To effectively engage moving targets on the battlefield, soldiers must understand lead requirements. Figure 4-13 shows the amount of lead required to hit a 300-meter target when it is moving 8 mph at an angle of 90 degrees. Aiming directly at the target would result in missing it. When an enemy soldier is running 8 mph, 90 degrees to the firer, and at a range of 300 meters, he covers 4 1/2 feet while the bullet is traveling toward him. To get a hit, the firer must aim and fire at position D when the enemy is at position A. This indicates the need for target lead and for marksmanship trainers to know bullet speed and how it relates to the range, angle, and speed of the target. Soldiers must understand that targets moving fast and laterally are led by some distance if they are to be hit.

Target Speed. Figure 4-14 reflects the differences in lateral speed for various angles of target movement for a target that is traveling at 8 mph at a distance of 150 meters from the firer. The angle of target movement is the angle between the target-firer line and the target's direction of movement. An 8-mph target moves 24 inches during the bullet's flight time. If the target is moving on a 15-degree angle, it moves 6 inches (the equivalent of 2 mph). For the firer to apply precise lead rules, he must accurately estimate speed, angle, and range to the target during the enemy soldier's brief exposure. The single-lead rule (place the trailing edge of the front sight post at target center) places effective fire on most high-priority combat targets. At 100 meters, the rule begins to break down for targets moving at slight and large angles.

Since the target lead is half the perceived width of the front sight post, at 100 meters the standard sight provides for 5.4 inches of lead for the M16A1 and M16A2 front sights (Figure 4-15).

Figure 4-15. Angle of target movement

 RANGE" 100 METERS (ST AMD ARO StGHT] TARGET SPEED ANGLE OF TARGET MOVEMENT 4 MPH 6 MPH 0 MPH 5a +4.3" -1.3" 10# «■4.1 " «-3.51' ■2 7" 15° +3.5" +2.S" -1 5" 20e -2 3" Hi.5" +.2" 25° +2 r 1.7" -1.0" 30* +1,7" - 2" -2,0" 35" +1 1" 11" ■ 3.2" 40" -1 .9" -1.3" 4Bn -2.7" -5.4" - - -1 -6.2" 55° -.a11 -4 0" 7.0" GO& -1 2" -4 E" -7.7" 05® ■1 .5" 4 9" S 4" 70° ■1 .V ■5.3" -e.a" 75* -1 .9" 5.6" ■9.2" ao4 -2 0" -5.9" ■ 9.6" 85û ■2.1" -5 9" 9 7" 90* -3 1" 6.Û" -9.B"

NOTE: Pius (+| indicates bullet strike iff the direction of movement; minus H indicates bullet strike behind the target center.

NOTE: Pius (+| indicates bullet strike iff the direction of movement; minus H indicates bullet strike behind the target center.

Target Distance. The front sight post covers only a small part of close-in targets, providing for target hits on close targets moving at any angle and any speed. However, if the lead rule is applied on more distant targets moving at a slight angle - for example, 5 degrees at 100 meters - the bullet strikes forward of target center, about 4 inches with standard sights and about 7 inches with LLLSS sights. Therefore, soldiers are taught to fire at targets as though they are stationary until lateral movement is observed (15 degrees).

The rule provides for many speed-angle combinations that place the bullet within 2 inches of target center (Figure 4-16). Since the soldier is expected to fire a 12-inch group on moving targets at 100 meters, the rule provides for hits on the majority of targets. Even the worst case (a 90-degree target moving at 8 mph) would result in the shot-group center being located 9.8 inches behind target center. If bullets were evenly distributed within a 12-inch group, this would result in hitting the target 40 percent of the time.

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