Unloading Procedures

To unload the MG, the gunner must first ensure that the weapon is in the single-shot mode. The cover is then lifted and the assistant gunner removes the ammunition belt from the feedway. The bolt is then locked to the rear. Once the bolt is locked to the rear, the chamber and T-slot are examined to ensure that they are not holding rounds. In darkness, this must be done by feeling the areas. After the examination has been done (during training), a wooden block is inserted in the receiver between...

Warning

Never attempt to cock the gun while the backplate is off and the driving spring assembly is in place. If the backplate is off and the driving spring assembly is compressed, the retaining pin on the driving spring rod can slip from its seat in the sideplate and could cause serious injury to anyone behind the gun. Figure 2-8. Removing the driving spring rod assembly. d. Bolt Stud. Grasp the retracting slide handle and give it a quick jerk, freeing the bolt from the barrel extension. Align the...

Tracking And Leading Exercises

The gunner normally completes instruction in firing at stationary targets before he receives instruction in firing at moving targets. The technique of engaging a moving target differs from that of engaging a stationary target. The gun must be aimed ahead of the moving target a sufficient distance to cause the bullet and target to arrive at the aiming point at the same time. The distance is measured in target lengths. One target length as seen by the gunner is one lead. Leads are measured from...

Maintenance Procedures

There are certain actions that must be taken before, during, and after firing to properly maintain the gun. See Table 2-2 for a preoperation checklist. DURING FIRING OR TEMPORARY CESSATION Oil lightly and test for worn or broken parts. They should function without excessive friction. Lubricate working parts. Observe the functioning of the gun to anticipate failures. Check adjustment by gauge and correct if necessary. Watch for bulged cases to prevent a ruptured (separated) case. If a PInail...

Combat Techniques Of Fire

Technique of fire is the method of delivering and controlling fire Each member of the machine gun crew must be trained in standard methods of applying fire, either as a crewmember or a gunner, and must perform his assigned task automatically and effectively. The simplest and most effective technique of delivering fire with the machine gun mounted on its ground or vehicular mount is to align the sights of the gun on the target and fire this is called direct laying. At times, techniques of fire...

Cleaning Inspection And Lubrication

To ensure proper care of the MG, it is necessary to have a system of maintenance or an SOP for the frequency of cleaning. Each gun should be cleaned as soon after firing as possible and each time it is exposed to field conditions. Under combat conditions, the gun should be cleaned and oiled daily. Under extreme climatic and combat conditions, it maybe necessary to clean and lubricate more frequently. Under ideal conditions, where the gun is not used, and is stored in a clean, dry place, it may...

Figure Major groups

Turn the cover latch and raise the cover group (Figure 2-3). Grasp the retracting slide handle with the right hand, palm up, and pull the recoiling parts to the rear until the lug on the barrel locking spring aligns with the 3 8-inch hole in the right sideplate of the receiver (just below the feedway exit). The barrel can be turned only when the lug is aligned with the 3 8-inch hole. Place the smallest loop of a caliber .50 link, or suitable spacer, between the trunnion block...

Maintenance

This chapter addresses the proper care of the machine gun to ensure its overall effectiveness and efficient functioning. The information includes the gunner's knowledge in disassembly and assembly, inspection, and maintenance procedures of the gun, its mount, the T& E, and its ammunition. The paramount consideration while training with the machine gun is safety. It is imperative that the weapon be cleared properly before disassembly and inspection. (See Figure 2-1 for step-by-step...

Figure Removing the bolt stud

After freeing the bolt, slide it to the rear and out of receiver (Figure 2-11). Place the bolt down on its right side (with the extractor arm up), so that the extractor will not fall from the bolt. e. Bolt Group. After freeing the bolt, slide it to the rear and out of receiver (Figure 2-11). Place the bolt down on its right side (with the extractor arm up), so that the extractor will not fall from the bolt. Figure 2-11. Removing the bolt from the receiver. Figure 2-11. Removing...

Destruction Procedures

The decision to destroy the gun to prevent its capture and use by the enemy is a command decision. It will be ordered and carried out only on authority delegated by the major unit commander. Destroy the machine gun and mount only when they are subject to capture or abandonment. Destruction must be as complete as circumstances permit. Lacking time for complete destruction, destroy the parts essential to operation of the gun, beginning with those parts most difficult for the enemy to duplicate....

Train The Trainer Program

The information in this chapter tells how to train the trainer, how to advise the trainer, and how to assist the trainer in preparing the crew for the three phases of MG marksmanship. The Train The Trainer Program must be planned properly and conclude with a certification program. In the planning phase, the instructor teaches the trainer to be flexible and thorough. He must plan alternate exercises in case weather or other constraints prohibit the originally scheduled training. Training must...

Ammunition

This paragraph describes the ammunition used in caliber .50 machine guns (Figure 1-14). Soldiers should be able to recognize the types of ammunition available and know how to care for it. The caliber .50 cartridge consists of a cartridge case, primer, propelling charge, and the bullet. See TM 9-1300-200. The term bullet refers only to the small-arms projectile. There are eight types of ammunition issued for use in the caliber .50 machine gun. The tips of the various rounds are color-coded to...

Table Maximum penetration for ball cartridge

Observe the general precautions concerning the firing and handling of ammunition in the field, as prescribed in TM 9-1300-206. Precautions that apply particularly to small-arms ammunition are (1) Do not fire small-arms ammunition (other than blank ammunition) until it has been positively identified by ammunition lot number and grade. Do not fire small-arms ammunition graded and marked For Training Use Only over the heads of troops. (2) Do not use armor-piercing cartridges in...

Targets And Their Engagement

Targets presented to the machine gunners during combat will in most cases consist of enemy soldiers in various formations, which require distribution and concentration of fire. These targets have width and depth, and the application of machine gun fire is designed to completely cover the area in which the enemy is known or suspected to be. These targets may be easy to see or may be indistinct and difficult to locate. a. When machine gun fire is under direct control of a leader, he designates...

Methods Of Fire Control

Of the several methods of controlling machine gun fire, the noise of battle will limit the use of some. Therefore, the leader must select the method or combination of methods that will best accomplish his purpose. The chain of fire control begins with the leader. He is responsible for both the technical and tactical employment of the gun and the training of the crew. He is responsible for passing on to the crewmembers all instructions and orders from his next higher leader regarding the...

Observation And Adjustment Of Fire

The purpose of observation and adjustment of fire practice is to teach the adjustment of fire by observing the strike of the bullets and the flight of the tracers, or by frequent re-laying on the target using sights. a. Observation is used when firing on the 10-meter range because the impact of the round is visible on the target. When firing at greater distances, the strike of the round on the ground may cause dust to rise that is visible to the gunner however, during wet weather, the strike...

Concept Of Zeroingtargeting

The concept of zero is very simple it is no more than the best way to adjust the sights of the weapon so the point of aim of the sights and the point of impact of the rounds are the same at any given range. A properly zeroed M2 gives the gunner the highest probability of hit for most combat targets with the least adjustment to the point of aim. There are three methods of zeroing targeting used with the .50 caliber MG. a. Ten-meter zero is the basic and the most common method of zeroing the M2...

Ground Mounts

The two principal ground mounts used with the caliber .50 machine gun are the tripod mount, M3, and the antiaircraft mount, M63. The tripod mount, M3, is a ground mount designed for use against ground targets. The antiaircraft mount, M63, is a ground mount principally designed for use against aerial targets. Its use against ground targets is limited because the mount tends to be unstable when the gun is fired at low angles. a. Tripod Mount, M3. The M3 mount is the standard ground mount of the...

Full

Laying methods, 6-20, 6-21 partial, 6-18, 6-19 description, 1-5 illus components, 1-8, 1-9 illus front sight, 1-7 illus general data, 1-7 rear sight, 1-6 illus ammunition, 4-5 antiaircraft mount, 4-5 burning, 4-6 disposal, 4-6 gun, 4-5 spare parts, 4-5 tripod mount, 4-5 devices, training M19 BFA, B-1 illus M3 RABA, B-8 illus MILES, B-2 thru B-6 sighting bar, B-6, B-7 illus SRTA, B-7 disassembly, general backplate group, 2-4 barrel buffer assembly, 2-9 barrel buffer body group, 2-8 barrel...

Caution

Cal Backplate

Care must be taken to prevent the bolt from slamming forward with the barrel removed. c. Driving Spring Rod Assembly. The inner and outer driving springs and driving spring rod are located inside the receiver next to the right sideplate Figure 2-8, page 2-6 . Push in on the head of the driving spring rod and push to the left to remove the driving spring rod retaining pin from its seat in the right sideplate. Pull the driving spring assembly to the rear and out of the receiver.

General Disassembly

Cal Bolt Group

The crew operating the MG must be fully familiar with its general disassembly, which consists of removing the major groups and assemblies for inspection and cleaning. The eight major groups that must be disassembled in the following order are barrel group, backplate group, driving spring rod assembly, bolt group, barrel extension group, barrel buffer body group, barrel buffer assembly, and receiver group Figure 2-2 .

Figure Feeding cartridge entering the Tslot in the bolt

Breech Lock

Cambering is placing the cartridge into the chamber of the weapon. During this cycle, the bolt moves forward, carrying the cartridge in the T-slot in a direct route to the chamber of the weapon. At the same time, the extractor rides up the extractor cam and when the bolt is fully forward, the extractor grasps the next linked cartridge Figure 3-10. Cambering - new round aligned with the chamber. c. Locking. The bolt is locked to the barrel and barrel extension. 1 Initially, the...

R

-V MOVING PERSONNEL TARGET DEFILADE POSITION H HARDENED EMPLACEMENT FOR AVIATION GUNNERY Carrier 2 will upload and wait at the ammunition point. When the course is clear, carrier 2 will move to the initial fire point followed by carrier 4 and proceed as stated. Carrier 3 should now be at the ammunition point for uploading. 1 Task 1, Conduct Prefire Inspection. a The crew will move forward to the initial firing position. Once the carrier is in position, the crew will perform a prefire inspection...

Aerial Defense

The two methods for defending against aerial attacks are passive air defense and active air defense. Passive measures are taken to avoid air detection active measures combat air attacks. Passive air defense measures are a first line of defense. They include troop or vehicle dispersion, concealment and camouflage, and observation and reporting. Attack avoidance is based on the reasoning that what can be seen from the air can be destroyed and what cannot be seen will probably not be attacked....

Accessories For Ground Mounts

The following paragraph explains the functions of the traversing and elevating mechanism and pintle used in the mounting of the machine gun when used in the ground configuration. a. Traversing and Elevating Mechanism. The T amp E mechanism Figure 1-8 is used to engage preselected target areas at night or during limited visibility conditions. Record direction and elevation readings from the traversing bar and T amp E mechanism. Record all readings in mils. 1 The traversing mechanism consists of...

Machine Gun Fundamental Skills Test

The machine gun fundamental skills test should be held periodically to ensure that proficiency with the MG is maintained by all crewmen. It consists of 10 fundamental skills all tasks are hands-on Figure 5-29 . The test should be given prior to range firing on a go no-go basis. 6. Set the headspace on the MG. 9. Perform immediate action on the MG. 10. Unload the MG. Figure 5-29. The MG fundamental skills test. This phase of training is designed to allow the gunner to apply the fundamentals of...

Crew Exercises

The purpose of crew exercise is to develop precision, speed, skill, and teamwork in examining equipment, placing the gun into action, and taking it out of action. In crew exercise, precision must be stressed. Once that is attained, speed, skill, and teamwork will follow. Duties are rotated during crew exercise to allow each member of the gun crew to become familiar with all the duties. During crew exercise, all oral or visual signals are repeated. When the fire command is completed, the gunner...

Safety

Safety precautions must be observed during all marksmanship training. Tis appendix recommends safety precautions for the ranges described in this manual. Range safety requirements will vary with the different courses of fire. The following safety precautions will be observed when using any training range. a. A red flag will be displayed at the entrance or in some other prominent location on the range during firing. b. Firing limits will be marked with red and white striped poles visible to all...

Remedial Training

Prepare Range Card M240b

Remedial training will be conducted in any of the phases of training where the gunner does not meet the standard. The trainer must be instantly aware of any gunner that seems to be having trouble. Once the problem has been identified, the gunner should be retrained as soon as possible so that he will maintain the same level of proficiency as the other gunners. The fundamentals are necessary basic skills that a gunner must be trained in before he can be expected to effectively engage targets....

Ranges And Training Exercises

Range Layout

This appendix provides guidance for US Army machine gun exercises. It is designed to be a working guide for trainers and commanders by explaining range layouts, conduct of firing exercises, and qualification standards. The two basic firing ranges will be the multipurpose MG transition range and the multipurpose range complex Section I. MULTIPURPOSE MACHINE GUN TRANSITION RANGE All machine gun firing can be conducted on the multipurpose MG transition range. It allows for complete firing of the...

Training Strategy

M2hb Machine Gun Plans

Training strategy is the overall concept for integrating resources into a program to train individual and collective skills needed to perform a unit's wartime mission. a. Training strategies for marksmanship are implemented in TRADOC institutions NCOES, basic and advanced officer's courses and in units. The overall training strategy is multifaceted and is inclusive of the specific strategies used in institution and unit programs. Also included are the supporting strategies that use resources...

General Assembly

To assemble the gun, replace the groups and assemblies in reverse order of their removal in disassembly. a. Barrel Buffer Assembly and Barrel Buffer Body Group. Replace the barrel buffer assembly in the barrel buffer body group, with the key on the spring guide to the right. This key must fit in its slot in the right side of the barrel buffer body. Turn the barrel buffer tube until the screwdriver slot in the rear of the tube is vertical and the arrow is pointing to the right. The stud on the...

Figure Ammunition for the M

The eight types of ammunition are used for the following purposes. 1 Ball. For use in marksmanship training, and against personnel and light material targets. 2 Tracer. To aid in observing fire. Secondary purposes are for incendiary effect and for signaling. 3 Armor-piercing. For use against armored aircraft and lightly armored vehicles, concrete shelters, and other bullet-resisting targets. 4 Incendiary. For incendiary effect, especially against aircraft. 5...

Range Determination

100 Meter Unit Measure Method

Range determination is the process of estimating the distance to a target from a gunner's position. The ability of the gunner to get the range to, sight on, and destroy a target is the realism of combat. Under combat conditions, ranges are seldom known in advance therefore the effectiveness of fire depends largely upon the accuracy and speed of the gunner in determining range. Some methods of determining range are estimating by eye Table 5-1, page 5-15 , firing the gun, measuring range from a...

Task Zero the ANTVS

Range Card Cal50

a The gunner must first mount the AN TVS-5 to the weapon and place it into operation. Once the device is mounted, the gunner will fire a 7-round burst to seat the device, then fire another 7-round burst and tighten the device to make sure it is settled. b The gunner must then center the reticle pattern in the field of view of the device. He then places the reticle aiming point on the 50-meter zero target aim point and fires three single rounds. NOTE Each click of the azimuth or elevation...

Characteristics Of Fire

Maximum Ordinate

The gunner's knowledge of his machine gun is not complete until he learns something of the action and effect of the projectiles when fired. This section discusses various characteristics of machine gun fire, including trajectory, cone of fire, and the beaten zone. a. Trajectory. The trajectory is the curved path of the projectile in its flight from the muzzle of the weapon to its impact. The major factors that influence the trajectory are the velocity of the round, gravity, rotation of the...

Headspace And Timing

Headspace is the distance between the face of the bolt and the base of the cartridge case, fully seated in the chamber. Timing is the adjustment of the gun so that firing takes place when the recoiling parts are in the correct position for firing. Because the cartridge is held by the T-slot of the bolt, headspace with the MG is measured as the distance between the rear of the barrel and the face of the bolt. This occurs when the recoiling parts are forward and there is positive contact between...

Performance Problems And Destruction

This chapter discusses the malfunctions, stoppages, immediate actions, remedial actions, and destruction procedures of the MG. All corrective actions must comply with safety procedures. A malfunction is any failure of the gun to function satisfactorily. Examples of malfunctions are a. Failure to Function Freely. Sluggish operation is usually due to human failure to eliminate excessive friction caused by dirt, lack of proper lubrication, burred parts, incorrect headspace adjustment, or incorrect...

Table Ballistic data

Exercise care to prevent ammunition boxes from becoming broken or damaged. If they do, repair them immediately. Transfer all original markings to the new parts of the box. Do not open ammunition boxes until the ammunition is to be used. Ammunition removed from the airtight container, particularly in damp climates, is likely to corrode. Protect the ammunition from mud, sand, and water. If the ammunition gets wet or dirty, wipe it off at once with a clean, dry...

Range Cards

Range Cards

A range card is a sketch or diagram of the terrain that a weapon is assigned to cover by fire. It shows possible target areas and terrain features plotted in relation to a firing position. The information on a range card is used for planning and controlling fire, for rapidly detecting and engaging targets, and for orienting replacement personnel or units. Therefore DA Form 5517-R, should be used to record the information. Each machine gunner normally prepares range cards for his fighting...

Loading Procedures

Cal Ammo Double Loop

Trainers must ensure that the weapon functions correctly and that proper headspace and timing have been set before loading. When loading in either mode, the ammunition is fed into the MG in the same manner Figure 3-1 . Ensure that the bolt is forward and the cover is closed. Insert the double-loop end of the ammunition belt into the feedway until the first round is engaged by the belt-holding pawl. Figure 3-2 shows the correct procedures to use in the machine gun in the single-shot or automatic...

Figure Traversing and elevating mechanism

M36 Machine Gun

The gun is connected to the tripod mount, M3, by a pintle Figure 1-9, page 1-14 . This pintle is semipermanently attached to the machine gun by a pintle bolt through the front mounting hole in the receiver. The tapered stem of the pintle seats in the tripod head. It is held secure by a pintle lock and spring. To release the pintle, raise the pintle lock, releasing the cam. The weight of the pintle and traversing and elevating mechanism are considered as part of the total weight of...

Figure Headspace and timing gauge

Headspace And Timing

2 Hold the bolt in this position and screw the barrel fully into the barrel extension Figure 3-19 . 2 Hold the bolt in this position and screw the barrel fully into the barrel extension Figure 3-19 . Figure 3-19. Screwing in the barrel. Figure 3-19. Screwing in the barrel.

Function Check

A function check must be performed as soon as the weapon is assembled to ensure that the weapon has been assembled correctly. The following procedures should be taken to check the function of the weapon. Place the weapon in the single-shot mode. Open the cover and lock the bolt to the rear bolt should stay to rear while in the single-shot mode . Hold the retractor handles, press the bolt latch release, and ride the bolt forward. Press down on the trigger weapon should fire. Check T-slot to...

Training Aids And Devices

Aaadm Swing Door Inspection Sheet

The use of devices in marksmanship training programs are important factors because they may allow the gunner to get an idea of what actual combat is like. The training devices designed for the MG are the M19 blank firing attachment, the multiple integrated liner engagement system, the sighting bar, and the M3 recoil amplifier barrel used with plastic ammunition. The M19 BFA was developed to permit the MG to fire the M1A1 blank cartridge in the automatic fire mode. The BFA is an easy to install,...