Aerial Defense

The two methods for defending against aerial attacks are passive air defense and active air defense. Passive measures are taken to avoid air detection; active measures combat air attacks.

F-1. PASSIVE AIR DEFENSE

Passive air defense measures are a first line of defense. They include troop or vehicle dispersion, concealment and camouflage, and observation and reporting. Attack avoidance is based on the reasoning that what can be seen from the air can be destroyed and what cannot be seen will probably not be attacked.

F-2. ACTIVE AIR DEFENSE

Active air defense comes into play when a unit has been detected by hostile aircraft or when ordered to interdict hostile aircraft. Volume of fire is the key to its effectiveness. Because the action is so fast, the response must be coordinated and tightly controlled, usually at platoon level. At company level, too many are involved, making response time too slow. At section and squad level, too few are involved to achieve the volume of fire needed for an effective defense.

NOTE: All aircraft engagement firing is done at the cyclic rate. F-3. AERIAL ENGAGEMENT

In engaging aerial targets, there are two requirements that must be considered: lead and line. Superelevation (compensation made for the pull of gravity on the projectile) is another consideration for some weapons, but the caliber .50 MG projectile is basically flat out to 800 meters. Therefore the gunner does not have to worry about it. He can instead observe the tracers crossing the target course line and make the required adjustment from them.

a. Lead. Leading the aircraft is the compensation made for its speed when aiming the weapon so the projectile and the aircraft will arrive at the same spot at the same time. The required lead for a given aircraft is always calculated as a certain number of lengths of that aircraft. A high performance aircraft will need a greater lead factor than a slow one. The fuselage in the front of the aircraft.

(1) If the gunner is able to track an aircraft and lead the air craft with a constant number of leads, there will be two points along the target course line where he will attain hits. As long as the gunner understands this principle, he can bring effective fire on an aircraft.

(2) There are many different types of hostile aircraft (FM 44-30). To simplify things for the gunner, all aircraft are classified into two types: high performance and low performance. Any aircraft that has an estimated speed of more than 150 knots is classified as high performance and anything slower is low performance.

b. Line. Line is the requirement that the projectile must intersect the target course line of the aircraft. If the projectiles do not pass through this target course line, the aircraft cannot be engaged.

F-4. FLY-THROUGH TECHNIQUE

As an aerial target moves along its target course line, the lead required to engage the target changes because the range and angle between the aircraft and the gun position are changing. The lead required increases from the initial sighting (A in Figure F-1) to midpoint (B in Figure F-l). The required lead is at its maximum at midpoint.

a. As the aircraft moves beyond the midpoint on the target course line, the lead needed begins to decrease. Therefore, by leading an aerial target by less than the maximum required lead, there will be two points along the target course line where the constant lead will be the correct lead and the aircraft will fly through the projectiles.

b. In instructing the fly-through method of engagement, do not teach the gunners to bring continuous fire from points A through E, teach them to bring fire at points A through B and again before point D through the second fly through. As the gunner becomes proficient in this method, he will learn to adjust his lead and bring longer and more accurate fire on the target.

MIDPOINT

GUN POSITION Figure F-1. Aerial target engagement.

GLOSSARY

AAR after action report

AP armor piercing

APC armored personnel carrier approx approximately attn attention ba battery

BFA blank firing attachment

BFV Bradley fighting vehicle

BMP Soviet fighting vehicle cal caliber cdr commander

CLP cleaner, lubricant, and preservative

CVKI combat vehicle kill indicator

DA Department of the Army

FEBA forward edge of the battle area

FM field manual

FPF final protective fires

FPL final protective line

FSN federal stock number

FTX field training exercise

GA Georgia

HB heavy barrel

HMMWV high-mobility, multi-purpose, wheeled vehicle

IAW in accordance with

IN infantry

LFX live-fire exercise

LSA semifluid lubricating oil

LTA local training area m meter

METL mission-essential task list

MG machine gun

MILES multiple integrated laser engagement system mm millimeter

MOPP mission-oriented protection posture mph miles per hour

MOUT military operations on urbanized terrain

MTA major training area

MTP mission training plan

NBC nuclear, biological, and chemical

NCO noncommissioned officer

NCOES noncommissioned officer education system

NCOIC noncommissioned officer in charge

NSN national stock number

NVD night vision device

OIC officer in charge

PDF principal direction of fire

PL-M lubricating oil, general purpose

PL-S lubricating oil, special purpose

PMI preliminary marksmanship instruction

POI program of instruction

RABA recoil amplifier barrel assembly

RBC rifle bore cleaner

SM soldiers manual

SMCT soldiers manual of common tasks

SOP standing operating procedure

SRTA short-range training ammunition

SRTA-T short-range training ammunition-tracer

STP soldiers training publication

STX situational training exercise

T&E traversing and elevating

TM technical manual

TRADOC Training and Doctrine Command

TRP target reference point

US United States v volt

REFERENCES

Sources Used

These are the sources quoted or paraphrased in this publication FM 3-5.

STP 21-24-SMCT.

TM 9-1005-213-10.

NBC Decontamination. 24 June 1985.

Training Ranges. 16 September 1985.

Visual Aircraft Recognition. 28 October 1986.

Soldiers Manual of Common Tasks, Skill Levels 2/3/4. 10 January 1989.

Operator's Manual: Machine Gun, Cal.50,Browning, M2, Heavy Barrel. 12 July 1968.

Ammunition General. 3 October 1969.

Ammunition and Explosive Standards. 30 August 1973.

Documents Needed

These documents must be available to the intended users of this publication.

DA Form 2404.

DA Form 5517-R. DA Form 7007-R.

Equipment Inspection and Maintenance Worksheet. April 1979.

Standard Range Card. February 1986.

Machine Gun Scorecard for M2. June 1991,

References 1

MACHINE GUN SCORECARD FOR M2 For use of this form, see FM 23-65; the proponent agency is TRADOC.

See back of this form for instructions ■

NAME: | SSAN: | UNIT:

DATE: I LANE:

TABLE I

TABLE II

TABLE III

TABLE IV

TSK

Range (Meters)

HIT PTS

RANGE (Meters)

TIME

HIT

PTS

BON

RANGE (Meters)

TIME

HIT

PTS

BON

RANGE (Meters)

TIME

HIT

PTS

BON

1

10

No Score

550

None

550

None

50

None

2

10

No Score

800

20 Sec

800

20 Sec

800

20 Sec

3

10

No Score

400

20 Sec

400

20 Sec

400

20 Sec

4

10

No Score

700

25 Sec

700

25 Sec

700

25 Sec

5

10

1,000

25 Sec

1,000

25 Sec

1,000

25 Sec

6

10

400 700

35 Sec

400 700

35 Sec

400 700

35 Sec

7

10

550 800

35 Sec

550 800

35 Sec

550 800

35 Sec

8

400 550 1,000

45 Sec

400 550 1,000

45 Sec

400 550 1,000

45 Sec

TOTAL I

TABLES

I

II

ill

IV

TOTAL SCORE

OIC Signature:

Grader: Rating:

AUTHORITY: 10USC30129(g) Executive Order 9397 PRINCIPAL PURPOSE(S): Records individual's performance on record fire range. ROUTINE USE(S): Evaluation of individual's proficiency and basis for determination of award of proficiency badge; SSN is used for positive identification purposes only. MANDATORY OR VOLUNTARY DISCLOSURE AND EFFECT ON INDIVIDUAL NOT PROVIDING INFORMATION: Voluntary, individuals not providing information cannot be rated/scored on a mass basis.

DA Form 7007-R, Jun 91 Replaces DA Form 3867-R, Jun 72, which is obsolete.

The following procedure will be used to fill out the scorecard.

1. NAME: Enter last name , first name, and middle initial.

2. SSN: Enter gunner's social security number.

3. UNIT: Enter unit designation.

4. DATE: Enter date of firing.

5. LANE: Enter the lane number for the firing point of your gunner.

6. HIT: When firing Table I, enter the number of rounds impacting within the scoring space in task numbers 5, 6, and 7. For Tables II, III, and IV, enter an X when target is hit.

7. POINTS: Enter 1 point for each round impacting within the scoring space in task numbers 5, 6, and 7 in Table I. Gunners will receive 1 point for each target hit in Tables II, III, and IV.

8. EJONUS: Entry is used only for Tables II, III, and IV. Two bonus points are awarded when gunner hits the target on initial burst of each target exposure.

9. TOTAL SCORE: Enter the total of combined hits, points, and bonus scores.

NOTE: It is possible that a gunner may score the required points outlined for qualification. However the gunner must also score 70 percent on each firing table before he is considered a qualified gunner.

MAXIMUM

EXPERT

196-218

GUNNER FIRST CLASS

174-195

GUNNER SECOND CLASS 153-173

UNQUALIFIED

152 and below

Back, DA Form 7007-R, Jun 91

INDEX

adjustment of fire methods aiming point, 5-18 (illus), 6-24 mil relation, 5-17 (illus), 6-24 observation, 5-16, 6-23 advanced gunnery mounted, 5-45, C-26 thru C-31 mounted NBC, 5-45, C-26 thru C-31 predetermined firing, 5-45, C-31 thru C-34

tracking and leading, 5-42 thru 5-44 aerial defense active, F-1

engagements, F-1, F-2 passive, F-1 techniques, F-3 ammunition, 1-17 (illus) ballistic data, 1-18 (illus) care, 1-19

classification, 1-17, 1-18 penetration data, 1-19, 1-20 antiaircraft gunnery, 6-25, 6-26 position, D-6 (illus) AN/TVS-5 night sight dismounting 5-41 installing sight to mount, 5-39 mounting, 5-38 zeroing, o-40

application of fire, 6-22, 6-23 (illus) assembly, general, 2-12 backplate group, 2-16 barrel, 2-17

barrel buffer assembly, 2-13 barrel buffer body group, 2-13 barrel buffer group, 2-14 barrel extension group, 2-14 bolt, 2-14 bolt stud, 2-15

driving spring rod group, 2-16 function check, 2-17

beaten zone, 6-3

classes of fire, with respect to -

ground, 6-3,6-4 (illus) grazing tire plunging fire gun, 6-6, 6-7 (illus) fixed fire free gun searching fire swinging traverse traversing fire traversing and searching fire target, 6-4, 6-5 (illus) enfilade flanking frontal oblique cleaning the weapon, 2-9, 2-10 clearing the weapon, 2-1 (illus) cone of fire, 6-2, 6-3 (illus) crews duties, 5-23, 5-32 equipment, 5-23 exercises, 5-22 gun placement, 5-26 inspection, 5-24 positions, 5-23

relocating gun, 5-32 thru 5-35 (illus)

cycle of functioning cambering, 3-6 (illus) cocking 3-11 ejecting, 3-10 extracting 3-10 feeding 3-4 (illus), 3-5 (illus), 3-6 (illus), 3-11 firing 3-7, 3-8 (illus) locking, 3-6, 3-7 (illus) unlocking 3-8, 3-9 (illus), 3-10 (illus)

defilade positions

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