Appendix A

An effective unit marksmanship program reflects the priority, emphasis, and interest of commanders and trainers. This appendix proposes a rifle marksmanship training strategy as guidance in establishing and conducting an effective training program. The strategy consists of the individual and leader refresher training for maintaining the basic skills learned during IET. It progresses to training advanced and collective skills under near-combat conditions during live-fire STXs.

Figure B Example of completed DA Form R [Exercise

Par *** 4f tftm, r 23-f niit w km TaApOCU raniMim of kwhd lociuzatik ttm mn.twu mmn tmect* toucrrm check un omri mihiiibit in plke mhehe of tjukenomkrlr almcd h space ophbte monun um Exercise 8 Target Detection Test One (One Hour). This exercise tests the soldier's ability to locate and deter- mine ranges to single, stationary battlefield targets. Range facilities. One target detection range. Seven assistant instructors. Rounds for each presentation -- 15. Rounds for each rehearsal -- 15....

Effectiveness Of Rapid Fire

When a soldier uses rapid semiautomatic fire, he is sacrificing accuracy to deliver a greater volume of fire. The difference in accuracy between slow and rapid semiautomatic fire diminishes with proper training and repeated practice. Training and practice improve the soldier's marksmanship skills to the point that accuracy differences become minimal. There is little difference in the volume of effective fire that would be delivered by units using much less accurate automatic fire. NOTE Learning...

Unit Livefire Exercises

Unit live-fire exercises are planned, prepared, and performed as outlined in the mission training plan for the infantry platoon and squad. It is within the framework of these exercises that the soldier performs marksmanship tasks under realistic combat conditions. During training, the fundamentals must apply to combat as well as to the range. Too often soldiers disregard the fundamentals while under the pressure of combat. Therefore, it is imperative the soldier receives feedback regarding his...

Nature Of The Target

Army M16 Targets

Many soldiers have difficulty delivering effective suppressive fire when they cannot see a definite target. They must fire at likely locations or in a general area where the enemy is known to exist. Even though definite targets cannot be seen, most suppressive fire should be well aimed. Figure 4-1, shows a landscape target suitable for suppressive fire training. When this type target is used, trainers must develop a firing program to include areas of engagement and designated target areas that...

Hours

TASK Detect and engage timed targets with the M16A1 A2 rifle. CONDITIONS Given an M16A1 A2 rifle on a record fire range, 40 target exposures at ranges from 50 to 300 meters, and 40 rounds of ammunition engage 20 targets from the supported position and 20 targets from the prone unsupported position while wearing a helmet and LBE. STANDARDS Obtain at least 23 hits on the 40 targets exposed. NOTE Practice Record Fire I should not be fired on the same range as Practice Record Fire II. If scheduling...

Figure B Example of completed DA Form fl Exercise

Twr wwwi 1 1 . fri H-l n u-tr -r w u tm e, tOT l------------HfJll -Ti* wwtor. mi-*, 1 fc* H niPLicii m pnMim . itm 1, vihici r hhut , mi-*, 1 fc* H niPLicii m pnMim . itm 1, vihici r hhut , Exercise 6 Detection of Movement by Opposing Teams, Personal Camouflage. This exercise gives soldiers practical work in target detection and movement as target teams. Demonstrations and practical work in personal camouflage are conducted. Range facilities. Two target detection ranges. Two principal...

Feedback

M16 Shot Group Target

When a shot is fired, its impact relative to the target is immediately displayed on the video screen as a blinking white dot. (The left target in Figure C-13.) Replay. After a shot is fired, a real-rate display of how the firer engaged the target can be replayed on the video screen. The target to the right in Figure C-14 shows the type of information that can be replayed on the video screen after a series of shots are fired. To show the sequence, the dots have...

Rifle Marksmanship Training

The procedures and techniques for implementing the Army rifle marksmanship training program are based on the concept that all soldiers must understand common filing principles, be proficient marksmen, and be confident in applying their firing skills in combat. This depends on their understanding of the rifle and correct application of marksmanship fundamentals. Proficiency is accomplished through practice that is supervised by qualified instructors trainers and through objective performance...

Personnel And Equipment

Army Marksman Targets

The following personnel are needed to conduct and supervise target-detection training OIC or principal instructor. Four assistant instructors (based on a 50-point observation line). Target men for the period of instruction. The following equipment is needed to conduct target -- detection training One aiming device (see Figure B-7) for each observation point for the period of instruction. One master trial sheet (Figure B-8) for each instructor and assistant instructor. One answer sheet for each...

Warning

IF AN AUDIBLE POP OR REDUCED RECOIL OCCURS DURING FIRING, IMMEDIATELY CEASE FIRE. THIS POP OR REDUCED RECOIL CAN BE THE RESULT OF A ROUND BEING FIRED WITHOUT ENOUGH FORCE TO SEND THE PROJECTILE OUT OF THE BARREL. DO NOT APPLY IMMEDIATE ACTION. REMOVE THE MAGAZINE, LOCK THE BOLT TO THE REAR, AND PLACE THE SELECTOR LEVER IN THE SAFE POSITION. VISUALLY INSPECT THE BORE TO ENSURE A PROJECTILE IS NOT LODGED IN THE BARREL. IF A PROJECTILE IS LODGED IN THE BARREL, DO NOT TRY TO REMOVE IT. TURN THE...

Section Iv Quick Fire

The two main techniques of directing fire with a rifle are to aim using the sights and to use weapon alignment, instinct, bullet strike, or tracers to direct the fire. The preferred technique is to use the sights, but sometimes quick reflex action is needed to survive. Quick fire is a technique used to deliver fast, effective fire on surprise personnel targets at close ranges (25 meters or less). Quick-fire procedures have also been referred to as instinct firing or quick kill.

Exercises

The following exercises teach soldiers the skills and techniques of detecting, marking, and determining the range to realistic battlefield targets. Exercise 1 Introduction to Target Detection (Two Hours). Range facilities. Two target detection ranges. Two principal instructors (one for each range). Six target men (three for each range). NOTE One principal instructor is needed at each range. He sets up the range, trains target men, and conducts the class. Four assistant instructors are needed...

Fieldexpedient Methods

If destruction of the individual rifle must be performed to prevent enemy use, the rifle must be damaged so it cannot be restored to a usable condition. Expedient destruction requires that key operational parts be separated from the rifle or damaged beyond repair. Priority is given in the following order FIRST Bolt carrier group removed and discarded or hidden. SECOND Upper receiver group separated and discarded or hidden. THIRD Lower receiver group separated and discarded or hidden.

Multipurpose Range Complex Trainup

MPRCs require soldiers to hit moving targets. Ranges are used for collective training. Commanders should try to use the MPRCs for individual training and to teach the individual to engage moving targets. If no MPRCs are available for individual training, any range can be used that will support any type of moving target. Building a moving target range is limited only by the imagination of the trainer, but always within safety constraints. The following are examples that can be incorporated on...

Combat Factors

The ultimate goal of a unit rifle marksmanship program is well-trained marksmen. In order for a unit to survive and win on the battlefield, the trainer must realize that rifle qualification is not an end but a step toward reaching this combat requirement. To reach this goal, the soldier should consider some of the factors of combat conditions. Enemy personnel are seldom visible except when assaulting. Most combat fire must be directed at an area where the enemy has been detected or where he is...

Recommended Briefing

The first priority of this range is training, but safety must be at the forefront of the training program. The safety program will be corrected immediately. The safety program should include the following The two red and white candy-striped poles, located on the far right and far left (point to them), are the range left and right limits. Firers never fire or point their rifles outside the limits of these poles. When not on the firing line, the selector lever is on SAFE, the bolt is locked to...

Training The Trainer

Knowledgeable small-unit leaders are the key to marksmanship training. This manual and other training publications provide the unit instructor with the required information for developing a good train-the-trainer program. The commander should identify unit personnel who have had assignments as marksmanship instructors. These individuals should be used to train other unit cadre by conducting preliminary rifle instruction and live-fire exercises for their soldiers. Assistance and expertise from...

Care And Handling

When necessary to store ammunition in the open, it must be raised on dunnage at least 6 inches from the ground and protected with a cover, leaving enough space for air circulation. Since ammunition and explosives are adversely affected by moisture and high temperatures, the following must be adhered to Do not open ammunition boxes until ready to use. Protect ammunition from high temperatures and the direct rays of the sun. Do not attempt to disassemble ammunition or any of its components. Never...

Section Iii Conduct Of Training

Demonstrators for target detection training wear combat field equipment. This increases their value as target men simulating the movements and appearance of enemy soldiers. Target detection is taught in three phases first, how to locate a target second, how to mark the location of the target and third, how to determine the range to the target. Trial sheets and trial cards contain the following information Master Trial Sheets. The master trial sheet (Figure B-6) shows the number Of target men...

Considerations

Trainers must consider the impact of limited visibility on the soldier's ability to properly apply the fundamentals of marksmanship and combat firing skills. These fundamentals skills include Operation and Maintenance of the Weapon. Handling the weapon, performing operation and function checks, loading and unloading, and maintenance are affected by nighttime conditions. Movements are slowed, tasks take longer to complete, vision is impaired, and equipment is more easily misplaced or lost....

Mobile Configuration

M16 Basic Rifle Marksmanship Manual

To use the Weaponeer in a mobile configuration, it must be shock mounted. (The manufacturer's conceptual mobile training unit is shown in Figure C-17.) The Training Audiovisual Support Center, Fort Benning, Georgia, has adopted a mobile mounting stand for supporting Weaponeer's range assembly and computer console (Figure C-18) CONTROL CONSOLE INSTRUCTOR STORAGE VIDEO TARGET CONTROL CONSOLE INSTRUCTOR STORAGE VIDEO TARGET SUPPORT STRUCTURES .' INSTRUCTOR STATION SUPPORT STRUCTURES .' INSTRUCTOR...

Record Fire hours

TASK Detect and engage timed targets with an M16A1 A2 rifle. CONDITIONS Given an M16A1 A2 rifle on a record fire range, 40 target exposures at ranges from 50 meters to 300 meters and 40 rounds of ammunition engage 20 targets from the supported position and 20 targets from the prone unsupported position while wearing a helmet and LBE. STANDARDS Without assistance, the soldier detects and engages targets with the M16A1 A2 rifle, and achieves a minimum of 23 target hits out of 40 target exposures.

Qualification Training

Although marksmanship is a continuous training requirement, units normally conduct a refresher program before qualification. Soldiers must be well-rounded in marksmanship fundamentals and have preparatory marksmanship training before qualification. This applies to qualification for the entire unit or for newly assigned personnel. All trainers must understand that rifle marksmanship is not a series of exercises to be trained in a planned sequence. The unit must prepare for training by -- Issuing...

Operation And Function Modifications

Handling the rifle, performing operation and function checks, loading and unloading, and cleaning are affected by MOPP equipment. Movements are slowed, tasks take longer to complete and often require more effort, vision is impaired, and care is needed to avoid damaging MOPP equipment and possible exposure to lethal agents. Because of the great differences between no MOPP and MOPP4, soldiers must be trained in all aspects of operation and maintenance of the weapon while practicing at the highest...

Instructortrainer Selection

Institutional and unit instructors trainers are selected and assigned from the most highly qualified soldiers. These soldiers must have an impressive background in rifle marksmanship be proficient in applying these fundamentals know the importance of marksmanship training and have a competent and professional attitude. The commander must ensure that selected instructors trainers can effectively train other soldiers. Local instructor trainer training courses and marksmanship certification...

Field Expedient Area For Training

If standard detection ranges are not available, the principles can be applied to parks, wooded fields, vegetated areas, and urban areas. The following checklist provides suggestions for adapting areas for target detection training. The range should have more depth than a standard target detection range. The fan of observation should be increased, depending on the degree of camouflage in the area. Target men should be spaced farther apart in areas having little natural vegetation. Logs, man-made...

Section Foolproofing

Write an overall lesson plan for the range. Determine range organization. Outline courses of fire to be used. Have fire commands typed for use on range. 3. Rehearse concurrent training instructors and assistants. 4. Brief RATELO on unique range control radio procedures. 5. Brief and rehearse reporting NCO on range operation and all his duties. 6. Collect and concentrate equipment for use on the range in one location. 8. Pick up targets from range warehouse, if required. 9. Report to range...

Target Box Paddledvc-t-786

TASK Apply the four fundamentals of rifle marksmanship in the integrated act of firing with the M16A1 A2 rifle (live fire). CONDITIONS Day, on a 25-meter firing range, given a 250-meter (M16A1) or 300-meter (M16A2) zero target placed in the center of an E-type silhouette, M16A1 A2 rifle, and 27 rounds of ammunition while wearing a helmet and LBE. STANDARDS From the supported position, fire up to 27 rounds or less in 3-round shot groups and achieve two consecutive 3-round shot groups (measured...

Effects Of Aiming Modifications

Adjusted Aiming Point For M16

The normal amount of cant needed by most firers to properly see through the sights has a limited influence on rounds fired at ranges of 75 meters or less. At longer ranges, however, the change in bullet strike becomes more pronounced. Rifle ballistics (Appendix F) causes the strike of the bullet to impact low in the direction of the cant (when a cant is used) at longer ranges. Due to this shift in bullet strike and the many individual differences in sight alignment when wearing a protective...

Effectiveness Of Quick Fire

M16 Single Fire Rapit Fire

Quick-fire techniques are appropriate for soldiers who are presented with close, suddenly appearing, surprise enemy targets or when close engagement is imminent. Fire may be delivered in the SEMIAUTO or BURST AUTO mode. For example, a point man in a patrol may carry the weapon on BURST AUTO. This may also be required when clearing a room or bunker. Initial training should be in the SEMI mode. Two techniques of delivering quick fire are-Aimed. When presented with a target, the soldier brings the...

Marksmanship And The Metl

Marksmanship proficiency is critical and basic to soldiering and is required for any unit deployed to a wartime theater. All commanders should develop a METL and organize a training program that devotes adequate time to marksmanship. The unit's combat mission must be considered when establishing training priorities. This not only applies to the tasks selected for the unit's METL but also the conditions under which the tasks are to be performed. If a unit may be employed in a MOUT environment,...

Record Fire

Qualification ratings and first-time GO rates are important during record fire, if properly used. They provide goals for the soldier and aid the commander in identifying the quality of his training. This should be considered in the assignment of priorities, instructor personnel, and obtaining valuable training resources. The objective of record firing is to access and confirm the individual proficiency of firers and the effectiveness of the training program. (See Appendix A for information on...

Description

M16 Trigger Diagram

The Weaponeer is shown in Figure C-12 in the standing supported firing position. The rifle, with the exception of smoke and cartridge ejection, operates normally, and has the same weight and balance as the standard weapon An infrared aiming sensor simulates round trajectory and hit point to an accuracy of better than one-minute-of-angle. Recoil is provided by the recoil rod that attaches at the muzzle end of the rifle. Recoil is provided in both semiautomatic and automatic modes of fire, and is...

Commandersleaders Rifle Marksmanship Evaluation Guide

Have you clearly stated the priority of rifle (small-arms) proficiency in your unit What is it Is this priority supported by the staff and subordinates Is it based on your METL and an understanding of FM 25-100 2. Have you clearly stated the intent of record fire Are leaders accurately evaluating firing performance, based on accurately recorded data and results 3. Have you clearly stated that weapons qualification or record fire is one of the commander's opportunities to assess several skills...

Target Marking

When a target has been located, the soldier should mark its location in relation to visible terrain or a man-made feature. If the soldier observes several targets at one time, he can fire on only one of them therefore, he must mark the locations of the others for later engagement. To mark the location of a target, the soldier uses an aiming or reference point. An aiming point is a feature directly on line between the soldier and target, such as a tree trunk, which is usually the most effective...

Rate Of Fire

During most phases of live fire grouping, zeroing, qualifying , shots are delivered using the slow semiautomatic rate of fire one round every 3 to 10 seconds . During training, this allows for a slow and precise application of the fundamentals. Successful suppressive fire requires that a faster but sustained rate of fire be used. Sometimes firing full automatic bursts 13 rounds per second for a few seconds may be necessary to gain initial fire superiority. Rapid semiautomatic fire one round...

Training Of Automatic Fire Techniques

Soldiers should be well trained in all aspects of slow semiautomatic firing before attempting any automatic training. Those who display a lack of knowledge of the fundamental skills should not advance to automatic fire training until these skills are learned. Initial training should focus on the modifications to the fundamentals and other basic combat skills necessary during automatic firing. Dry-Fire Exercises. Repeated dry-fire exercises are the most efficient means available to ensure...

Range Stake Meters

Position in five-meter crawling movements. Fire 4 position. Five rounds for each 5 target man. Good aiming point points increase in difficulty each time. 2. Start Same as above. Poor aiming point positions, but reference points available. 11B-12B-13B-14B 200 12C-13C-14C-15C 16C-17C 8 3. Start with target men walking through woods or other partial concealment. Disappear when fired on. Make five 4-second rushes to positions with good aiming points. Fire one blank round from last position. 4....

Field Fire Training

Field fire training provides the transition from unstressed slow firing at known-distance feedback targets to engaging fleeting combat-type pop-up silhouettes. Two basic types of field firing exercises are single-target and multiple-target engagements, which use 75-, 175-, and 300-meter targets. Once the soldier has developed the unstressed firing skills necessary to hit single KD targets, he must learn to detect and quickly engage combat-type targets at various ranges. Time standards are...

Other Malfunctions

Army Tech Manual M500 Mossberg

Some other malfunctions that can occur are as follows. Failure of the bolt to remain in a rearward position after the last round in the magazine is fired. Check for a bad magazine or short recoil. Failure of the bolt to lock in the rearward position when the bolt catch has been engaged. Check bolt catch replace as required. Firing two or more rounds when the trigger is pulled and the selection lever is in the SEMI position. This indicates a worn sear, cam, or disconnector. Turn in to armorer to...

Position Of The Coach

Army Proper Firing Position

The coach constantly checks and assists the firer in applying marksmanship fundamentals during firing. He observes the firer's position and his application of the steady position elements. The coach is valuable in checking factors the firer is unable to observe for himself and in preventing the firer from repeating errors. During an exercise, the coach should be positioned where he can best observe the firer when he assumes position. He then moves to various points around the firer sides and...

Modifications For Automatic Fire Positions

What The Most Steady Firing Position

Trainers must consider the impact of the greatly increased rate of fire on the soldier's ability to properly apply the fundamentals of marksmanship and other combat firing skills. These fundamentals skills include Immediate Action. To maintain automatic fire, immediate action must be applied quickly. The firer must identify the problem and correct it immediately. Repeated dry-fire practice, using blanks or dummy rounds, followed by live-fire training and evaluation ensures that soldiers can...

Lead Requirements

M16 Target 300 Meters

To effectively engage moving targets on the battlefield, soldiers must understand lead requirements. Figure 4-13 shows the amount of lead required to hit a 300-meter target when it is moving 8 mph at an angle of 90 degrees. Aiming directly at the target would result in missing it. When an enemy soldier is running 8 mph, 90 degrees to the firer, and at a range of 300 meters, he covers 4 1 2 feet while the bullet is traveling toward him. To get a hit, the firer must aim and fire at position D...

Mechanical Training

Army Preventive Maintenance Magazine

Mechanical training includes characteristics and capabilities, disassembly and assembly, operations and functioning, serviceability checks, and weapons maintenance. It also stresses the performance of immediate action to clear or reduce a stoppage, and the safe handling of rifles and ammunition see Chapter 2 . Examples of mechanical training drills, along with tasks, conditions, and standards, are provided in Appendix A. These examples are also used for initial entry training at the Army...

Principles Of Night Vision

Principles Marksmanship

Daytime field of view using pinpoint focus. Figure 5-2. Nighttime field of view uainjj off-center vision Look slightly away from object so that the Image is formed on the nod region your night eyes . Look slightly away from object so that the Image is formed on the nod region your night eyes . NOTE Vision is shifted slightly to one side, but attention is still on the object. Because of the blind spot at the center of vision, directing attention to an off-centered objective is...

Modifications For Rapid Fire

M16 Non Firing Hand Grip

Trainers must consider the impact of the increased rate of fire on the soldier's ability to properly apply the fundamentals of marksmanship and other combat firing skills. These fundamentals skills include Immediate Action. To maintain an increased rate of suppressive fire, immediate action must be applied quickly. The firer must identify the problem and correct the stoppage immediately. Repeated dry-fire practice, using blanks or dummy rounds, followed by live-fire training and evaluation...

NBC Fire hours

TASK Engage personnel targets while wearing a protective mask. CONDITIONS Day, on a field-fire range, given an M16A1 A2 rifle, 30 rounds of 5.56-mm ball ammunition, 3 magazines, and E-type silhouette targets at 75, 175, and 300 meters. STANDARDS Each firer has 60 seconds at each target distance. The standard for each distance is as follows 75 meters 7 target hits of 10 rounds. 175 meters 6 target hits of 10 rounds. 300 meters 2 target hits of 10 rounds.

MAl Standard Sights And Zeroing

Army Zeroing

To battlesight zero the rifle, the soldier must understand sight adjustment procedures. The best possible zero is obtained by zeroing at actual range. Because facilities normally do not exist for zeroing at 250 meters, most zeroing is conducted at 25 meters. By pushing the rear sight forward so the L is exposed, the bullet crosses line of sight at 25 meters, reaches a maximum height above line of sight of about 11 inches at 225 meters, and crosses line of sight again at 375 meters Figure 3-21 ....

Construction

Target detection ranges must be located in areas having good natural vegetation and close to the firing range. Figure B-5. The observation line should be the first area of the target detection range to be built. The location of all downrange panels, sound systems, and foliage depends on the degree of visibility from the defensive position observation line. The observation line should be wide enough to accommodate 50 points. The distance between observation points should be no closer than two...

Range Procedures

Before beginning live-fire exercises, all personnel must receive an orientation on range operations. The orientation should outline the procedures for conducting the exercise to include the duties of the non firing orders. Scorers maintain the score of the firer. They may assist the firers by indicating the impact of the bullet in relation to the target -for example, short, right or high, left. Regardless of unit size, soldiers are organized into four orders one firing, one coaching, and two...

Downrange Feedback Training

The term downrange feedback describes any training method that provides precise knowledge of bullet strike exactly where bullets hit or miss the intended target at ranges beyond 25 meters. The soldier gains confidence in his firing abilities by knowing what happens to bullets at range. The inclusion of downrange feedback during the initial learning process and during refresher training improves the soldier's firing proficiency and record fire scores. Downrange feedback can be incorporated into...

Occupy The Range

Request permission to occupy the range. 2. Establish good communications. 3. Have designated areas prepared Parking. Ammunition point. Medical station. Water point. Concurrent training. Mess. Helipad. Armorer. 4. Inspect range for operational condition. 5. Raise flag when occupying or firing according to the local SOP. 6. Check ammunition to ensure it is correct type and quantity. 7. Ensure that range personnel are in proper uniform and the equipment is in position. 9. Conduct safety checks...

Background

The scaled silhouette target provides the same visual perception at 25 meters as the firer would see when firing targets at actual range. The use of this target at 25 meters allows the firer to practice aiming at various range targets and to see precisely where his bullets hit, whether they are target hits or misses. Scaled silhouette targets fit well into a marksmanship training program between zeroing and field fire training, but they provide for excellent training whenever a 25-meter range...

Section I Operational Characteristics

This section describes general characteristics of the M16A1 and M16A2 rifles. M16A1 RIFLE The M16A1 rifle Figure 2-2 is a 5.56-mm, magazine-fed, gas-operated, shoulder-fired weapon. It is designed for either semiautomatic or automatic fire through the use of a selector lever SAFE, SEMI, and AUTO . cartridge magaiin and sfing Firing weight with siJng and loadetf magazine MISAI, M193 Com p ete rou r d 179 grains Projectile .55 grains MISAI, M193 Com p ete rou r d 179 grains Projectile .55 grains

TEC Lessons

Loading and Unloading the M16A1 Rifle 1-939-071-0009-F Disassembly and Assembly M16A1 Rifle 1-939-071-0010-F Preventing and Correcting Common Malfunctions Zero M16A1 Analyze and Correct Errors 1-939-071-0215-F Perform Operator Maintenance on an 071-311-2001 M16A1 Rifle, Magazine, and Ammunition Plus hands-on test Load, Reduce a Stoppage, and Clear an 071-311-2003 M16A1 Rifle Plus hands-on test The following numbers can be used when ordering marksmanship targets. Designation Description

Moving Target Techniques

M16a1 Slow Fire Target

There are two primary techniques of engaging moving targets. Tracking. Tracking is a more accurate technique of engaging targets by experienced firers. It involves the establishment and maintaining of the aiming point in relationship to the target and maintaining that sight picture moving with the target while squeezing the trigger. As the target moves, this technique puts the firer in position for a second shot if the first one misses. Trapping. Trapping is the setting up of an aiming point...

Moving Target Fundamentals

The fundamentals needed to hit moving targets are similar to those needed to hit stationary targets. The main skill is to engage moving targets with the least changes to procedures. Another consideration is that soldiers in a combat defensive position do not know if their next target will be stationary or moving -they must fire immediately at whatever targets occur. The fundamentals for engaging stationary targets are steady position, aiming, breath control, and trigger squeeze. They are also...

Modifications For Quickfire Techniques

Quick-fire techniques require major modifications to the four fundamentals of marksmanship. These modifications represent a significant departure from the normal applications of the four fundamentals. Initial training in these differences, followed by repeated dry-fire exercises, will be necessary to prepare the soldier for live fire. Steady Position. The quickness of shot delivery prevents the soldier from assuming a stable firing position. He must fire from his present position when the...

Burst Fire Mode Ma

Three Round Bursts Mode Mechanism

When the selector lever is set on the BURST position Figure 2-13 , the rifle fires a three-round burst if the trigger is held to the rear during the complete cycle. The weapon continues to fire three-round bursts with each separate trigger pull as long as ammunition is in the magazine. Releasing the trigger or exhausting ammunition at any point in the three-round cycle interrupts fire, producing one or two shots. Reapplying the trigger only completes the interrupted cycle -it does not begin a...

Concept Of Zeroing

The purpose of battle sight zeroing is to align the fire control system sights with the rifle barrel, considering the given ammunition ballistics. When this is accomplished correctly, the fire control and point of aim are point of impact at a standard battlesight zero range such as 250 300 meters. When a rifle is zeroed, the sights are adjusted so that bullet strike is the same as point of aim at some given range. A battlesight zero 250 meters, M16Al 300 meters, M16A2 is the sight setting that...

Target Location

Target Location Army

The ability to locate a combat target depends on the observer's position and skill in searching and maintaining observation of an area, and the target indications of the enemy during day or night. Selection of a Position. A good position is one that offers maximum visibility of the area while affording cover and concealment. Position has two considerations -- the observer's tactical position in a location and his body position at that location. Usually, the firer is told where to prepare his...

Ma Standard Sights And Zeroing

Front Sight Adjustment M16

The rear sight consists of two sight apertures, a windage knob, and an elevation knob Figure 3-25 . The larger aperture, marked 0-2, is used for moving target engagement and during limited visibility. The unmarked aperture is used for normal firing situations, zeroing, and with the elevation knob for target distances up to 800 meters. The unmarked aperture is used to establish the battlesight zero. After the elevation knob is set, adjustments for elevation are made by moving the...

Conduct Of Firing

Are communications to range control satisfactory 2. Commands from tower clear and concise 4. Ammunition accountability maintained 6. Personnel accountability maintained 7. Vehicles parked in appropriate areas 8. Air guard on duty and alert 9. Personnel in proper uniform 11. Troops responding properly to commands 12. On-the-spot corrections being made when troops use poor techniques or fail to hit the target 13. Conservation of ammunition enforced 14. Weapons cleared before they are taken...

Duties Of The Instructortrainer

The instructor trainer helps the firer master the fundamentals of rifle marksmanship. He ensures that the firer consistently applies what he has learned. Then, it is a matter of practice, and the firer soon acquires good firing skills. When training the beginner, the instructor trainer could confront problems such as fear, nervousness, forgetfulness, failure to understand, and a lack of coordination or determination. An expert firer is often unaware that some problems are complicated by...

Personnel And Duties

To provide both a safe and efficient range operation and effective instruction, the following is an example of personnel and duties that may be required. OIC. He is responsible for the overall operation of the range before, during, and after live firing. Range Safety Officer. He is responsible for the safe operation of the range to include conducting a safety orientation before each scheduled live-fire exercise. He ensures that a brass and ammunition check is made before the unit leaves the...

Section I Target Detection And Engagement

Target detection is the process of locating, marking, and determining the range to combat targets. For most soldiers, finding the target can be a greater problem than hitting it. Target detection must be conducted as part of individual training and tactical exercises and must be integrated into night live-fire exercises. The observation lines on target detection ranges approximate the location a soldier might occupy when in combat. Provisions must be made to incorporate night target detection.

Diagnosis Of Firing Problems

Diagnosis of firing problems is the main purpose of the Weaponeer. The following seven-step program is recommended as a guide. Depending on the extent of the firer's problems and time constraints, the number of shots may be increased. STEP 1. Tell the soldier to assume a good firing position, to aim at a target, and to hold steady supported and prone unsupported positions . STEP 2. Visually check the firer's firing position and correct any gross errors, STEP 3. Observe the video screen. If...

Range Determination

M16 100 Meter Range

Range determination is the process of finding the distance between two points -- one point is usually the observer's own position and the other a target or prominent feature. Range determination is an important skill in completing several types of missions since it affects combat marksmanship proficiency. It is needed in reporting information, and in adjusting artillery and mortar fires. Many techniques are used to determine range measuring distances on maps, pacing the distance between two...

Section I Suppressive Fire

In many tactical situations, combat rifle fire will be directed to suppress enemy personnel or weapons positions. Rifle fire, which is precisely aimed at a definite point or area target, is suppressive fire. Some situations may require a soldier to place suppressive fire into a wide area such as a wood line, hedgerow, or small building. While at other times, the target may be a bunker or window. Suppressive fire is used to control the enemy and the area he occupies. Suppressive fire is employed...

Section Become an Expert

Review TMs and FMs on the weapons to be fired. 2. Talk with the armorers and other personnel experienced with the weapons to be fired. 4. Visit range control and read installation range instructions. 5. Reconnoiter the range preferably while it is in use . 6. Check ARTEPs and SQT manuals to see if training tasks can be integrated into the range training plan.

Figure Target angle when dead center hits accure using

Soldiers should be taught to increase their lead when targets are missed. This increases their probability of hitting all targets. The amount of additional lead required should be developed through experience with only general guidance provided. For example, if there is much lateral movement of the target and the soldier feels by applying the lead rule and firing fundamentals he has missed the target, then he should increase his lead. The training program must be simple and provide soldiers...

Steps Of Functioning

Picture Chambering M16 Round

The eight steps of functioning feeding, chambering, locking, firing, unlocking, extracting, ejecting, and cocking begin after the loaded magazine has been inserted into the weapon. STEP 1 Feeding Figure 2-4 . As the bolt carrier group moves rearward, it engages the buffer assembly and compresses the action spring into the lower receiver extension. When the bolt carrier group clears the top of the magazine, the expansion of the magazine spring forces the follower and a new round up into the path...

Practice Record Fire and Record Fire

Simple, standard fire commands are needed to avoid confusion and misunderstanding during practice record fire and record fire. FIRERS, ASSUME A GOOD SUPPORTED PRONE UNSUPPORTED POSITION. SCORERS, POINT OUT THE LIMITS OF YOUR LANE. FIRERS, LOCK YOUR FIRST MAGAZINE, LOAD. WATCH YOUR LANE. CEASE FIRE. CLEAR ALL WEAPONS. Record fire. FIRERS, ASSUME A GOOD SUPPORTED PRONE UNSUPPORTED POSITION. SCORERS, POINT OUT THE LIMITS OF YOUR LANE. FIRERS, LOCK YOUR FIRST 20-ROUND MAGAZINE, LOAD. WATCH YOUR...

Chapter

All units must be able to fight during limited visibility. All soldiers should know the procedures for weapons employment during such time. Soldiers must experience the various conditions of night combat -- from total darkness, to the many types of artificial illumination, to the use of surveillance aids. All units must include basic, unassisted night fire training annually in their unit marksmanship program. Combat units should conduct tactical night fire training at least quarterly. This...

Major Categories Of Malfunctions

M16 Field Stripping

A malfunction is caused by a procedural or mechanical failure of the rifle, magazine, or ammunition. Pre-firing checks and serviceability inspections identify potential problems before they become malfunctions. Three primary categories of malfunctions are 1. Failure to Feed, Chamber, or Lock. Description. A malfunction can occur when loading the rifle or during the cycle of operation. Once the magazine has been loaded into the rifle, the forward movement of the bolt carrier group could lack...

Use Of The Weaponeer

Target Turn Trainer

In BRM, the Weaponeer is used early in the program to evaluate firer's ability to apply the four fundamentals. It is used throughout the program to help diagnose and remediate problems. In the unit, the Weaponeer should be used much like it is used in BRM. Concurrent use of the Weaponeer at the rifle range provides valuable remedial training. The preferred training configuration for the Weaponeer is shown in Figure C-14. One trainer operates the system while three to six soldiers observe the...

Peer Coaching

Peer coaching is using two soldiers of equal firing proficiency and experience to assist coach each other during marksmanship training. Some problems exist with peer coaching. If the new soldier does not have adequate guidance, a blind-leading-the-blind situation results, which can lead to negative training and safety violations. However, when adequate instruction is provided, peer coaching can be helpful even in the IET environment. Since all soldiers in units have complete BRM, peer coaching...

Effects Of Mopp Equipment On Firing

Sight Alignment M16

Firing weapons is only part of overall NBC training. Soldiers must first be familiar with NBC equipment, its use, and proper wear before they progress to learning the techniques of MOPP firing. Trainers must consider the impact of MOPP equipment hood mask, gloves, overgarments on the soldier's ability to properly apply the fundamentals of marksmanship and combat firing skills. Immediate Action. Under normal conditions a soldier should be able to clear a stoppage in three to five seconds. Under...

Types And Characteristics

303 Rifle Bullet Tip

The characteristics of the M16 family of ammunition are described in this paragraph. Cartridge, 5.56-mm, Dummy, M199. Used in both rifles. The M199 dummy cartridge is used during dry fire and other training see 3, Figure 2-17 . This cartridge can be identified by the six grooves along the side of the case beginning about 1 2 inch from its head. It contains no propellant or primer. The primer well is open to prevent damage to the firing pin. Cartridge, 5.56-mm, Blank, M200. Used in the M16A1 or...

Figure E Slow fire silhouette target

M16 Paper Qual Target

Nine rounds from a supported fighting position and nine rounds from a prone unsupported position. Placement of all 18 bullets also indicates that the firer's rifle zero may be too far to the right. With a better firing performance, sight adjustments can be made while using this target. The analysis procedures used on the zeroing target may be applied to shot groups on these silhouette targets. The shot-group center on each target indicates aiming techniques. The comparison between the targets...

Conduct Of Dryfire Training

A skilled instructor trainer should supervise soldiers on dry-fire training. Once an explanation and demonstration are provided, soldiers should be allowed to work at their own pace, receiving assistance as needed. The peer coach-and-pupil technique can be effectively used during dry-fire training with the coach observing performance and offering suggestions. Several training aids are available to correctly conduct initial dry-fire training of the four fundamentals Appendix C . A supported...

Marksmanship Fundamentals

M4a1 Carbine

The soldier must understand the four key fundamentals before he approaches the firing line. He must be able to establish a steady position that allows observation of the target. He must aim the rifle at the target by aligning the sight system, and he must fire the rifle without disturbing this alignment by improper breathing or during trigger squeeze. The skills needed to accomplish these are known as rifle marksmanship fundamentals. These simple procedures aid the firer in achieving target...

Singlelead Rule For Moving Targets

Army Range Sight Target

A target moving directly toward the firer can be engaged the same way as a stationary target. However, to hit a target moving laterally, the firer places the trailing edge of the front sight post at target center. The sight-target relationship is shown in Figure 4-11. The single-lead rule automatically increases the lead as the range to the target increases. Figure 4-12 shows how this works, with the front sight post covering about 1.6 inches at 15 meters and about 16 inches at 150 meters....

Night Fire hours

TASK Engage targets while applying night-fire techniques with the M16A1 A2 rifle. CONDITIONS Given an explanation, demonstration, and practical exercise with 5 rounds during the day, and with semiautomatic fire at night EENT , engage F-type silhouette targets at 25 meters from the prone unsupported position and E-type silhouette targets at 50 meters from the prone supported position given 35 rounds of tracer and ball mix ammunition and an M16A1 A2 rifle while wearing a helmet and LBE. STANDARDS...

Rapid Fire Exercises

The following commands are used for rapid-fire exercises LOCK AND CLEAR ALL WEAPONS, CLEAR ON THE RIGHT CLEAR ON THE LEFT THE FIRING LINE IS CLEAR, FIRERS, ASSUME THE_POSITION. ASSISTANTS, SECURE TWO MAGAZINES OF FIVE ROUNDS EACH. Issue the firer one magazine of five rounds. Firers assume the appropriate firing position and commence firing when the targets are presented. When all the targets are withdrawn, the range officer checks for slow firers or malfunctions and then allows them to fire....

Caliber Rimfire Adapter M

The RFA can contribute to a unit's marksmanship program when 5.56-mm ammunition is not available or when ranges that allow the firing of 5.56-mm ammunition are not available. The RFA can be useful for marksmanship training such as night fire, quick fire, and assault fire. It is not recommended for primary marksmanship training. Training Considerations. When service ammunition is in short supply, the RFA can be used to complement a unit's training program. Rifle performance. The RFA .22-caliber...

Location Of Miss And Hit Lomah System

LOMAH is a range aid used during downrange feedback exercises. The device uses acoustical triangulation to compute the exact location of a supersonic bullet as it passes through a target. The bullet impact is displayed instantly on a video monitor at the firing line. Of more importance, it shows the location of a bullet miss, thereby, allowing the firer to make either a sight adjustment or a hold off for subsequent shots. LOMAH, like other devices, is only an aid. Understanding the weapon and...

Section Known Distance Range

PERSONNEL In addition to those identified in Section 4. 2. Assistant safety officer for pit area. EQUIPMENT In addition to equipment identified in Section 4. 2. Positive communication from the firing line to the pit area. 4. Glue and brushes for resurfacing targets. 5. Lubricant for target frames. 6. Proper targets mounted in target frames. 7. Briefing on how to operate a KD range. 8. Procedure for marking targets.

Training Strategy

Army Fundamentals Marksmanship

Training strategy is the overall concept for integrating resources into a program to train individual and collective skills needed to perform a unit's wartime mission. Training strategies for rifle marksmanship are implemented in TRADOC institutions IET, NCOES, basic and advanced officer's courses and in units. The overall training strategy is multifaceted and is inclusive of the specific strategies used in institution and unit programs. Also included are the supporting strategies that use...

Section Closing of Range

Close downrange control according to the local SOP. 2. Remove all equipment and ammunition from range. 4. Repaste and resurface targets as required by range instructions. 5. Perform other maintenance tasks as required by local SOP. 6. Request a range inspector from range control when ready to be cleared. 7. Submit after-action report to headquarters, 8. Report any noted safety hazards to proper authorities.

Range Operations Checklist

This checklist consists of nine sections, each covering a different topic relating to range operations. The checklist should be modified to include local policy changes to the regulations or SOPS. The person responsible for the training must answer the questions in each section. Ask yourself each question in order. Record each Yes answer by placing a check in the GO column. Record a No or Don't know by checking the NO-GO column. Refer to the checklist to find the GO and NO-GO columns. When all...

Mopp Fire Exercises

The many difficulties the soldier encounters while firing with MOPP gear must be experienced and overcome during training. Dry-Fire MOPP Exercises. Repeated dry-fire exercises covering all aspects of MOPP firing are the most effective means available to ensure all soldiers can function during a live-fire MOPP situation. Multiple dry-fire exercises must be conducted before the first live round is fired. Otherwise, valuable ammunition and training time are wasted in trying to teach soldiers the...

Training

M16 Record Fire Range

Dry-fire training and live-fire training are necessary to mastering basic rifle marksmanship. The soldier must adhere to the following procedures and applications to be effective in combat. Dry-Fire Exercises. Repeated training and dry-fire practice are the most effective means available to ensure all soldiers can function efficiently after dark. Target detection and dry-fire exercises must be conducted before the first live round is fired. They can take place almost anywhere -elaborate...

Firing Positions

Military Cmarksmanship Pictures

All firing positions are taught during basic rifle marksmanship training. During initial fundamental training, the basic firing positions are used. The other positions are added later in training to support tactical conditions. Basic Firing Positions. Two firing positions are used during initial fundamental training the individual supported fighting position and prone unsupported position. Both offer a stable platform for firing the rifle. They are also the positions used during basic record...

Identification Number

Weaponeer -Remedial Rifle Marksmanship Trainer Supply Item see TM Local TASC Expendable Item M16 Sighting Device A1 or A2 Left DVC-T 7-84 and Right Rifle Rest for target-box exercise TAD-0034 locally TAD-12 locally TAD-12 locally TAD-26 locally TAD-0026A Rotating Panel Chalkboard Holder for

Grouping

Shot grouping is a form of practice firing with two primary objectives firing tight shot groups and consistently placing those groups in the same location. Shot grouping should be conducted between dry-fire training and zeroing. The initial live-fire training should be a grouping exercise with the purpose of practicing and refining marksmanship fundamentals. Since this is not a zeroing exercise, few sight changes are made. Grouping exercises can be conducted on a live-fire range that provides...

Figure C The MA aiming card NSN

Moving Target Aiming Points

II- S i u-S. v-'s .11 I ill i I '. i , S I -- gt -- Ml I J ' I i J I I-1 ih Ms 11. i gt t'l I mi i--. i vv.ivl - . -. i -i w i l i m lyl i i i i i ' gt i i i vl-.lh-, i m 'i .'i Riddle Sighting Device. The Riddle sighting device Figure C-2 indicates to the trainer if the soldier understands the aiming process while using the rifle. It is a small plastic plate with a magnet and a drawing of an E-type silhouette target. A two-man team is needed. The soldier assumes a supported or prone firing...

Training Devices And Exercises

Several marksmanship training devices are available to aid in sustainment training when used with the appropriate training strategies. They are beneficial when ammunition is limited for training or practice exercises. Some training devices are complex, costly, and in limited supply, while others are relatively simple, cheap, and in large supply. Devices and aids can be used alone or in combinations. Individuals or squads can sustain practice basic marksmanship skills and fundamentals with...

Stoppage

A stoppage is a failure of an automatic or semiautomatic firearm to complete the cycle of operation. The firer can apply immediate or remedial action to clear the stoppage. Some stoppages that cannot be cleared by immediate or remedial action could require weapon repair to correct the problem. A complete understanding of how the weapon functions is an integral part of applying immediate-action procedures. Immediate Action. This involves quickly applying a possible correction to reduce a...