These are types of fire that are placed on a predetermined line along which grazing fire is placed to stop an enemy assault. This fire is fixed in direction and elevation; however, a few roils of search are employed during firing to compensate for irregularities in the terrain. FPLs are always laid in using the extreme left or right of the tripod, causing the T&E to move to the extreme left or right on the traversing bar. The FPFs can be delivered in any visibility conditions. When terrain permits, final protective lines are assigned to machine guns along the forward line of troops as a part of the FPFs of the defending unit. The signal used to call for FPFs is normally prescribed in the company operation order. The authority to call for these fires may be delegated to the platoon leader of a forward rifle platoon. Final protective fires are ceased on order.
a. Signals. Arm-and-hand signals, voice commands, or pyrotechnic devices may be used in calling for these fires.
b. Rates of Fire. When firing FPFs, the rapid rate of fire is used unless it is obvious that a different rate is necessary to accomplish the mission. When engaging other preselected target areas, the rapid rate of fire is used until commanded to cease fire.
To be effective, machine gun fire must be distributed over the entire target area. Improper distribution of fire results in gaps which allow the enemy to escape or use weapons against friendly positions without effective opposition.
a. The method of applying fire to a target is generally the same for either a single gun or a pair of guns. Direct laying is pointing the gun for direction and elevation so that the sights are aligned directly on the target. Fire is delivered in width, depth, or in a combination of the two. To distribute fire properly, the gunners must know where to aim, how to adjust their fire, and the direction to manipulate the gun. The gunner must aim, fire, and adjust on a certain point of the target. Binoculars may be used by the leader to facilitate fire adjustment.
b. The gunner ensures throughout his firing that the center of the beaten zone is maintained at the center base of the target for maximum effect from each burst of fire. When this is done, projectiles in the upper half of the cone of fire will pass through the target if it has height, and the projectiles in the lower half of the beaten zone may ricochet into the target (Figure 6-17).
c. The gunner must move his beaten zone in a certain direction over the target. The direction depends on the type of target and whether the target is engaged with a pair of guns or a single gun. When engaging targets other than point targets with a pair of guns, the targets are divided so that fire is evenly distributed throughout the target area. Fire delivered on point targets or a specific area of other target configurations is called concentrated fire.
UPPER HALF OF CONE OF FIRE PASSING THROUGH TARGET
UPPER HALF OF CONE OF FIRE PASSING THROUGH TARGET
RICOCHETING INTO TARGET
Figure 6-17. Line of aim and placement of center of beaten zone on target.
RICOCHETING INTO TARGET
Figure 6-17. Line of aim and placement of center of beaten zone on target.
Machine gun fire is adjusted by observing the strike of the rounds, observing the flight of tracers, frequently re-laying the gun, or by a combination of these. Adjustment by observation of fire is the most important element of fire control if it is bold, aggressive, rapid, and continuous throughout the action.
a. The gunner is trained to observe and adjust his gun's fire without command. He is trained to anticipate the action of the enemy after the initial burst, and is prepared to shift his fire to cover any change in formation or movement of his target. If the gunner fails to accomplish this, the fire unit leader must promptly correct him by announcing or signaling subsequent fire commands. This responsibility to adjust fire continues through the chain of commands.
b. When subsequent fire commands are given, the gunner makes the required corrections and continues to engage the target without any further command to fire. If the gun is fired on the tripod mount, subsequent commands are given to make changes in direction, elevation, and the rate of fire. These changes are given orally as SHIFT RIGHT, SHIFT LEFT, ADD, or DROP. (For arm-and-hand signals see FM 21-60.) When making these announced changes,mils may be used to indicate the amount of desired shift; for example, SHIFT RIGHT 5 or SHIFT LEFT 7. When making changes in elevation, roils are not used, as it is normally difficult to determine just how high or low the center of the beaten zone is striking the ground in relation to the target.
(1) Observation. When firing on the 10-meter range, the strike of the bullets is visible on the target. When firing at greater distances, the strike of the bullets on the ground may cause dust to rise, which is visible to the gunner; however, during wet weather the strike cannot always be seen. In this event, the tracers will allow the gunner or crew leader to note the strike of the burst in relation to the target.
(2) Adjustment. Using the mil relation, one click of the traversing handwheel or elevating handwheel moves the strike of the bullet 1/2 inch on the target at a range of 10 meters.
(a) When firing on the 10-meter range, adjust by moving the shot group a required number of centimeters vertically or horizontally until the center of the group is on the aiming paster. Should the gunner's initial burst strike the target 2 centimeters to the left and 3 centimeters below the aiming paster, he adjusts his fire by traversing right 4 clicks and elevating 6 clicks before firing again.
(b) When firing on field targets, adjust by moving the burst into the target. One click (roil) on the traversing handwheel will move the strike 1/2 meter at 500 meters or 1 meter at 1,000 meters; however, the distance 1 click (roil) in the elevating handwheel will move the strike depends on the range to the target and the slope of the ground. The gunner determines the number of roils necessary to move the center of the strike into the target, and he manipulates the gun the required number of roils. This does not require the use of sights. For example, should the gunner fire on a target at 500 meters and observe the strike 10 meters to the right of the target and short about 50 meters, he would traverse the gun to the left 20 clicks (roils) and add one or more clicks (roils), depending on the slope of the ground.
(c) The gunner may use the adjusted aiming point method to adjust the fire. In this method the gunner must use his sights. He selects an aiming point that will place the next burst on the target. For example, should the gunner fire on a target at 500 meters and estimate that the strike is 20 meters short and 10 meters to the right of the target, he would rapidly select an aiming point approximately 20 meters beyond the target and 10 meters to the left of the target, lay on that aiming point, and fire.
The MG can provide units with a self-defense capability against hostile low-flying, low-performance aircraft. These guns are employed in the air defense role as part of the unit's local defense. The MGs are not components of an integrated and coordinated air defense system. Unless otherwise directed, hostile aircraft within range of the gun (about 800 meters maximum effective range) should be engaged. The decision will be made by the commander. Typical targets are surveillance, reconnaissance, and liaison aircraft; troop carriers; helicopters; and drones.
a. Engagement and Employment. The mission is to impose maximum attrition upon the attacking enemy, such as low-flying, low-performance aircraft. Employment of MGs used for air defense is guided by the following defense design factors:
• Defense design should produce an equally balanced defense that is effective in all directions, unless a forced route of approach exists.
• Machine guns should be sited so that the maximum number of targets can be engaged, continuous fire can be delivered, and the most likely routes of approach are covered.
• Machine guns used to defend march columns should be interspersed in the convoy, with emphasis on the lead and rear elements (Figure 6-18).
PRIMARY SECTOR — OF FIRE
_SECONDARY SECTOR OF FIRE
VEHICLE MOUNTED WITH WEAPON
PRIMARY SECTOR — OF FIRE
_SECONDARY SECTOR OF FIRE
VEHICLE MOUNTED WITH WEAPON
Figure 6-18. March column with four MGs (added).
b. Target Selection and Engagement Control. These actions depend upon visual means. The sites selected for the guns must provide maximum observation and unobstructed sectors of fire. Units furnished MGs in sufficient numbers should site them within mutual support distances of 90 to 360 meters. Each gun is assigned a primary and secondary sector of fire. Weapon crews maintain constant vigilance in their primary sectors of fire, regardless of the sector in which the guns are actually engaged.
The machine gun is provided with a stable tripod mount, M3, and a traversing and elevating mechanism. By manipulating the T&E mechanism, gun crews can record target data during good visibility and engage the same targets in poor visibility. This section provides guidance on machine gun firing techniques and terms used during limited visibility, which includes darkness, smoke, fog, rain, or snow.
Crewmembers encounter difficulties while defending during limited visibility, which preclude the use of many of the daylight techniques of engaging targets.
a. During limited visibility, the machine gunner's sector of responsibility cannot be observed in depth; therefore, targets are difficult or impossible to detect.
b. Visibility may be so limited that the leader cannot control the fires of his guns by selecting and directing fire on targets as he would during good visibility. Oral commands are not dependable, arm-and-hand signals may not be seen, and personal contact with the gunner is difficult.
c. At night, machine gunners have a tendency to fire indiscriminately at noises and suspected enemy locations.
To overcome these difficulties, special techniques must be developed for engaging targets and delivering preplanned fires by the use of range cards. (See Appendix E.)
The following terms must be familiar to MG crews for them to complete their missions in poor visibility.
a. Sector of Fire. An area (to be covered by fire) assigned to an individual or unit. Machine guns are normally assigned two sectors of fire, a primary and a secondary sector.
b. Final Protective Line. A predetermined line along which grazing fire is placed to stop an enemy assault. The FPL is fixed as to direction and elevation; however, a few roils of search are employed during firing to compensate for irregularities in the terrain. The FPL can be delivered regardless of visibility conditions. The FPL is always the inner limit of the primary sector, which is assigned close to the forward line of troops area. When terrain permits, FPLs are assigned to machine guns along the FLOT as a part of the final protective fires of the defending unit.
c. Principal Direction of Fire. A PDF is a priority direction of fire that marks a specific area assigned to a weapon. This area may extend from the gun position to the maximum effective range of the weapon and therefore is not fixed for elevation. Visible targets appearing in the PDF take priority over targets that may appear elsewhere in the sector. A PDF may be assigned to cover an area that provides good fields of fire, is a likely avenue of foot approach, or mutually supports an adjacent unit.
d. Sector of Graze. A wedge-shaped area formed by assigned sector limits that afford grazing fire (one meter high, maximum) from the muzzle of the weapon to the first major break in the terrain. The sector of graze is fired using swinging traverse in the primary sector of fire. It can be fired in the secondary sector in conjunction with field expedients by freeing the T&E mechanism and using the mount as a pivot. A sector of graze can be delivered regardless of the condition of visibility.
e. Area of Graze. This is an area, other than the sector of graze, within a sector of fire that is covered by grazing fire. Grazing fire need not be continuous from the muzzle of the weapon to the area over which grazing fire is desired.
A gunner's ability to detect and identify targets during limited visibility will vary, depending upon the amount of natural and artificial light and the types and numbers of sensors used. All tracer ammunition allows a gunner to more effectively engage visible targets during limited visibility; it should be used when possible. Gunners must be trained to fire low initially and adjust up when engaging targets during limited visibility. This helps them overcome the tendency to fire high during these conditions. The types of point targets machine gunners will be concerned with during limited visibility, particularly at night, are enemy automatic weapons and assaulting enemy personnel.
a. Point targets such as automatic weapons may be identified during limited visibility by their muzzle flashes. To effectively engage these targets, fire should be delivered in a heavy volume and adjusted by observing the tracer stream.
b. During the final stage of an enemy assault, machine guns normally fire at personnel on an FPL; they may be assigned a PDF. Both are considered as final protective fires and should be planned for and coordinated as such. If individual enemy soldiers are observed in the proximity of the gun position, they must be neutralized by someone other than the machine gunner (by the other crewmembers or by security forces of the supported unit). The FPFs are fired according to the order or SOP, and the machine gunner is not allowed to stop firing them except in accordance with those orders or SOP.
During limited visibility, the leader cannot direct the fires of his guns as effectively as with good visibility. Consequently, initiative is required of the gunners. When targets within their sectors become visible to gunners, they must engage such targets without command and continue to fire until the targets have been neutralized. Gun crews engage targets only when they can identify them, unless ordered to do otherwise. For example, if one gunner detects a target and engages it, the other gunners will observe the area in which fire is being placed. They will add their fire only if they can identify the target or are ordered to place fire in the area.
In addition to engaging appropriate visible targets, the gunner must be able to deliver preplanned fires during limited visibility. These fires are used to cover target areas of tactical significance (such as routes, avenues of approach, anticipated enemy supporting weapons positions, and probable enemy assault positions) and to establish sectors of graze and final protective lines. For maximum effect in all preplanned target areas, grazing fire should be obtained when possible.
a. Obtaining Maximum Extent of Grazing Fire Over Level or Uniformly Sloping Terrain. The machine gunner sets the rear sights at 700 meters; selects a point on the ground, which he determines to be at a range of about 700 meters; and lays, fires, and adjusts on this point. If the gunner cannot obtain 700 meters of grazing fire because of a major break in the ground at a range of less than 700 meters, he places the range to the break on his sight and lays, fires, and adjusts at that point.
b. Determining the Extent of Grazing Fire on the Final Protective Line. The extent of grazing fire on the FPL is determined using the techniques described above. Any intermediate breaks in the terrain along this line that cannot be covered by grazing fire from a gun firing along the line is considered dead space.
c. Determining the Extent of Grazing Fire in the Sector of Graze. The ranges to the extent of grazing fire in a sector of graze are determined by observing the terrain and by observing the tracer stream from behind or from a flank of the gun position. Normally, the extent of grazing fire within this area will be much less than on an FPL and will form an irregular pattern.
d. Determining the Amount of Grazing Fire in an Area of Graze. The same procedures used in paragraph 6-8a are used in determining the extent of grazing fire in an area of graze. The ranges to areas of grazing fire are determined by observing the flight of tracer ammunition from behind or from the flank of the gun position. The gunner determines the lateral extent of areas of graze by selecting and engaging successive aiming points in the area believed to afford grazing fire, using the same range setting as when determining the range to the extent of grazing fire.
During this phase of training, the gunner is introduced to firing the machine gun while in MOPP, keeping in mind that engagement of some targets in MOPP is a qualification requirement. Firing weapons is only part of the overall NBC training. Soldiers must first be familiar with the NBC equipment, its use, and proper wear before they progress to learning the techniques of MOPP firing. Although there is no different technique required to fire the MG, there are certain fundamentals that may be slightly impaired.
a. Immediate Action. Under normal conditions, a gunner should be able to clear a stoppage in two to four seconds; however, under full MOPP, this may take a few seconds longer. Dry-fire practice under these conditions is necessary to reduce time and streamline actions. When practicing with the hood/mask and gloves, care must be taken not to snag or damage the gloves or dislodge the hood/mask during movement. Trainers should apply immediate action to a variety of stoppages during dry fire until the gunners are able to instinctively do it without compromising their NBC environment.
b. Target Detection. Techniques and principles of target detection and target acquisition still remain valid during NBC conditions, but considerations must be made for limiting factors imposed by MOPP equipment. For example, vision is limited to what can be seen through the mask's lens/faceplate. Peripheral vision is severely restricted. The lens/faceplate may be scratched or partly fogged, thus further restricting vision. Gunners requiring corrective lenses must be issued insert lenses before training. Scanning movements may be restricted by the hood/mask. Any of these factors could adversely affect the gunner's ability to quickly and accurately detect targets. Extra skill practice should be conducted.
c. Efficient Performance. The trainer must keep in mind that although movements are slowed, tasks take longer, and function checks, loading, unloading, and cleaning are affected by MOPP, it is a must that the gunner avoid damaging MOPP gear and risk possible exposure to lethal agents. Because of the great difference between no MOPP and MOPP4, gunners must be trained in all aspects of operation and maintenance of the weapon while practicing at the highest MOPP level. Only through repeated training and practice can the soldier be expected to perform all tasks efficiently.
The information in this chapter tells how to train the trainer, how to advise the trainer, and how to assist the trainer in preparing the crew for the three phases of MG marksmanship.
The Train The Trainer Program must be planned properly and conclude with a certification program. In the planning phase, the instructor teaches the trainer to be flexible and thorough. He must plan alternate exercises in case weather or other constraints prohibit the originally scheduled training. Training must not follow rigid timetables that inhibit training and learning; instead, schedules should be established that provide sufficient time to correct mistakes and ensure learning. The following are factors that the trainers are taught to consider:
a. Support. Training requires support. The trainers must ensure that the training is conducted within the resource levels and that the training received justifies the material used. Public address systems should be used if the group is larger than a platoon-size element.
b. Time. Ample time must be allocated for each phase.
c. Participants. Trainers must consider whether or not the groups or individuals to be trained are capable of benefiting from the phases selected. (See paragraph 7-2a. )
d. Safety. Safety is the most important factor and therefore will be the main consideration. Trainers as well as the personnel to be trained will ensure all safety precautions are met. Anyone observing any unsafe act will immediately call CEASE FIRE or HALT to any training. A good way to emphasize safety is to give the students a test on the procedures. An example of a written examination on safety is shown in Figure 7-1, page 7-2.
7-2. TRAINER CERTIFICATION PROGRAM
The Trainer Certification Program is designed to build pride, confidence, and overall working/teaching knowledge of the functions, employment, and overall training of the MG. The trainer must know how to do all the tasks he is going to be teaching; the certification program determines his capability to do this. The program is conducted in three phases.
a. Phase I: Basic Fundamentals of Marksmanship. In this phase the instructor must ensure the trainers being trained perform dry fire techniques; prepare firing positions, fighting positions, and range cards; and manipulate the T&E mechanism. At the end of this phase, they will be given a hands-on examination to test their basic knowledge. This test may be developed by the OIC/NCOIC of the MG committee.
b. Phase II: Basic Marksmanship. In this phase, the trainer moves one step closer to becoming a skilled gunner. He must learn the correct procedures to zero the weapon; he must master the 10-meter target paster; and once this is accomplished, he must be able to engage targets on a transition range. He must show his mastery in this phase by engaging targets at different ranges. Upon completion, the trainer is ready to move to the advanced stage of marksmanship.
c. Phase III. Advanced Gunnery. This is the final phase that the trainer has to achieve to standard.
(1) First, he must understand the procedures using the techniques of advanced gunnery.
(2) He must then learn tracking, which consists of maintaining correct alignment of the sights on a moving target by moving the gun at the same angular speed as that of the target.
(3) He will learn fire distribution next, which means he must be able to distribute fire over the entire target area.
(4) The last stage the trainer must learn is the correct assault fire techniques. During this stage, the gunner will normally fire on an FPL after the enemy has assaulted. He may also be given a PDF to fire at. Another assault method the trainer learns is to fire the weapon while it is mounted on a moving M113.
d. Recertification Program. All MG instructors are required to be recertified on a semi-annual basis. This will consist of the trainer being required to present a selected period of instruction within the current POI. The selection will be made by the CDR/OIC/NCOIC.
NOTE: Documentation of the results of the Trainer Recertification Program and the requirements must be maintained on file.
The trainer must be present during the planning and during any instruction given. The success of the preparation and instruction of all training depends upon the thoroughness with which the trainer performs the following duties:
Z He must assist the gunner in targeting the MG.
* He should require the gunner to inspect his equipment and MG.
* He should explain and require the gunner to explain the exercise that he is about to perform.
• He should ensure the gunner's sight picture is accurate.
* He must observe the gunner's position, grip, and manipulation during any firing.
• He must show the gunner how to adjust his fire by observation.
• He must point out errors and explain their effect on the exercise.
NOTE: Safety is a must during the entire certification program. The OICs/NCOICs must ensure that no unsafe acts are tolerated.
* APPENDIX A
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