a. Pyrotechnic items used as training devices include tow-target flares, aircraft parachute flares, photoflash cartridges, and a variety of simulators.
b. Simulators are used to create the effect of specific items of ammunition. The primary types of simulators are described briefly below.
(1) The air burst simulator (fig. 9-15), used with a smoke puff discharger, simulates the burst of an artillery projectile near the ground by producing a puff of white smoke.
(2) The boobytrap simulator (fig. 9-16) is used during maneuvers and troop training. This device provides training in installation and use of boobytraps. When triggered, the simulator functions with a loud report and flash.
(3) The ground burst simulator (fig. 9-17) is used to create battle noises and effects during troop maneuvers. It produces a high-pitched whistle which lasts 2 to 4 seconds. In exploding, it produces a flash and loud report.
(4) The artillery flash simulator (fig. 9-18) produces a flash, a puff of smoke, and a loud report. Its flash is similar to that of 90-mm guns and 155-mm howitzers. This simulator is used to train artillery observers and may actually be employed in forward combat areas as a decoy.
(5) The hand grenade simulator (fig. 9-19) provides battle noises and effects during troop maneuvers. It is thrown in the same manner as a live grenade and creates a loud report and flash 5 to 10 seconds after ignition.
(6) The explosive simulator (fig. 9-20) is
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