Priming Compounds and Primers Introduction

A priming compound is a highly sensitive explosive chemical which, when struck by the firing pin or hammer of a weapon, will explode with great violence, causing a flame to ignite the propellant.

This explosive chemical is often mixed with other chemicals which provide oxygen to assist in the production of the flame, a fuel to increase the length and temperature of the flame and ground glass as an abrasive to assist in the initial ignition of the explosive.

In the realms of forensic science, the detection of primer discharge residue on the hands can provide crucial evidence as to whether a person has recently fired a weapon. To fully utilize the evidential value of gunshot residue (GSR) analysis, a basic understanding of the history, composition and manufacture of primers is essential.

Short history of priming compounds. The earliest priming compound was almost certainly mercury fulminate as used in the Forsythe scent bottle priming system which was introduced around 1806. This compound is highly sensitive and liable to spontaneously explode for no apparent reason. As a result, the Forsythe scent bottle, which required a considerable quantity of this compound to be carried in a container on the side of the pistol, did not achieve a great deal of popularity.

In 1807, Forsythe introduced a priming compound with a formula consisting of 70.6 parts potassium chlorate, 17.6 parts sulfur and 11.8 parts of charcoal. Whilst this was somewhat more stable than mercury fulminate, it was terribly corrosive.

The first real percussion cap (a small metal cup containing the priming composition which was placed on a nipple at the rear of the barrel) was introduced by Joshua Shaw in 1814 and contained mercury fulminate. As a result of the unpredictability of plain mercury fulminate, it was superseded in 1818 by a mixture of mercury fulminate, potassium chlorate, sulfur and charcoal. The residues produced by this mixture were, however, still terribly corrosive, requiring the weapon to be cleaned immediately after firing.

In 1828, Dreyse patented the 'needle gun ' , which had a paper cartridge case with the primer cup inside the case with the propellant. The firing pin on this weapon was a very long thin needle which penetrated the paper case striking the primer within. This primer cup contained a mixture of potassium chlorate and antimony sulfide.

It was found that purification of the mercury fulminate would lead to a more stable compound, and in 1873, a mixture of mercury fulminate, potassium chlorate, glass dust and gum arabic became the standard US military priming compound. This mixture suffered from two major drawbacks: (i) the mercury tended to make the brass cartridge cases brittle, which led to case failure on firing and dangerous leakage of high-pressure gas from the breech of the weapon; and (ii) the potassium chlorate left terribly corrosive residues in the bore of the weapon after firing.

As a result of these problems, the search began for a non-mercuric, non-corrosive primer composition. Early attempts revolved around the use of potassium chlorate as the main ingredient. Potassium chlorate is, however, a fairly unstable material and is very deliquescent, that is, it absorbs water from the atmosphere.

It also forms potassium chloride on decomposition, which is also deliquescent and is very corrosive to the weapon's bore.

Just prior to World War I, it was discovered that thiocyanate/chlorate mixtures were sensitive to impact. These, however, had the same drawbacks as straight chlorate primers, that is, they produced corrosive residues on firing.

The German company RWS was the first to substitute the potassium chlorate with barium nitrate. Lead styphnate was used as the main explosive component giving the first 'rust free ' primer. This was patented in 1928 under the name Sinoxid.

The first true non-corrosive, non-mercuric (NCNM) primers were commercially produced in America between 1935 and 1938. These, however, did not meet the stringent US government specifications as to storage, misfires, and so on, and military ammunition continued to use the old corrosive chlorate mixtures right through World War II.

In the United Kingdom, the change to non- corrosive military primers was even slower, and it was not until the early 1960s that all calibres in military and commercial primers used NCNM priming compounds.

Up to early 2000, the most common primer composition encountered was still the lead styphenate, barium nitrate, antimony sulfide and tetrazine type. In this priming compound, lead styphenate and tetrazine are the sensitive explosive ingredients; barium nitrate provides additional oxygen to increase the temperature of the flame, and antimony sulfide acts as a fuel to prolong the burning time. Aluminium, and occasionally magnesium, can also be encountered, but mainly in the higher-powered magnum pistol or rifle calibres.

Powdered glass was also often added to the mixture to increase the friction and to assist detonation when the mixture is crushed by the firing pin.

Modern 0.22" calibre rimfire ammunition is slightly different in that the composition almost invariably consists of lead styphenate, barium nitrate, tetra-zine and powdered glass.

Lead-free and non-toxic primers. It began to become apparent in the early 1970s that in heavily used training facilities, the range personnel were suffering from the symptoms of lead poisoning. Whilst a large proportion of this lead was being volatilized from the base of the bullets, a portion was obviously coming from the lead styphenate primer.

The US National Bureau of Standards claims that when lead-based primers are used, 80% of airborne lead on firing ranges comes from the projectile and 20% comes from the priming composition. These percentages obviously depend on whether the bullet is plain lead or jacketed. In the case of a non- jacketed bullet, the rifling will strip lead from the bullet' s surface, thus dramatically increasing the percentage of non-primer-based airborne lead.

The change to a bullet with a copper/zinc jacket extending over the base was a fairly simple matter of reducing the bullet sourced airborne lead, but finding a non-mercuric non-corrosive non-lead-based primer was another.

The problem was first solved in the early 1980s by Geco, who released a zinc- and titanium - based primer which they called " Sintox'. Since then, there have been a number of other lead-free primers produced by, for example, CCI Blazer, Speer, Federal and Winchester (Haag, 1995). The exact composition of the priming compounds used is not available, although SEM/EDX (scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive X-ray) analysis generally shows the presence of strontium in the Speer and Blazer cartridges, potassium in the Winchester cartridges and calcium and silicon in the Federal cartridges.

Most of the more recent primer formulations contain an initiator explosive compound called 'dinol', the chemical name of which is DDNP (diazodinitrophenol).

Other initiator explosives include:

• dinitrodihydroxydiazobenzene salt (diazinate);

• dinitrobenzofuroxan salts;

• potassium dinitrobenzofuroxan;

• various diazo, triazole, and tetrazaole compounds;

• perchlorate or nitrate salts of metal complexes of ammonium, amine or hydrazine an example of which is 2-(5-cyanotetrazolato)pentaaminecobalt III perchlorate (CP).

Oxidizers include:

• potassium nitrate;

• strontium nitrate;

Fuel components include:

• amorphous boron;

• metal powders, such as aluminium, zirconium, titanium, nickel and zinc;

• metal sulfides such as:

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  • tero koho
    What is priming compound?
    9 years ago
  • Filmon
    How to make potasium chlorate paste for muzzleloading primers?
    4 years ago
  • arnor
    What is the common compound in a ammo primer?
    4 years ago
  • philip
    What are the compounds in lead free primers?
    3 years ago
  • Torsten
    What type of explosivr in bullet primer?
    3 years ago
  • tuomo
    What chemical is used to make rifle primers?
    3 years ago
  • carmen
    What compound is in explosive rifle rounds?
    3 years ago
  • goytiom
    What is the compound in rifle primers?
    3 years ago
  • Valtteri
    Which compound is used to make the primer of cartriage?
    3 years ago
  • chad
    What is a primer chemical compound?
    2 years ago
  • tranquillino
    What is the pistol primmer compound?
    2 years ago
  • kiera
    Are federal primers made from a different compound than cci?
    2 years ago
  • bertha
    How to bullet primming mixture?
    2 years ago
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    What are the chemicals in primeall?
    2 years ago
  • Kaisa
    What primer is used in rimfire?
    2 years ago
  • medhanit
    What are the primeall repriming compound individual components?
    2 years ago
  • Anni Valo
    How priming compound is made?
    2 years ago
  • May
    How made primer with potasiuam chlorate?
    2 years ago
  • averardo
    Can corrosive primerammunition explode?
    2 years ago
  • palmiro
    What chemical used for rimfire primer?
    1 year ago
  • Gabriella
    How to make rimfire priming compound?
    1 year ago
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    What is primer and its composition in firearm?
    1 year ago
  • simon
    What compound explodes in a primer?
    1 year ago
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    1 year ago
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    How to make primercompound for primers?
    1 year ago
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    What is a bullet primer made of?
    1 year ago
  • melissa
    Where early 22 rim fire rounds corrosive primers?
    1 year ago
  • lobelia chubb-baggins
    What is the hardning agent in prime all repriming compound?
    1 year ago
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    What is primer production?
    1 year ago
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    What chemicals are used as primers for ammunition?
    12 months ago
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    Who is working on lead free rimfire primer?
    12 months ago
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    How to make noncorrosive primer compound?
    11 months ago
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    What are the ingredients in a gun bullet primer?
    11 months ago
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    How to make bullet primers?
    11 months ago
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    11 months ago
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    Is bullet primer poisounous?
    10 months ago
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    What chemical present in gun primer?
    10 months ago
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    What are small arms primers made from?
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    What is inside a bullet primer?
    10 months ago
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    How to make primer in bullet?
    9 months ago
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    How much primer compound in primers?
    8 months ago
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    How to make gun primer from easily available substances?
    8 months ago
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    8 months ago
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    What is the mixture of corrisive primers?
    8 months ago
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    Has 22ammo primer changed in recent years?
    7 months ago
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    How to make primer compound eph0?
    7 months ago
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    6 months ago
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    What are rifle cartridge primers made of?
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    5 months ago
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    5 months ago
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    Which part of ammunition is used priming composition?
    5 months ago
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    What is corrosion compound vs primer?
    5 months ago
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    Are fired bullet case toxic styphnate?
    5 months ago
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    What kinds of powders are in a primer for a gun?
    4 months ago
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    What compounds does ammo primers contain ?
    4 months ago
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    4 months ago
  • Paul
    What is the prime in bullets made of?
    4 months ago
  • Tiblets
    What does it take to ignite dried cartridge primer compound?
    3 months ago
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    3 months ago
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    2 months ago
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    What is priming compound composition?
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    What is the main ingrediant in a primer of bullet ?
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    How is a sintox primer made?
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    What is the green substance in a primer cap?
    1 month ago
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    What is the material in a shotgun primer?
    1 month ago
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    How is rimfire ammo primed?
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    What chemicals are used in federal primers?
    12 days ago
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    What explosive compound is in a 209 primer?
    3 days ago
  • peyton
    Which chemical can be added to compounds to enhance detonation?
    5 hours ago

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