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Riddle Sighting Device. The Riddle sighting device (Figure C-2) indicates to the trainer if the soldier understands the aiming process while using the rifle. It is a small plastic plate with a magnet and a drawing of an E-type silhouette target. A two-man team is needed. The soldier assumes a supported or prone firing position. The assistant places the Riddle device on the front sight assembly and adjusts the plastic plate at the direction of the firer until he reports the proper sight picture. Without disturbing the plastic plate, the trainer or coach must aim through the sights to determine if the soldier has aligned the target and sight properly. Many sightings are conducted, and the trainer may include variations to ensure the soldier understands the process.
This device is provided with a small metal elipttiat slips over ths front sighl assembly. It allows a smoother surface for attachment of the magnet; however, tht device can be u»d without the metal clip.
M16 Sighting Device. The M16 sighting device (Figure C-3) is made of metal with a tinted square of glass placed at an angle.
MIRROR Figure C-3. M16 sighting device, M16A1 rltte,
MIRROR Figure C-3. M16 sighting device, M16A1 rltte,
When the device is attached to the rear of the M16A1 carrying handle, an observer can look through the sight to see what the firer sees. The M16 sighting device can be mounted on the M16A2 rifle. The charging handle must be pulled to the rear first. Then, the M16 sighting device is mounted on the rear of the carrying handle, and the charging handle is returned.
The M16 sighting device can be used in a dry-fire or live-fire environment, but a brass cartridge deflector must be used during live fire. The observer must practice with the sight for it to be effective. For example, the observer looks at a reflected image; if the soldier is aiming to the right, it appears left to the observer. Also, the device must be precisely positioned on the rifle (it may need to be bent to stay on). The observer's position must remain constant. At the same time, the observer talks with the firer to ensure a correct analysis of the aiming procedures.
Blank Firing Attachment (BFA), M15A2. This device (Figure C-4) is attached to the muzzle of the M16A1 or M16A2 rifle. It is designed to keep sufficient gas in the barrel of the weapon to allow semiautomatic, automatic, or burst firing with blank ammunition (M200). After firing 50 rounds, the attachment should be checked for a tight fit. Continuous blank firing results in a carbon buildup in the bore, gas tube, and carrier key. When this occurs, the cleaning procedures in TM 9-1005-249-10 or TM 9-1005-249-34 should be followed.
Figure C-4. Blank firing attachment.
Target-Box Exercise. The target-box exercise checks the consistency of aiming and placement of three-round shot groups in a dry-fire environment (Figure C-5).
To conduct the exercise, the target man places the silhouette anywhere on the plain sheet of paper and moves the silhouette target as directed by the firer. The two positions must have already been established so that the rifle is pointed at some place on the paper. The positions are separated by 15 yards or 25 meters. When the firer establishes proper aiming, he signals the target man to "Mark." Only hand signals are used since voice commands would be impractical when training several pairs of soldiers at one time.
The target man then places the pencil through the hole in the silhouette target and makes a dot on the paper. Then he moves the silhouette to another spot on the paper and indicates to the firer that he is ready for another shot. When the three shots are completed, the target man triangulates the three shots and labels it shot group number one. The firer and instructor view the shot group.
A simulated shot group covered within a 1-cm (diameter) circle indicates consistent aiming. Since no rifle or ammunition variability is involved and since there is no requirement to place the shot group in a certain location, a 1-cm standard may be compared to obtaining a 4-cm shot group on the 25-meter live-fire zero range. The soldier fires several shot groups. After two or three shot groups are completed in one location, the rifle, paper bolder, or paper is moved so shots fall on a clean section of the paper.
Any movement of the rifle or paper between the first and third shots of a group voids the exercise. Two devices are available to hold the rifle (Figures C-6 and Figure C-7). The rifle holding device and rifle holding box are positioned on level ground, or are secured by sandbags or stakes to ensure there is no rifle movement during the firing of the three shots. Movement of the paper is eased by using a solid backing (Figure C-8). Any movement of either is reflected in the size of the shot group. Several varieties of wooden target boxes have been locally fabricated. A new rifle holder has been developed and should be used (Figure C-7).
The silhouettes on the plastic paddle (Figure C-9) are scaled to represent an E-type silhouette target at 250 meters. The visual perception during the target-box exercise is similar to what a soldier sees while zeroing on a standard zeroing target. The small E-type silhouette is the same scale at 15 yards as the larger silhouette is at the 25-meter range (some training areas are set up at 15 yards; others are set up at 25 meters). While there are some benefits to representing a 250-meter target, the main benefit of this exercise can be obtained at any distance. A standard zero target can be used at 25 meters in place of the paddle by placing a small hole in the center (dot), moving the target sheet over the paper, and marking as previously outlined.
The shot-group exercise provides a chance for the trainer to critique the soldier on his aiming procedures, aiming consistency, and placement of shot groups. Assuming that the rifle and paper remain stationary and that the target man properly marks the three shots, the only factor to cause separation of the dots on the paper is error in the soldier's aiming procedures. When the soldier can consistently direct the target into alignment with the sights on this exercise, he should be able to aim at the same center-of-mass point on the zero range or on targets at actual range.
Ball-and-Dummy Exercise. This exercise is conducted on a live-fire range. The coach or designated assistant inserts a dummy round into a magazine of live rounds. In this way, the coach can detect if the firer knows when the rifle is going to fire. The firer must not know when a dummy round is in the magazine. When the hammer falls on a dummy round, which the firer thought was live, the firer and his coach may see movement. This is caused by the firer anticipating the shot or using improper trigger squeeze. Proper trigger squeeze results in no movement when the hammer falls. If the firer knows when the hammer is going to fall, movement can often be observed at that moment.
Dime (Washer) Exercise. This dry-fire technique is used to teach or evaluate the skill of trigger squeeze and is effective when conducted from an unsupported position. When using the M16A1 rifle for this exercise, the soldier must cock the weapon, assume an unsupported firing position, and aim at the target. An assistant places a dime (washer) on the rifle's barrel between the flash suppressor and front sight post assembly. The soldier then tries to squeeze the trigger naturally without causing the dime (washer) to fall off. Several repetitions of this exercise must be conducted to determine if the soldier has problems with trigger squeeze.
If the dime (washer) is allowed to touch the sight assembly or flash suppressor, it may fall off due to the jolt of the hammer. Also, the strength of the hammer spring on some rifles can make this a difficult exercise to perform. Instructors should allow soldiers to use another rifle when the one they are using is defective or needs repair.
When using the M16A2 rifle, the dime (washer) exercise is conducted the same except that a locally fabricated device must be attached to the weapon. A piece of 3/4-inch bonding material is folded into a clothes-pin shape and inserted into the compensator of the weapon so that the dime (washer) can be placed on top of it.
NOTE: The Weaponeer is discussed in Section II.
After training requirements have been established, appropriate training aids and devices can be selected from the TASC. To help in selecting these aids and devices, many of those available and their identification numbers are
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