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Figure 4-9. Armor-piercing capped cartridge. 4-11

Figure 4-10. Antipersonnel (APERS) cartridge. 4-12

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Figure 4-11. Canister cartridge.

of the flat-bag type and are folded around the primer. Less muzzle flash than with single granulation charges, improved uniformity of performance, and greater accuracy are obtained with the dualgran charge.

(b) The adjustable semifixed propelling charges used in mortar ammunition consist of either thin sheets of propellant or bags of granular propellant. In either case, this propellant is fitted around the stabilizing fins or to the cartridge container boom at the base of the projectile.

(3) Separated. This propelling charge consists of looseloaded propellant in a primed brass or steel cartridge case closed by a plastic or asphalt composition plug. It is not adjustable.

(4) Separate-loading. Propellant in separate-loading ammunition is contained in acrylic cotton cloth bags, divided into multisection charges. This type of charge permits the gun-crew to vary size of the propelling charge and facilitate handling of larger and heavier charges. Multisection charges are subdivided into base-and-increment and unequal-section types.

(a) Base-and-increment. This type of propelling charge consists of a base section or charge and one or more increments. The increments may be equal or unequal in weight. The base section is

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Figure 4-12. Flash reducer.

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Figure 4-12. Flash reducer.

Figure 4-13. Propellant temperature indicator with thermometer.

always fired; the increments may or may not be. An igniter pad is attached to the base end of the base section only. A propelling charge may have a core igniter in the base section and in the increments.

(b) Unequal section. In howitzer ammunition, the charge is made up of unequal sections. In gun cannon ammunition, the charge is made up of several equal sections and two or more unequal sections. This type of propelling charge permits firing at reduced velocity and provides maximum flexibility.

(c) Color. In certain howitzer ammunition, two base and increment charges are provided, one for inner, the other for outer zone charges (green bag charges) to distinguish them from the outer zone charges contained in undyed (white) bags (white bag charges).

(d) Flash reducers. Flash reducers (fig. 412), cloth pads filled with flash-reducing salts, are used with certain separate-loading propelling charges to eliminate flash. Used with white bag charges only, in 155-mm and 8-inch howitzers, they are inserted between increments or tied around the base charge. Green bag charges require no flash reducers for these howitzers. The precautions that apply to black powder also apply to flash reducers.

(e) Propellant temperature indicators. Propellant temperature indicators (fig. 4-13), used in antiaircraft batteries, make it possible to take propellant temperatures either at battery level or in storage at the ammunition supply point (ASP). A propellant temperature indicator consists of a thermometer inserted into the packed propelling charge (through the fiber container and cartridge case). The thermometer can be read through plastic lenses placed in the head of the assembly. The assembly is then placed with an ammunition lot so that the temperature may be noted. Since firing tables are based on the temperature of the propellant at +70°F. at the time of firing, any deviation from this temperature has to be considered in making firing data corrections.

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    What is a howitzer's propellant flash?
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