Figure C Mounted Firing Exercise Table VI

Night Phase Script For Gunnery Table

Figure C-12. Mounted Firing Exercise Table VI, continued.

e. Scoring Procedures. The mounted firing exercise is graded on a Go/No Go basis. Commanders may increase the difficulty of any or all tasks to align the exercise with the unit's mission.

C-9. PREDETERMINED FIRING EXERCISE

The predetermined firing exercise is for the gun crew that has demonstrated proficiency during the basic phase of gunnery. Emphasis will be on developing range cards and confirming range-card data during day and night firing.

a. Objectives. The objective of this training is to reinforce what was developed in the fundamental gunnery phases. It is designed to increase the effectiveness of the M2 MG crew by building their confidence to quickly and accurately deliver a large volume of fire on a prescribed target.

b. Organization. The unit is assembled in the bleachers, given instructions, and briefed on training that will be conducted while they are on the range. After briefing, they will be organized into gun crews and moved to firing lanes. Lanes will be used IAW local range policies.

c. Ammunition. This exercise requires 168 rounds of 12.7-mm linked ammunition. The gunner is allotted two bursts per target during the day phase and one burst per target during the night phase. Each gunner will be issued two belts of ammunition; one 112-round belt for the day phase and one 56-round belt for the night phase.

d Firing Sequence. The sequence of firing will be conducted IAW Firing Table VII (Figure C-13, page 33). The suggested sequence of firing is as follows:

(a) Task 1, Prepare a Range Card. Once the gunner is assigned his firing point, he must prepare a range card for that position. Range cards must be prepared IAW paragraph E-2.

(b) Task 2, Obtain Direction and Elevation Readings for the Final Protective Line. During this task, the gunner is allotted 28 rounds to obtain and record the direction and elevation reading of his FPL.

(c) Task 3, Obtain Direction and Elevation Readings for Point Targets. The gunner will be required to obtain and record direction and elevation readings for point targets located at 400, 600, 800, and 1,000 meters. He is allotted 56 rounds for this task.

(d) Task 4, Obtain Direction and Elevation Readings for Linear Targets. The gunner will be required to obtain and record direction and elevation readings for linear targets located at 600 and 800 meters. He is allotted 28 rounds for this task.

NOTE: Each crew is scored as a group in the night phase. (The day phase is not scored.) The crew applies the data obtained during the day and engages their targets. Each crew receives 10 points for each target engagement. A minimum of 40 out of a possible 70 is required. This exercise is not a requirement for qualification; however, commanders can use this training to test their gun crews' proficiency.

(a) Task 5, Engage Point Targets Using Range-Card Data. The gunner must engage point targets located at 400, 600, 800, and 1,000 meters using range-card data. He is allotted 28 rounds for this task. The grader will announce the sequence of engagements.

(b) Task 6, Engage Area Targets Using Range-Card Data. The gunner must engage linear targets located at 600 and 800 meters using range-card data. He is allotted 14 rounds for this task. The grader will announce the sequence of engagements.

(c) Task 7, Fire Final Protective Line. The gunner will fire his FPL to obtain grazing fire. He is allotted 14 rounds for this task.

e. Conduct of Firing. The gunner, assistant, and leader will prepare a range card for that position. Once complete, each crew will be given 168 rounds as prescribed in a predetermined firing table.

(1) Each gunner initially lays on his target by using the dry-fire technique. Each crew is issued 168 rounds of ammunition, and the gunner is ordered to load by the group NCO. When all the gunners of a group are ready, the NCO announces, "Up," to the officer in charge.

(2) When all groups are ready to fire, the OIC announces, "Give me an 'Up' when you have engaged all targets and have obtained the correct data to all targets. You are clear to fire."

(3) When the gunner has correctly engaged his target (FPL), the leader records the information from the T&E mechanism and traversing bar onto a range card. Then, the assistant gunner becomes the gunner, the gunner becomes the leader, and the leader becomes the assistant gunner.

(4) As each member of the crew becomes the gunner, he fires at a different preselected target (order number 2, a linear target; order number 3, a point target).

(5) After each crew member has been a gunner, assistant gunner, and leader and all data on the three targets have been obtained, the group NCO clears and checks the machine guns of his group and announces to the OIC, "Group cleared and checked."

3. Determine and record direction and elevation for point targets.

The gunner is allotted 12.7-mm linked ammo, four E-type silhouettes located at 400, 600, 800, and 1,000 meters.

56 rounds of

Gunner must impact one burst on each target.

4. Determine and record direction and elevation for area targets.

The gunner is allotted 12.7-mm linked ammo, two E-type silhouettes located at 600 and 800 meters.

28 rounds of

Gunner must impact one burst on each target.

5. Engage point targets using range card data.

The gunner is allotted 12.7-mm linked ammo, the same firing position, and his prepared range card.

28 rounds of

Gunner must impact one burst on each target.

Figure C-13. Predetermined Firing Table VII.

TASK

CONDITIONS TARGET/SITUATION

AMMO

STANDARD

6. Engage area targets using range card data.

The gunner is allotted 12.7-mm linked ammo, and his prepared range card.

14 rounds of

12.7-mm.

Gunner must impact one burst on each target.

7. Fire final protective line.

The gunner is allotted 12.7-mm linked ammo, and his prepared range card.

14 rounds of

12.7-mm.

Gunner must obtain grazing fire when firing his FPL

Figure C-13. Predetermined Firing Table Vll, continued.

APPENDIX D

FIGHTING POSITIONS

Fighting positions are stable platforms from which a gunner can engage the enemy. Fighting positions are dug as often as possible, but for the most part only when a unit is in the defense and has the time. This appendix discusses the construction of only two fighting positions: the one-, two-, or three-man, tripod-mounted position; and the M63 antiaircraft emplacement.

D-1. CONSTRUCTION CONSIDERATIONS

When constructing a fighting position, the leader and gunner should consider factors that affect the position, such as cover, concealment, fields of fire, size, and improvements.

a. The cover in a machine gun fighting position protects the gun crew from frontal small-arms fire and from fragments of high explosive shells impacting within 3 to 5 meters of the position. The frontal parapet must be at least one Ml 6 rifle length thick and high enough to hide the helmets of the soldiers in the position. Overhead cover built out of sandbags stacked on logs will protect from shell fragments. The logs should be at least 6 inches thick, with at least two layers of sandbags over them (Figure D-1).

AMMO BEARER'S

g^pmo ne FIF

SECONDARY SECTOR

SECONDARY SECTOR

TRENCH

Figure D-1. Three-man fighting position.

b. Concealment hides the machine gun fighting position from direct observation by the enemy, who will make every attempt to locate and destroy heavy machine gun positions early in the battle. The position must be made to blend with its surroundings with both natural and man-made camouflage. Excess dirt from the initial digging should be moved away from the position, and the sod used to re-cover the overhead protection. From the enemy side, the position should not be visible at 35 meters or less (hand grenade range). It should never be obvious even at close range. Use sod or dampen the ground in front of the muzzle to reduce the dust cloud caused by firing. Consider what the position looks like from the air and camouflage it to blend with the surrounding terrain.

c. Selective clearing that does not destroy natural camouflage may be necessary to provide good observation and fields of fire in both primary and secondary sectors of fire.

d. The position should be armpit deep, be wide enough to allow two soldiers with load-bearing equipment to move freely, and have two distinct firing platforms.

e. Improvements to the position may include a grenade sump, a sloping floor with shallow trench for drainage, and a rear parapet for protection against shell fragments and small-arms fire from the rear (other friendly positions or supporting fire from armored personnel carriers).

D-2. CONSTRUCTION OF A TRIPOD-MOUNTED POSITION

After being assigned a sector of fire with an FPL or a PDF, the gun crew begins constructing the fighting position. The tripod is placed in position first and marked so that the weapon will be pointed in the general direction of the target area. A preliminary sketched range card is drawn to show the limits of the sector. The gun crew then outlines the shape of the platform and hole to include the area for the frontal cover in the ground (Figure D-2). The crew then starts digging out the platforms. When they get about 4 to 6 inches deep, the MG is put in place to cover the primary sector of fire until construction is complete.

a. When assigned an FPL, emplace the gun by locking the traversing slide to the extreme left or right of the traversing bar, depending on which side of the primary sector the FPL is on. Align the barrel on the FPL by shifting the tripod.

NOTE: No direction entry is needed in the data section of the range card for the FPL.

b. When assigned a PDF, emplace the gun by locking the traversing slide at the center of the traversing bar. Shift the tripod and gun until the barrel is aimed at the center of the sector. Check coverage of the sector limits by traversing the gun fully left and right.

barrel is aimed at the center of the sector. Check coverage of the sector limits by traversing the gun fully left and right.

Figure D-2. Planning the fighting position.

NOTE: In the data section of the range card, record the direction and elevation data of the PDF and the sector limits from the T&E mechanism.

c. The crew digging the hole uses the dug-up dirt to build up the cover - first for frontal cover and then for flank and rear cover. They dig the hole deep enough to protect the crew and still let the gunner shoot with comfort (usually about armpit deep) (Figure D-3). They fix the tripod legs in place by digging, sandbagging, or staking them down. This will ensure that the gun does not shift during firing, which would render the range card data useless.

Figure D-3. Digging the fighting position.

(1) The crew digs three trench-shaped grenade sumps at various points where the crew can kick grenades into them (Figure D-4).

(1) The crew digs three trench-shaped grenade sumps at various points where the crew can kick grenades into them (Figure D-4).

Figure D-4. Digging grenade sumps.

(2) When a position does not have a secondary sector of fire, the crew digs only half of the position (Figure D-5).

Figure D-5. Half of a position.

(3) When a position has both a primary and secondary sector, the crew prepares two firing platforms. The crew prepares overhead cover for a machine gun position like that of a two-man small arms fighting position. Time and material permitting, overhead cover should extend to cover the firing platforms (Figure D-6). Failure to properly construct overhead cover can result in reduced fields of fire, inability to mount NVDs, or problems in reloading. Proper construction of overhead cover is critical to survival.

Overhead Cover Tranch

AMMO BEARER

TRENCH

AMMO BEARER'S SECTOR OF FIRE

AMMO BEARER

TRENCH

Figure D-6. Two firing platforms with overhead cover.

(4) When there is a three-man crew for the machine gun, the ammunition bearer digs a one-man fighting position to the flank of the gun position so that he can see and shoot to the oblique. This will allow him to cover the front of the machine gun's position (Figure D-7).

(4) When there is a three-man crew for the machine gun, the ammunition bearer digs a one-man fighting position to the flank of the gun position so that he can see and shoot to the oblique. This will allow him to cover the front of the machine gun's position (Figure D-7).

Rifle Bearer

Figure D-7. Ammo bearer covering the front.

D-3. CONSTRUCTION OF AN ANTIAIRCRAFT EMPLACEMENT

Place the machine gun on the M63 mount alongside the designated location of the gun position. If needed, it can fire at any time during the construction process. Construct a circular position, with sufficient room to traverse the gun 360 degrees (normally, three and a half M16 lengths in diameter and one M16 length deep). Use the dirt dug out of the circular hole to construct a wall of sandbags around the position. Using sandbags, build a stable platform for the mount. Stake down the legs of the mount and place sandbags over them. This will prevent the mount from tipping backward when low-level targets are engaged. Include the M63-mounted machine gun's fire in the plan for defending the unit against ground attack (Figure D-8).

Cal Qualification Tables

Figure D-8. Open pit-type antiaircraft position.

APPENDIX E

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