejectors. In these applications, however, the cartridges are handled only at depot level. (3) The size and form of cartridges vary broadly. Differences depend on the amount of propellant required, method of...

Section Iv Motor

Generally, the motor consists of the following major components (fig. 5-2) a. A motor, which propels the rocket, is assembled to the rear of the warhead or base- (1) Motor body (combustion chamber) Figure 5-2. Major components of rocket motor. Figure 5-2. Major components of rocket motor. (6) Resonance rod assembly (optional) The base of the motor is constricted to form the throat of one or more nozzles. Flight of the rocket is stabilized by fins attached to the...

Care and Precautions in Handling

See TM 9-1300-206, TM 9-1375-213-12, TM 91375-21334, TM 750-244-5-1, FM 5-250 and AR 385-63 for detailed information concerning appropriate safety precautions to be observed in handling demolition material. Also, observe the following a. Handle demolition charges in accordance with sensitivity of explosive comprising charge. b. Do not expose demolition blocks of plastic explosive to open flame. They ignite easily and burn with intense heat. Burned in large quantities, they may explode. c....

Cutters

Cutters are used to sever one or more textile or metal cable (e.g., parachute reefing line or rescue hoist cable). b. Ignition Methods. Ignition is either by a spring-loaded firing pin striking a percussion primer or by electric current passing through an electrical primer. A mechanically fired cutter is shown in figure 13-2. An electrically fired cutter is shown in figure 13-3. c. Delay Feature. Reefing line cutters are made in delay times ranging from one to twenty seconds. The...

Ord D

Figure 8-9. 8-Second delay percussion detonator. (2) Delay percussion type. Delay percussion detonators (fig. 89 and 8-10) consist of a two-section cylindrical body with a firing pin assembly joined to a delay housing and primer assembly. A special blasting cap is crimped to an integral coupling base on one end of the delay and primer assembly. With the safety pin removed, a pull on the pull ring releases the firing pin. The firing pin strikes the percussion primer. The flame ignites the delay...

Firing Devices

A firing device is used to initiate a train of fire for detonation of demolition charges, boobytraps or mines usually, but not necessarily, as part of a nonelectric system. A firing device is a separate item of issue. It must be requisitioned separately from land mines, or from demolition charges, which are used for making improvised land mines. Firing devices are of two general shapes tubular and box. Initiating actions for firing devices are shown in figure 7,15. When a firing device is used...

Precaution in Firing

Precautions to be taken in firing and handling of ammunition in the field, as prescribed in chapter 1 and in AR 385-63, TM 9-1300-206 and TM 43-0001-27, apply generally. In addition, observe the following a. Do not fire ammunition until it has been identified by ammunition lot number, and until TB 91300-385 has been checked to determine whether lot has been suspended or restricted. b. Do not fire cartridges which have been mashed or perforated, or those having loose bullets or projectiles. c....

Smallarms Ammunition

Small-caliber ammunition, as used herein, describes a cartridge or families of cartridges intended for use in various types of hand-held or mounted weapons through 30 millimeter. Within a caliber designation, these weapons may include one or more of the following rifles (except recoilless), carbines, pistols, revolvers, machineguns and shotguns. For purposes of this publication, smallarms ammunition may be grouped as cartridges intended primarily for combat or training purposes (API, HEI,...

Nso

And destroys the round, should the round fail to impact against the target. (1) High-explosive (HE). This type of projectile (fig. 4-2), usually made of forged or cold extruded steel, has comparatively thin walls and a large bursting charge of high explosive. It is used against personnel and materiel targets, producing blast or mining effect and fragmentation at the target. It may be fitted with time or impact, concrete-piercing, or proximity (VT) fuze, according to the type of action desired....

Celluloid Protector

Firing devices are issued with this type of primer installed in the coupling base. The primer is also issued separately for repriming firing devices used with practice mines and boobytraps. (5) Blasting caps. Commercial and Army blasting caps, electric and nonelectric, are used to initiate explosives (fig. 8-25). Army types consist of a thin, tubular, metallic shell about 21 2 inches long and 1 4-inch in diameter filled with small charges of sensitive high explosives. In priming, the caps are...

General

The term, guided missile, refers to a missile directed to its target while in flight or motion, either by a preset or self-reacting device within the missile or by radio command outside the missile, or through wire linkage to the missile. b. Guided missiles are shipped completely assembled and ready for use, or in major components which must be assembled in the field. In general, a guided missile is composed of the seven basic components illustrated in figure 12-1 and defined below (1)...

Classification

Fuzes are classified according to their position on the projectile and method of functioning. Examples include base-detonating (BD) (fig. P18), point-initiating base-detonating (PIBD) (fig. P19), and point-detonating (PD) (fig. 4-20) fuzes. They are classified according to method of functioning as impact, time, proximity, or a combination of these. (1) Impact fuzes (fig. 4-21) are classified by type of action as superquick, delay or nondelay. The superquick fuze functions immediately upon...

Precautions in Firing

Fire pyrotechnics in such a manner that burning material or burned out signals will not fall on friendly personnel, into boxes of pyrotechnics or on other ammunition. Exercise care when firing through trees or other obstructions. b. Anticipate heavy recoil when firing projected pyrotechnics (except rocket-propelled ground signals). c. Observe safety precautions found in TM 9-1370- 203-20& P. For regulations in firing ammunition, see AR 385-63.

Training Pyrotechnics

Pyrotechnic items used as training devices include tow-target flares, aircraft parachute flares, photoflash cartridges, and a variety of simulators. b. Simulators are used to create the effect of specific items of ammunition. The primary types of simulators are described briefly below. (1) The air burst simulator (fig. 9-15), used with a smoke puff discharger, simulates the burst of an artillery projectile near the ground by producing a puff of white smoke. (2) The boobytrap simulator (fig....

Priming and Initiating Materials

These materials comprise the initiating and priming components, accessories and tools used in conjunction with demolition charges. The variety of initiating and priming components and accessories available permits considerable flexibility in the design of demolition rounds. Thus, specific demolition projects may be accomplished with the efficiency and safety appropriate to the tactical situation. a. Initiating Component. The initiating component is that component which receives the initiating...

Gas Charge

Through a resistance wire in the ignition mixture or a conductive primer mixture embedded in the primer. The electric primer is distinguished by the black insulation that surrounds it in the head of the cartridge case (2) Percussion. This type of primer (fig. P14) is fired by a blow of the firing pin. Percussion primers used in fixed, semifixed and separated artillery ammunition contain sufficient black powder to ignite the propellant in the cartridge D DETONATOR L BOOSTER CHARGE case. Those...

Primers

The primer is that component in a propelling charge explosive train which produces the flame that ignites the propellant. (1) Artillery primers contain a small quantity of sensitive explosive and a larger quantity of black powder or other propellant in a cylindrical housing of metal, cardboard or other appropriate material. In mortar ammunition, an ignition cartridge, which ignites the propellant, is used with the primer and may or may not be assembled to it. Unassembled, the primer...

Packing and Marking

Block demolition charges are packed in haversacks or plastic bags within wooden boxes. TNT explosives are packed in wooden boxes. The ammonium nitrate cratering charge is packed one per wooden box. From 1 to 8 shaped charges are packed in wooden boxes, depending on weight of the charge. Dynamite is usually packed 50 pounds per commercial wooden box. High-explosive destructors are packed 1 per fiber container and 50 containers per wooden box. Some newer items are packed in...

Shipping and Storage Containers

The dispersing subsystem M56 is stored and transported in the reusable, steel, shipping and storage container CNU-79 E. Forty replacement canisters are stored and shipped in the reusable, steel, shipping and storage container M602. Both containers are stored and transported in the horizontal position. b. Container CNU-79 E. The subsystem is supported by a resilient-mounted suspension frame assembly that is attached to the container base assembly. Two flexible strap assemblies, one...

Cartridge Cases

A cartridge case made of drawn brass, spiral-wrapped or multipieced drawn steel, or felted nitrocellulose serves as the container for the - propelling charge in round of fixed, semi-fixed, and separated artillery ammunition. Cartridge case and weapon chamber generally conform in profile. However, the cartridge case is slightly smaller to facilitate chambering. The base of the metal case is relatively heavy to provide for firm attachment of a primer, and has a flange or groove to permit...

Marking and Painting

Rockets are identified by standard nomenclature and lot number. Such identification is marked on all containers and, unless the item is too small, on the ammunition itself. Rocket motors are also marked to indicate temperature limits and performance characteristics. Dimensions and weights of packing boxes and other packing and shipping data are marked on the packing box. Packing boxes containing assembled complete rounds are also marked to indicate the nose end of the rocket. b....

Safety and Arming Devices Fuzes

(1) The fuzing systems used in guided missile warheads are called safety and arming devices. They arm the system at the required distance and function the warhead at the time and under the circumstances desired. (2) One or more safety and arming devices may be used in conjunction with any of the warheads described in paragraph 12-7. Depending on the type of target and the effect desired, the safety and arming device may be impact, proximity, ground-controlled, or a combination of two or three...

Tetrytol Exudate

PETN (Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate). PETN is one of the strongest high explosives known. It is more sensitive to shock or friction than TNT or tetryl. In its pure form, PETN is a white crystalline powder however, it may turn light gray from impurities. It will detonate under long, slow pressure. PETN in bulk must be stored wet. Its primary use is in booster and bursting charges in small-caliber ammunition in upper detonators in some land mines and projectiles and as the explosive core of...

Trip Wire

Firing Device Demolition

Pull-release type demolition firing device Figure 8-20. Pull-release type demolition firing device Figure 8-21. Pull-type demolition firing device Figure 8-21. Pull-type demolition firing device to 5 pounds on the trip wire releases the springloaded firing pin that fires the primer. (2) Box type. Box-type firing devices, consisting of a rectangular steel body and primed coupling base, are actuated by release of pressure. (a) The pressure-release-type firing device (fig. 822) is a...

Projectile

The forward portion of the projectile from the bourrelet to the point is called the ogive. The length of the ogive influences the flight of the projectile. In older projectiles, the generated radius of the ogive varied from 6 to 11 calibers. Projectiles of recent design, however, have long ogives of radii that exceed these values appreciably. Since kinetic-energy, armor-piercing projectiles have an ogive with a short radius, for purposes of penetration, a windshield is...

Practice and Inert Apers Mines

Practice mines have the same features and weight a the service mines they represent. Practice mines usually contain small quantities of explosive usually black powder or smoke or noisemaking composition to simulate functioning of a service mine. Inert mines, which are completely inert, are used for practice In handling. Figure 7-1. Representative types of land mines. Change 5 7-2 Figure 7-1. Representative types of land mines. Change 5 7-2 Figure 7-2. APERS mine ready for firing A...

Special Purpose Cartridges

62mm Linked

Cartridges of various calibers fig. 3-12 through 3-14 , which consist of different types of projectiles and bullets, are used for training and special purposes. They include the following 1 Caliber .22 long rifle and caliber .38 and .45 wad-cutter cartridges for target shooting. 2 Caliber .45 blank cartridges fired in exercises to condition dogs to gun fire. 3 Caliber .22 hornet and .410 shotgun cartridges for firing in Air Force combination survival weapons for hunting purposes. 4 Caliber...

Calcium Stearate Arms Amunation

Multiperforated Propellant

Progressive burning of propellant grains multiperforated . 4 Progressive burning. A triperforated grain can be so designed that the burning surface actually increases until burning is nearly completed and slivers are formed. Such a grain is said to burn progressively. This characteristic can be made more pronounced if the grain is multiperforated fig. 2-4 . When a multiperforated grain is not completely consumed, portions of the grain remain in the form of slivers. These may be...

Army Incendiary Mixtures Im

Materials producing smoke screens are rated in units for their top obscuring power TOP . TOP is a relative value that indicates the amount of obscurity due to reflection and refraction of light rays that 1 pound of smoke-producing material will develop under standard and controlled conditions against a 25-candlepower light source. The principal smoke-producing agents, ordered according to their obscuring powers, are treated below a. White phosphorus WP , with a 3,500 unit TOP, is a white to...

Care Handling and Preservation

Small-arms ammunition is comparatively safe to handle. It is packed to withstand transportation, handling and storage conditions normally encountered in the field. However, consideration should be given to the general information on care, handling and preservation of ammu Figure 3-18. Cartridges in 20-round cartons in ammunition box. Figure 3-18. Cartridges in 20-round cartons in ammunition box. nition outlined in chapter 1 and in TM 9-1300-206. In addition 1 Never use oil or grease...

Functioning

When the propellant in the rocket motor is ignited, pressure in the chamber generally rises within 0.005 to 0.05 second to a maximum value. This value is determined by the burning rate of the propellant and the diameter of the nozzle orifice. Depending on the design of the propellent grain and the presence of ballistic modifiers, the charge burns at a nearly constant rate. This steady state pressure is maintained constant or decreases tails off very slowly until the propellant is completely...

Propelling Charges

1 Propelling charges consist of a quantity of propellant in a container cartridge bag for separate-loading and semifixed ammunition and an igniter and or primer. The propellant itself is carefully designed for the particular role of the ammunition. Factors considered include chemical composition, grain size, and charge weight. Propellants are described in chapter 1. 2 In fixed and semifixed rounds, the igniter charge black powder is present in the primer. In some models of separated...

Benite Pyrotechnic

Squibs for military use are caused to function by heat developed by an electrical resistance wire. This may ignite a charge of either potassium nitrate or sodium nitrate black powder, or an ignition composition, and, in turn, the main charge of black powder. In some cases, the black powder charge is ignited by a matchhead composition. d. Precautions. Black powder, which is very sensitive to friction, heat and impact, is one of the most dangerous explosives to handle. It will...

Subcaliber Ammunition

Subcaliber guns are auxiliary devices used with tactical weapons during training and practice. Bore wear i-n the larger caliber weapons is reduced by training with smaller caliber weapons firing smaller caliber ammunition at shorter ranges. Subcaliber guns are designed for interior mounting inside the bore of the weapon or exterior mounting on top of the gun tube . Interior-type subcaliber guns are used with 75mm howitzers, 76-mm guns, 90-mm guns and 105-mm howitzers. 'External-type...

Cartridge Photo Flash M123a1

Military pyrotechnics fig. 9-1 are used for illumination, signaling, and simulation of battle noises and effects. Artillery projectiles and hand grenades used for illumination and signaling are described in chapters 4 and 6, respectively. Photoflash and target-identification bombs are described in chapter 10. Other pyrotechnic items are described below and in TM 9-1370-203-20 amp P a. Complete Round. Pyrotechnics are usually issued in the form of complete rounds, each consisting of all the...

Secondary Fuze Will For Carrying Plug Or Doby Trapping Firing Device

Inert light AT mine and inert fuze. Figure 7-13. Installation of a boobytrapped AT mine. Figure 7-13. Installation of a boobytrapped AT mine. b. Incendiary Burster. An incendiary burster fig. 7-14 is used, primarily, with field-improvised incendiary munitions. When immersed in a container 5-gallon can, used shell case, 55-gallon drum filled with thickened fuel, the burster will rupture the container and scatter flaming fuel over a large area. The burster can be fired either...

Explosive Destructors

Explosive Ammo Rounds Gta

Explosive destructors are used to adapt ammunition and other explosive material, which cannot be reliably detonated by special blasting caps, for use in demolition work, boobytraps and improvised mines. Explosive destructors are also used to destroy deteriorated or abandoned ammunition. 1 Universal explosive destructor. The universal explosive destructor fig. 8-11 is a high explosive charge initiated by means of blasting caps or mine actuators and standard firing devices. The...

The canister in this type of projectile

CHARG PROPELLING T42 FOR 20 M M GUN M 58 FOR USE WITH HEAT-T M469 CHARG PROPELLING T42 FOR 20 M M GUN M 58 FOR USE WITH HEAT-T M469 Figure 4-4. High-explosive antitank projectile. Figure 4-4. High-explosive antitank projectile. Figure 4-5. Burster chemical projectiles. Figure 4-5. Burster chemical projectiles. should not be confused with the canister that is a component of a fixed-round projectile. 6 Illuminating. This type of projectile fig. 47 is used to illuminate a target area under...

Metallic Links and Clips

Metallic links fig. 3-15 and 3-16 are used with caliber .30, caliber .50, 5.56-mm, 7.62-mm and 20-mm cartridges in machine guns. The links are made of steel, surface treated for rust prevention. They are used to assemble cartridges into linked belts of 100 to 750 cartridges per belt. The links must meet specific test and dimension requirements to assure satisfactory ammunition feed and functioning in the machine gun under all training and combat service conditions. b. Different...

Detonator Holder Base Gasket

Detonator Holder

MM, ANTITANKi M31 T29C3 OtD D54 -A MM, ANTITANKi M31 T29C3 OtD D54 -A 1 Heavy metallic type. Heavy metallic nines derive effectiveness against armor from ,energy produced by the high-explosive charge. This propels a mass of steel in an upward direction at a velocity sufficient to penetrate the tank armor. 2 Heavy nonmetallic type. Mines of this type fig. 7-8 derive effectiveness from energy produced by the high-explosive charge. This creaks or damages tank tracks. This mine cannot e detected...

Pressure On Board At P Lifting Rock Heavier Than Pounds Thus Initiating Release Firing Device

Blue Vertical End Cleats

Representative methods of using firing devices in boobytrap installation. Figure 7-16. Packing box for an APERS mine. Figure 7-16. Packing box for an APERS mine. Figure 7-17. Packing box for an APERS practice mine and replacement parts. Figure 7-17. Packing box for an APERS practice mine and replacement parts. I before arming. In disarming armed mines, restore safety devices, as prescribed in TM 9-1345-20312 amp P and FM 20-32. f. In employment of inert mines for training in...

Uww

This manual contains basic information on identification, classification, and physical characteristics of conventional ammunition. With TM 90 1300-206, it constitutes a source book on military ammunition. a. Authorized Forms. DA Pam 738-750 contains instructions on use of the forms required to report incidents involving the ammunition covered in this manual. AR's 380-5, 380-6, and 380-40 cover classification of records and reports. b. Accidents. Responsibilities and procedures for recording and...

Figure Use of explosive priming adapter

The adapter simplifies priming of military explosives having threaded cap wells. The adapter may be used with an electric blasting cap, with a nonelectric blasting cap and safety fuse or with detonating cord. 2 Detonating cord clip. The detonating cord clip is a small metal device used to join detonating cord. 3 Waterproof blasting cap sealing compound. Waterproof blasting cap sealing compound is used to moistureproof the connection between a nonelectric blasting cap and safety fuse. This...

Figure Weatherproof timeblasting fuse igniter

Time-blasting fuse igniter, the black powder of the time blasting fuse transmits a flame to a nonelectric blasting cap that may be installed in a demolition charge. The 40 seconds per foot, however, will vary for the same or different roll under different atmospheric and or climatic conditions, from a burning time of 30 seconds or less per foot to 45 seconds or more per foot. When used under water, the rate of burning is increased significantly. Therefore, each roll of fuse must be tested...

Propulsion System

The propulsion systems used in guided missiles employ either a jet engine or a rocket motor. These systems consist essentially of a combustion chamber and a nozzle. Fuel burned in the combustion chamber produces thrust. This results from products of combustion which expand and pass through the nozzle. b. Operation. The missile propulsion system generally operates in two phases the boost phase, during which the missile is accelerated to its cruising speed and the sustainer phase,...

Detonators

Detonators are explosive devices sensitive to mechanical initiation. They are used to detonate explosive charges. Detonators combine functions of firing devices and blasting caps in a single unit. They may or may not incorporate a time-delay mechanism. Detonators used in demolition work are classified according to initiating action as friction, percussion and concussion. 1 Delay friction type. Delay friction detonators fig. 8-7 and 8-8 consist of a cylindrical, olive-drab, plastic...

Equipment Manuals

Storage, Shipment, Handling, and Disposal of Chemical Agents and Data Sheets for Ordnance Type 9-500 Ammunition and Explosives Standards 9-1300-206 Organizational Maintenance Manual Including Repair Parts and Special Tools List for Small Arms Ammunition to 30MM inclusive FSC 1305 9-1305-201-20 amp P Direct Support and General Support Maintenance Manual Including Repair Parts and Special Tools List for Small Arms Ammunition to 30MM inclusive FSC 1305 9-1305-201-34 amp P Operator's and Unit...

Explosive Embedment Anchor

The explosive embedment anchor fig. 13-1 is currently used to secure underwater pipelines. Two anchors, each bearing a cartridge containing 31 2 pounds of propellant, are mounted on the pipeline sled. Anchors are fired after the end of the pipeline has been pulled into its final position. This item has other possible underwater applications. b. Ignition Method. Ignition is by electric current. Prior to launching, a firing wire is connected to the ignitor contacts in a way that...

Demolition Kits

M37 Demolition Kit

Demolition kits contain explosive and nonexplosive items for performing various demolition tasks. Some kits are designed for general demolition others, for specific demolition tasks. Kits include accessories, tools and other specialized components in specially designed containers. b. General Blasting Kits. These kits are designated Demolition Kit, Blasting Explosive Initiating, Electric and Nonelectric, and Demolition Kit, Blasting Explosive Initiating, Nonelectric. They contain...

Waterproof Plastic

Nating agent, a primary agent, or alone as an explosive charge. It may be used for detonating single or multiple charges. It will transmit a detonating wave from one point to another at a rate of at least 5,900 meters per second. Detonating cord consists of a core of PETN in a textile tube coated with a layer of asphalt. The asphalt layer has an outer textile cover which is finished with a wax gum composition or plastic coating. See TM 91375-213-12 and TM 91375-213-34 for various detonating...

Ord Di

Armor-piercing capped cartridge. 4-11 Figure 4-10. Antipersonnel APERS cartridge. 4-12 Figure 4-10. Antipersonnel APERS cartridge. 4-12 qfe A f i i 10 u MS . J. v i . t -v. - lt gt iw W TO ' gt jfe ST' e t f3f ''fif Ef lt 5 0 rry . -V. Si flj qfe A f i i 10 u MS . J. v i . t -v. - lt gt iw W TO ' gt jfe ST' e t f3f ''fif Ef lt 5 0 rry . -V. Si flj of the flat-bag type and are folded around the primer. Less muzzle flash than with single granulation charges, improved uniformity of...

Control and Guidance Systems

Control and guidance are parts of an integrated system for automatically directing flight of the missile. b. Control System. The control system includes components necessary for automatic control of a missile in flight. The system receives intelligence from a radio signal or other electrical device wire or wireless and makes corrections for changes in yaw, pitch and roll. The system usually includes a gyroscope, signal amplifier, servomotor and control surface. The system may also...

Packing and Identification Marking

Containers and methods for packing military small-arms ammunition are specified in drawings, specifications or, as required, in the procurement contract. Military containers presently being manufactured have been limited to a few standard types designed to withstand all conditions commonly encountered in handling, storage and transportation of ammunition. Military cartridges, except 20-mm, are packed in metallic ammunition boxes, overpacked in wooden wire-bound crates. Twenty...

Figure Types and comparative sizes of military pyrotechnics

a Pyrotechnic projectors or pistols. b Small arms rifles equipped with grenade launchers and special blank cartridges. c Hand-held expendable launchers that form part of the signal assembly for rocket- assisted signals. d Manually operated lanyard-type ground signal projectors mounted on staff-like supports that are anchored to the ground by spikes. 3 The white smoke puff charge is fired from a smoke-puff discharger powder from the charge, which is ignited by a smoke-puff percussion cap,...

Chemical Mines and Incendiary Bursters

Chemical Mines

Chemical mines are used for contaminating purposes. Exploded either by remote control or by trip action, these mines spread chemical agents in either liquid or vapor form. 1 One type of chemical mine, consisting of a rectangular, one-gallon metal can fig. 7-1 , has two short copper wires soldered to one of its sides. These wires are used for attaching a burster detonating cord . The mine contains a liquid chemical agent. Functioning of the burster bursts the mine can and...

Gvi

One or more of the other materials in the mixture to flame, friction and static electrical discharges from the cause detonation. Some pyrotechnic compositions human body. mixtures may become more sensitive because of exposure to moisture. Mixtures are sensitive to heat, High explosives are usually nitration products of such organic substances as toluene, phenol, pentaerythritol, amines, glycerin, and starch. Otherwise, high explosives may be nitrogen-containing inorganic substances or mixtures....

Chapter Explosive And Chemical Agents

Degressive Grains

Solid propellants are low explosives used to propel projectiles, rockets, etc. Nitrocellulose, though unstable, is a general ingredient of propellants. Stabilizers are added to counteract acid breakdown products of nitrocellulose. Propellant compositions, generally referred to as smokeless powders a misnomer , burn at characteristic, linear rates affected by initial temperatures and pressures. Propellants are identified by M or T numbers. See TM 9-1300-214 for specific coverage on United States...

Section Iii Rifle Grenades

Depending on the groove at which the grenade is placed. Rifle grenades are fin-stabilized projectiles launched from rifles equipped with grenade launchers. The propelling force for the grenade is provided by a special gas-producing grenade cartridge. a. A grenade launcher fig. 6-5 functions as an extension of the rifle barrel. It is attached to the muzzle by a clip latch fitted over the bayonet stud of the rifle. A hollow stabilizer tube on the grenade fits over the barrel of the launcher and...

Rwj

Typical nonmetallic practice APERS mine. a. General. Service AT mines fig. 7-5 and 74 are explosive devices placed on, or slightly below the surface of the ground. They are used primarily to restrict or delay movement of enemy vehicles. AT mines will usually destroy a small unarmored vehicle. Although they may not always destroy an armored tank, AT mines can be relied on to Incapacitate it, usually by damaging Its tracks Unless they are run across, heavy AT mines are usually not...

Caution

Rockets fuzed with proximity fuzes may function prematurely if fired too close to trees or other intervening objects. There should be at least 250 feet clearance from objects short of the target. The proximity fuze detonates the warhead at a distance from the target to produce optimum blast effect. It is essentially a radio transmitting and receiving unit and requires no prior setting or adjustment. Upon firing, after the minimum arming time, the fuze arms and continually emits radio waves. As...

Time Blasting Fuse Igniters

These igniters are initiating components used in place of matches to light time blasting fuses. Fuse igniters are usually more reliable than matches. Use of igniters, therefore, is almost mandatory in rainy and windy weather. Fuse igniters consist of two types friction and weatherproof. a. Friction type. A friction, time-blasting, fuse igniter fig. 8-13 consists of a paper tube containing friction powder. Prongs inside the open end of the fuse igniter permit the time-blasting fuse to be...

Demolition Charges

Underwater Demolition Charge

These charges are used in general demolition operations, such as cutting, breaching and cratering. They are composed of high-velocity explosives RDX, PETN, amatol, composition B, composition C series, tetrytol and TNT, and the low-velocity explosive ammonium nitrate. Most charges are made in the form of rectangular blocks. Some are made in cylindrical form, such as the 1 4-pound TNT charge. Recent studies show that a thinner layer of explosive spread out over a larger area is more efficient...

Explosive Train

The large quantities of explosives in warheads and motors must be comparatively insensitive to permit safe handling in storage and transit. Yet, means of initiating these explosives at the desired time must be dependable. a. High-Explosive Train. Sensitive explosives that can be detonated by impact of a firing pin or by electrical means are safe to handle in small quantities, highly compressed and enclosed in a capsule. They are used in fuze primers, detonators and squibs. Since the small flame...

Service Apers Mines

Service APERS mines are used primarily to restrict or delay movement of enemy foot troops. These mines consist of an amount of high explosive, generally less than one pound, In a container fitted with a fuse. The fuse is activated by pressure or release of pressure, by pull on a trip wire, or by cutting a taut trip wire. b. Fuzes. Functioning of APERS mines is initiated by various types of fuzes The fuse serves to transform mechanical action, such as pressure on the fuse or pull of...

List Of Illustrations

1-1 Color identification of typical pyrotechnic 1-3 Color identification and typical marking of packing boxes and fiber containers 2-1 Shapes and forms of propellant grains 2-2 Relative sizes of propellant 2-3 Burning of propellant 2-4 Progressive burning of propellant grains 2-5 Ball powder X25 2-6 Explosive trains-artillery 2-7 Detonating wave amplified by use of a booster 2-8 Schematic arrangements of explosive train 3-1 Typical cartridge 3-2 7.62-mm bullets sectioned 3-3 5.56-mm and caliber...

Time Blasting Fuse

Time blasting fuse is used to transmit a flame from a match or igniter to a nonelectric blasting cap or other explosive charge. This fuse also provides a time delay during which personnel may retire from the danger zone. Time blasting fuse consists of two types a corrugated, outer-surface type and a plastic-cover, outer-surface type fig. 8-15 and 8-16 . The latter type has single bands painted at 1-foot or 18-inch intervals and double yellow bands painted at 5-foot or 90-inch intervals,...