Contents

Preface xi

Acknowledgments xvii

About the Author xix

Glossary xxi

I INTRODUCTION

1 Definitions 3

II HISTORICAL ASPECTS OF FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION

2 History of Gunpowder 13

3 History of Ignition Systems 15

4 History of Bullets 19

5 History of Ammunition 23

6 History of Firearms 29

III CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION

7 Cartridge Cases 35

8 Primer Cups (Caps) 39

9 Priming Compositions 41

10 Propellants 57

11 Projectiles 67

12 Complementary Ammunition Components 91

13 Caseless Ammunition 93

14 Blank Ammunition 95

15 Firearm Construction Materials 97

IV FIREARM DISCHARGE RESIDUE

16 Firearm Discharge Residue Detection Techniques 103

17 Properties of Firearm Discharge Residue 123

V EXPERIMENTAL

18 Objectives, Sampling Procedures,

Instrumentation, and Conditions 137

19 Particle Classification Scheme 143

20 Casework-Related Tests 157

21 Analysis of Ammunition 183

22 Ammunition Containing Mercury 205

23 Lead-Free Ammunition 223

Contents

VI suspect processing procedures

24 Firearm Discharge Residue sampling ix

VII organic components of firearm discharge residue

25 sampling of skin and clothing surfaces for

Firearm Discharge Residue 241

26 Development of a Method for organic Firearm

Discharge Residue Detection 253

Conclusion 271

Index

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