When the grenade is thrown, the striker, under the force of the spring, pushes the safety lever free. This permits the fuze to function either on impact or delay, depending on the type and model. Grenades fuzed with impact detonating fuzes are designed to detonate on impact with the target. However, Impact fuzes also contain a delay action system which will detonate the grenade within 3 to 7 seconds after the lever is released. Delay detonating fuses contain a delay charge which Is ignited by the primer. The primer, activated by the striker when the safety lever is released, ignites a delay charge. This explodes the detonator and the bursting charge after a 4to 5-second delay, fragmenting the grenade body and the fragmentation coil.
(2) Offensive. Offensive hand grenades (C, fig. 6-2) are cylindrical and about the size of fragmentation grenades. This type of grenade has a press-fiber (cardboard) body loaded with approximately one-half pound of flaked TNT. It employs a delay detonating fuze. Since the body of the grenade is cardboard, the main effect of the grenade is blast. However, some metal fragments from the fuze may be projected. This type of grenade is designed for demolition, final assault and use in rooms, caves and other closed areas.
(3) Chemical. The two types of chemical grenades, burning and bursting, are similar in size and shape. "hey differ primarily in filler and fuze. A typical chemical grenade (d, fig. 6-2) has a cylindrical body about 2% inches in diameter and 4% inches long, with the top and bottom crimped in place. Two less common body types, with serrated sides and a tapered end, describe a sphere and a modified cylinder, respectively. In burning-typing grenades, there are emission holes (gas ports) to permit escape of the agent.
(a) Burning. These grenades are usually fitted with igniting fuses which function with a 1.2to 2-second delay. Functioning of the fuze ignites the first-fire (starting) mixture which ignites the filler. The burning filler creates sufficient pressure to blow the tape (covering the gas ports) free and allow the chemical agent to escape. The following chemical agents are used as fillers:
2. CN-Tear gas: burns 20 to 60 seconds; used for riot control.
3. CS-Eye, nose and throat irritant: burns 15 to 35 seconds; used for riot control and training (as a simulated casualty agent).
4. HC-White smoke: burns 105 to 150 seconds; used for signaling.
5. Colored smoke--Green, red, violet, yellow: burns 50 to 90 seconds; used for signaling.
6. THS-Incendiary thermate: burns 80 seconds at +4,300°F.; used to destroy equipment.
(b) Bursting. These grenades are fuzed with delay fuzes which contain high-explosive detonators. The detonators rupture the grenade body and disperse the filler. There are two types of filler:
1. CN-1-Tear .gas: used in special purpose, spherical-shaped riot control grenades.
Although this type of grenade functions by bursting, it creates the same effect as burning grenades.
2. WP-White phosphorus: burns 60 seconds; used for signaling, smoke screening, and for antipersonnel and incendiary purposes. When WP is released, it ignites spontaneously on contact with the air, burning with intense heat and forming a dense white smoke.
(4) Illuminating. This type of grenade (fig. 6-3) is used for signaling and battlefield illumination. Because the illuminant compound burns with a very hot flame, this type can also be used for incendiary purposes against flammable targets. A typical illuminating grenade is similar in size and function to burning-type chemical grenades. It consists of three basic components: a thin, sheet-metal body, an illuminating charge, and a special, igniter-type fuze. The igniter consists of a quick-match contained in a bushing. The illuminating charge consists of a pyrotechnic composition, a first-fire composition and an igniter charge. The illuminant burns for approximately 25 seconds at 55,000 candlepower, illuminating an area approximately 200 meters in diameter.
b. Practice, Training and Simulating.
(1) A typical practice grenade (B, fig. 6-2) contains a small spotting charge of black powder and is fuzed with a 4to 5-second delay igniting fuze. This type of grenade is used to simulate operation and functioning of service grenades.
(2) Training grenades are unfuzed and completely inert. They resemble service rounds in size and shape, and are used for training in handling and throwing.
(3) Simulators (fig. 6-4) provide realistic battle noises and effects during troop maneuvers. They consist of sealed paper tubes containing photoflash powder, a short piece of time blasting fuse, and a fuse igniter.
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