Family Bunker Plans
Bunkers are larger fighting positions constructed for squad-sized units who are required to remain in defensive positions for a longer time. They are built either aboveground or belowground and are usually made of reinforced concrete. Because of the extensive engineer effort required to build bunkers, they are usually made during strongpoint construction. If time permits, bunkers are connected to other fighting or supply positions by tunnels. Prefabrication of bunker assemblies affords rapid construction and placement flexibility. Bunkers offer excellent protection against direct-fire and indirect-fire effects and, if properly constructed with the appropriate collective protection equipment, they provide protection against chemical and biological agents. (1) Typical bunker. See Appendix E, page E-17, for information and an illustration about typical bunkers. (2) Log fighting bunker with overhead cover. See Appendix E, page E-17, for information and an illustration about...
Due to their weight and bulk, .50-caliber rifles are not suited for direct assaults or classic sniper stalking. Indeed, U.S. Marine Corps and Army sniper teams outfitted with these heavy rifles typically have at least three men, and they're used almost exclusively in a support role for other maneuver forces. Although ,50s are welcome support weapons for almost any kind of operation, they're especially useful for neutralizing enemy positions and crew-served weapons. It's their tremendous ability to penetrate bunkers and buildings that makes them so deadly, as reflected in the penetration data we've listed.
In many tactical situations, combat rifle fire will be directed to suppress enemy personnel or weapons positions. Rifle fire, which is precisely aimed at a definite point or area target, is suppressive fire. Some situations may require a soldier to place suppressive fire into a wide area such as a wood line, hedgerow, or small building. While at other times, the target may be a bunker or window. Suppressive fire is used to control the enemy and the area he occupies. Suppressive fire is employed to kill the enemy or to prevent him from observing the battlefield or effectively using his weapons. When a sustained volume of accurate suppressive fire is placed on enemy locations to contain him, it can be effective even though he cannot be seen. When the enemy is effectively pinned down behind cover, this reduces his ability to deliver fire and allows friendly forces to move.
Shoulder-launched munitions include the M136 AT4 light antiarmor weapon, the M72-series light antiarmor weapon (LAW), improved M72-series LAW, and the M141 bunker defeat munition (BDM) (a shoulder-launched, multipurpose assault weapon-disposable SMAW-D ). The M72-series LAW (M72A2 and M72A3) was introduced in the early 1960s for use against light tanks of that era (Figure 1-1). More recent and improved versions of the M72-series LAWs were produced in the 1990s and include the M72A4, M72A5, M72A6, and M72A7 (Chapter 5). The M136 AT4 was designed in the late 1980s for use against the improved armor of light armored vehicles (Figure 1-2, page 1-2), and the M141 BDM was developed in the early 1990s primarily to use against bunkers (Figure 1-3, page 1-2).
A few private individuals have assembled sizable reference collections. William Wooden of Tucson, Arizona, has devoted his life to collecting and cataloging ammunition components. He has built a large underground bunker on his property to house his collection safely and spends most of his waking hours working with new acquisitions that come in from all over the world. He has established an institute to continue his work and makes his resources available to firearms examiners who are in need of assistance with the identification of ammunition components.
Non-tactical applications for a flashlight far outnumber the relatively few occasions that SureFires are used by a SWAT team to takedown a meth lab. Rechargeable flashlights are not suitable for critical missions, like searching a Baghdad bunker for terrorists, because rechargeable flashlights regardless of brand have issues. First, there's the uncertainty of your rechargeable battery's state of charge because of the high rate of self-discharge that's inherent with Ni-Cad batteries. Second, there's the logistical problem of dragging a charger with you instead of a handful of spare lithium batteries. Finally, the potential cost savings of a rechargeable it's only compelling attribute is largely lost with SureFire's unconventional pricing of its lithium batteries at only 1.25 each in a dozen-count box.
Quick-fire techniques are appropriate for soldiers who are presented with close, suddenly appearing, surprise enemy targets or when close engagement is imminent. Fire may be delivered in the SEMIAUTO or BURST AUTO mode. For example, a point man in a patrol may carry the weapon on BURST AUTO. This may also be required when clearing a room or bunker. Initial training should be in the SEMI mode. Two techniques of delivering quick fire are-Aimed. When presented with a target, the soldier brings the rifle up to his shoulder and quickly fires a single shot. His firing eye looks through or just over the rear sight aperture, and he uses the front sight post to aim at the target (Figure 4-5). Using this technique, a target at 25 meters or less may be accurately engaged in one second or less.
(1) Point targets are targets that require the use of a single aiming point. Enemy bunkers, weapon emplacements, vehicles, small groups of soldiers, and aerial targets such as helicopters or descending paratroopers are examples of point targets. A point target is engaged with fixed fire. If the target moves after the initial burst, the gun crew(s) keeps fire on the target by following its movement with the gun(s).
Warhead detonation is instantaneous when impacting a hard target, such as a brick or concrete wall, or an armored vehicle. Impact with a softer target, such as a sandbagged bunker, results in a fuze time delay that permits the rocket to penetrate into the target before warhead detonation.
The M72-series LAW and the M136 AT4 have proven to have little effect against field fortifications and buildings. The M141 BDM was designed to better enhance the destruction of these fortifications. Its warhead contains a dual-mode fuze that automatically adjusts for the type of target on impact. For soft targets, such as sandbagged bunkers, the M141 BDM warhead automatically adjusts to delayed mode, hits the target with high kinetic energy this energy propels the warhead through the barrier and into the fortification or building where the fuze detonates the warhead and causes greater damage. Soldiers should not expect to severely damage these type of targets with the M72-series LAW or M136 AT4. However, if Table 7-2. Effects of the M136 AT4 and M72-series LAW on field fortifications or bunkers. Table 7-2. Effects of the M136 AT4 and M72-series LAW on field fortifications or bunkers. BUNKER OR FIGHTING POSITION Coordinate fire Fire shoulder-launched munition at a point 6 to 12...
Quick-fire techniques are appropriate for soldiers, who are presented with close, suddenly appearing, surprise enemy targets or when close engagement is imminent. Fire may be delivered in the SEMIAUTO or AUTOMATIC BURST mode. For example, a point man in a patrol may carry the weapon on AUTOMATIC BURST. This may also be required when clearing a room or bunker. Initial training should be in the SAFE mode. Two techniques of delivering quick fire are
The MOUT fuze can be set to function superquick (PD) or Delay. In the Delay mode, the fuze is designed to penetrate urban structures, i.e., buildings and bunkers, then function the projectile inside. In the PD, the fuze functions as a standard PD fuze. This setting will maximize destruction of the walls of an urban structure and is also useful for ranging in on targets. The fuze is shipped SET DELAY which is the primary MOUT mode.
On that occasion, several bursts in the order of 100 rounds without cessation were firccl. During a final burst of 20-mm, the gun ran some 80 rounds of a 100-round belt when there was a misfire due to a bad primer This stoppage proved to be most fortunate as personnel in the factory area came tunning to the test pit in great alarm, shouting that the gun had drilled through a 24-foot sand bunker and had released some 15 blind-loaded 20-mm projectiles into the area. Some of these projectiles passed across a rifle range, went through a toolroom, passed beyond that across a public highway.
When fired, the Javelin climbs high and strikes the target from top side. The gunner can also select a direct-attack mode for use against tanks under cover or targets such as bunkers, buildings and helicopters. The missile has a two-stage propulsion system. The first low-power motor ejects the missile from the tube. The missile glides for 15-20 ft and then the main motor ignites. This allows the Javelin to be fired from inside a building or from a prone stance.
The M141 BDM addresses the need to destroy hardened targets, such as bunkers and other fixed enemy positions, and incapacitate the enemy personnel located within these targets. Optimized for the close fight in the contemporary operating environment, the M141 BDM is effective at distances ranging from 15 to 300 meters. It can be employed effectively against double-reinforced concrete walls up to 8 inches thick, triple brick structures, and standard earth and timber bunkers. The M141 BDM can incapacitate threat personnel when employed against cave complexes. It can also perforate up to 20 millimeters of rolled homogenous steel, which provides a capability against lightly armored and thin-skinned vehicles.
In Part 1 of this article we discussed the construction and installation of stationary booby traps, traps that require no motion to cause damage. In Part II we are going into some ideas on 'Moving Booby Traps', or traps that cause damage due to their movement. Note that placement of these traps as in Part I requires a location that is a well traveled foot path or an avenue of approach to your hideout or survival shelter. In both instances, camouflage is the key factor to installing an effective trap. I would like to point out that the traps illustrated in this article were all used very effectively against out Armed Forces in Viet Nam, and can be very deadly. They are definitely not toys to play with.
A good place to place these traps is on the main path to the survival shelter or hideout. I should like to mention at this time that some method of marking your booby traps should be used so that you won't become a victim of your own trap. Some suggestions are, a twig broken or bent, a piece of string or yarn placed on a tree near the trap to mark its location. Do not make your marking too obvious, or it will re-
Usually, these kinds of engagements involve no other friendly lives, and a miss becomes only a learning experience for both sniper and target alike. If a military sniper only attempted sure thing shots, he would lose a lot of effectiveness because many of the unsure shots would have been hits, too, and against distant or unlikely targets that would never appear as sure things at close range. Enemy colonels are far more likely to be found at 800 yards beyond the enemy's front line than at his nearest bunker.
Targets, such as bunkers, field fortifications, automobiles, and trucks, but their shaped-charge warheads have less effect on these than on armored targets. Unless personnel, ordnance, or flammable material on or inside them are hit, soft targets can normally continue to fight after being attacked by shoulder-launched weapons. Due to their relatively short range, shoulder-launched munitions should be placed throughout the attacking force. They support the maneuver by providing a base of fire, and they enable the assaulting force to engage in close antiarmor combat.
Firers may only use HE weapons to engage hard targets. This reduces the damage to other targets the unit must maintain such as F-type silhouettes and bunkers. D-5. Bunker targets should be placed within the target array at ranges of 100 to 400 meters. They should be no more than 1 meter high or 2 1 2 to 3 meters wide.
When you are facing an opponent who's employing effective cover, such as hugging a wall, crouching inside a concrete bunker, or lurking under a burned-out tank hull, carefully search the area to his front to see if there's a hard metal, asphalt, or cement surface to bounce a bullet off. This surface could be on either side, as well as below or even above him.
The gunner must not fire the Dragon from within buildings, bunkers, or other enclosures, or within 15 meters (50 feet) of a vertical or nearly vertical backstop. Trainers may be granted waivers from this limitation under the provisions of AR 385-62. In combat, the gunner may have to risk firing the Dragon from an enclosure. If so, he must ensure the enclosure is at least 3 meters by 4.6 meters (10 feet by 15 feet). Also, he must ensure all debris and loose objects are cleared from behind the launch site. When possible, he should ensure all doors and windows are opened. The team should make holes at least 0.6 meter (2 feet) square in the walls and ceilings to allow the backblast and overpressure to escape. Even when the enclosure meets these requirements, the gunner must wear double hearing protection. Also, firing a Dragon from a confined space will almost certainly cause structural damage and create falling debris. It also concentrates the escaping toxic gases and can cause building...
This appendix provides basic guidance for units to establish a range complex for shoulder-launched munitions. The complex described may be used for multilevel training and firing of shoulder-launched munitions both subcaliber trainers and live HE ammunition may be used on the same range. Training areas should be near, but not adjacent to, the firing line. The firing line should be designed to allow personnel to observe firing from the side. The target array should include stationary targets composed of F-type targets or the hulls of hard targets (APCs or tanks), a moving target (a target on track or a manned moving target tank MMTT ), and bunkers. This allows the firer to engage a variety of targets and to develop his skills in the various types of engagements.
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