Conduct Of Trials

Table B-1 Factors affecting the appearance of objects

Factors in determining range by eye

Objects appear nearer than they are-

Objects appear more distant than they are--

The target--its clearness of out line and details.

When most of the target When only a small part of is visible and offers a clear the target may be seen or is outline.

small in relation to its surroundings.

Nature of the

When looking across a

When looking across a

terrain or position of

depression, most of which is

depression, all of which is

the observer.

hidden from view.

visible.

When looking downward

When looking from low

from a high ground.

ground toward high ground

When looking down a

When field of vision

straight, open road or along

narrowly confined as in

a

twisted streets, draws, or

railroad track.

forest trails.

Light and

When looking over

In poor light such as

atmosphere.

uniform surfaces like

dawn and dusk in rain, snow

water, snow, desert, or grain

or fog, or when the sun is in

fields or when the sun is

the observer's eyes.

shining from behind the

observer.

When the target is in

When the target blends

sharp contrast with the

into the background or

background or is silhouetted

terrain.

by reason of size, shape, or

color.

When seen in the clear

atmosphere of high

altitudes,

in bright light.

Stationary Trials. Normally, there are four phases in each stationary trial. The first three phases last 30 seconds each.

PHASE ONE: The target man remains motionless in a slightly exposed position. This allows him to observe the heads and chests of soldiers along the observation line.

PHASE TWO: The same target man slowly raises his head and shoulders until he can observe the soldiers on the observation line from the ground up.

PHASE THREE: The same target man makes quick, jerky movements constantly for 30 seconds.

PHASE FOUR: The same target man fires one or two blank rounds toward the observation line (safety permitting). The command to begin a stationary target trial is

TRIAL ONE, PHASE ONE, OBSERVE.

If during the first phase the observer thinks he has located the target, he notes the letter of the panel nearest the target and determines the range from his position to the target. He enters this information on his answer sheet, and an assistant instructor checks his answer. A range error of not more than 10 percent is satisfactory. If the observer has chosen the wrong panel or the error in range exceeds 10 percent, he is told his answer is incorrect and to continue his observation.

If the answer is correct, the soldier continues his observation of the area, recording the required information on his answer sheet for the subsequent phases. This procedure is followed throughout the four phases of stationary trials.

NOTE: For more detailed information, see Exercise 1 and 2.

Moving Trials. The target trial cards for moving trials indicate the certain trials in which the target man engages, the stake location to which he moves, and the type of movement or other actions he performs. For example, the target trial card for target man No. 1 might indicate that he engages in trials 1, 5, 6, and 8. In trial 1, the instructions state that he perform four phases of a stationary target exercise. In trial 5, he is told to make five short rushes from stake 25 to stake 25C.

To check the accuracy of soldiers, aiming devices are used to mark the points of disappearance of multiple moving targets.

The observer aligns the two sight knobs on the aiming device where he thinks the targets are located. Normally, two soldiers are assigned to an aiming device: one to act as the observer and one to check the observer's work.

To begin a moving trial, the command is MOVING TARGET(S) STAND UP; DISAPPEAR AND BEGIN YOUR MOVEMENTS. On these commands, the applicable target men reveal themselves to the observers, move back into their concealed positions, and begin the movements as directed on their target trial cards. During some exercises, the target men may fire blank rounds after reaching a new location. Observers are allowed 30 seconds to mark the point(s) of disappearance with the aiming device. The instructor then commands, TARGETS STAND UP, ALTERNATE OBSERVERS CHECK ALIGNMENT The alternate observer then checks the accuracy of the observer's work. This procedure continues until all of the trials have been conducted.

NOTE: For more detailed information, see Exercises 3, 4, and 6.

Stationary Sound Trials. Before the trials begin, the observers should draw a sector sketch of the area.

All of the numbered panels should then be raised for stationary sound trials. Each target man occupies a concealed position near one of the numbered panels. The instructor then informs the observer that a shot will be fired from one of the numbered panels. The observers must determine the panel location nearest the sound and record the information on their answer sheets. The commands to conduct the exercise are TRIAL NUMBER (ONE): READY, AIM, FIRE. OBSERVERS RECORD YOUR ANSWERS.

Should it be necessary to reposition target men for subsequent trials, the observers should face away from the range while the movement is taking place. In some trials, two target men should fire at the same time to demonstrate how hard it is to locate similar sounds coming from two directions at the same time.

NOTE: For more detailed information, see Exercise 5.

Multiple Moving and Sound Targets. To conduct multiple moving and sound target trials, eight target men are needed (two 4-man teams).

Soldiers are divided into two groups with each pair having one aiming device. The command to begin the exercise is MOVING TARGETS STAND UP; DISAPPEAR AND BEGIN YOUR MOVEMENT. The moving target men expose themselves, resume their concealed positions, and begin their ashes forward. After making their move, some of the target men should fire one or more blank rounds. The observer uses the aiming device to mark the point of disappearance of as many moving targets as possible.

Upon completing a trial, the instructor commands, TARGETS STAND UP, CHECK ALIGNMENT. The target men stand up and the alternate observer checks the accuracy of the observer's work. In the next trial, the alternate observer and observer change places.

NOTE: For more detailed information, see Exercise 7.

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