Section I. GENERAL
106. Method of Instruction cl It is essential that assistant instructors and demonstration personnel be thoroughly trained and rehearsed in their duties before group instruction commences.
b. Each exercise is first explained and demonstrated, Each man is then given practical work in the exercise, supervised by assistant instructors. Finally, the men are given an examination in order to determine their progress and proficiency.
c. The coach-and-pupil method is used wherever practicable. Under this method, men are grouped in pairs and take turns as coach and pupil.
d. A crew is the largest unit in which individual instruction can be closely supervised. If a sufficient number of machineguns are available, it is preferable to assign an assistant instructor and four men to one gun.
0. Training prescribed herein, including courses to be fired, should be conducted on the M60 machinegun prior to training with the caliber .50. The machinegunners should be capable of firing both weapons. This method permits the caliber .50 gunners to receive the maximum machinegun training without excessive expenditure of caliber .50 ammunition.
109. Phases of Training a. Marksmanship training is divided into two major phase«—
(1) Preparatory marksmanship training.
(2) Range firing.
6. These phases are further broken down into progressive steps, and should be taught in the order outlined herein.
c. The following must be observed during marksmanship training:
(1) Each student will be proficient in mechanical training and crew drill before he receives instruction in machinegun marksmanship.
(2) No man will be allowed to fire on the range until he has received thorough training in preparatory marksmanship, regardless of previous qualifications.
HO. Fundamental« of Marksmanship
To become accurate and proficient in machinegun marksmanship the soldier must be thoroughly trained in the following fundamentals:
а. Accurate delivery of initial round (burst) of fire on either stationary or moving targets.
б. Mechanical skill in manipulating the gun and rapid shifting of fire to new targets.
e. Adjustment of fire by the following methods:
(1) Observation of strike.
(2) Observation of flight of tracer.
(8) Frequent relaying of the gun during firing.
d* Speed in combining these fundamentals when delivering fire.
111, General a. The purpo«« of the preparatory exercises in markimnnehip training 1« to teach the essentials of marksmanship. A thorough, carefully supervised course in the preparatory exercises conserve« time and ammunition during range practice.
d. The preparatory exercise« consist of the following eight steps:
(1) Positions for firing and introductory manipulation with both the tripod and vehicular mounted machinegun.
(2) Sighting and aiming exercises.
(8) Sight setting and laying exercise«.
(4) Manipulation exercises.
(5) Fire adjustment.
(6) Range determination.
(7) Tracking and leading exercises.
(8) Examination before range firing.
c. The first five steps are listed in the order of instruction. They must be taught in that order. As the sixth step is not based on the material covered in any of the other steps, it may be taught any time before the examination. The seventh step will be conducted after 10-meter firing, but before firing on moving targets.
d. Every man who is to fire on the range, including those who have previously qualified, will receive complete instructions in the preparatory exercises. The instructor insures that each man is tested thoroughly and graded in the exercises before he is allowed to fire. Men with an unsatisfactory rating will be given additional instruction until a satisfactory rating is obtained.
112. Equipment for Training
The following equipment per four men is desirable for the preparatory exercises:
a. One sighting bar.
b. One machinegun and mount complete (tripod and vehicular mounts).
c. One Vi-inch aiming paster per gun.
d. One vehicle silhouette aiming target per gun.
e. One target frame per gun, covered with blank paper and equipped with braces for mounting.
f. One 10-meter machinegun target per gun.
g. Material for blackening sights.
113. Positions for Firing a. The caliber .50 machinegun can be fired from the prone or sitting position with the gun mounted on the tripod in low position, or from a sitting position with the gun mounted on the tripod in high position. The prone position is used for tables 2 and 3 qualification firing. However, the gunner should be thoroughly trained in both positions. The standing position with vehicular mount is used for table 4.
b. In the prone position, the gunner is between the trail legs with his body extending directly to the rear of the gun (fig 147).
(1) The inside of his feet are as flat as possible on the ground, legs well-spread, toes turned outward.
(2) His left elbow rests on the ground, the left hand placed on the elevating handwheel with the palm down.
(3) The gunner lightly grasps the right spade grip with his right hand, thumb in position to press the trigger.
(4) The position of the body varies according to the physique of the individual so that the eye is in the proper position to aline the sights.
c. In the sitting positon, the gunner sits between the trail legs, directly in rear of the gun. He may sit with his legs extended under the tripod or with his legs crossed, depending upon his physique (fig 148, 149).
(1) The gunner placeB his elbows on the inside of his thighs to obtain maximum support.
(2) He grasps the elevating handwheel with his left hand, palm down.
(3) He lightly grasps the right spade grip with his right hand, thumb in position to press the trigger.
d. With the M118 turret mount, the gunner places both hands on the spade grips, locks his
Figure tU7. Prone position.
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