The Glaser safety slug is a high velocity projectile with a copper jacket filled with very small lead shot pellets and sealed at the tip with a frangible plug. On striking the target the pressure on the tip prevents it from fragmenting, but on penetrating the target the plug fragments causing the bullet to disintegrate, thereby releasing its shot charge. This substantially increases its stopping power by delivering all of its energy to the target, preventing overpenetration and substantially reducing ricochet hazard.
A bullet called Hydra-Shok is designed for increased expansion within the body (mushrooming) and thus causing greater tissue disruption than with conventional ammunition. The bullet is a hollow point with a central post. The central post diverts hydrostatic pressure as the bullet passes through soft tissue thereby assisting the mushrooming of the bullet.86 This is illustrated in Figure 11.9.
Another bullet design to assist bullet expansion is the insertion of a steel or lead ball into the cavity of a hollow point bullet, which on contact with the target is driven back into the cavity, thereby aiding expansion.
Ultra-Shock ammunition is a combination of a central post (a stainless steel screw) with a lead shot pellet over the head of the screw.
An unusual bullet design is the PMC Ultra-Mag ammunition. The bullet is machined from solid bronze (a range of copper alloys, usually with tin but sometimes with other additives such as P, Min, Al, Si, Zm) and is a hollow tube with a plastic plug at the base to form a gas seal. It is essentially a tube
Figure 11.9 Hydra-Shok bullet.
traveling at high velocity and it slices a tubular section completely out of the center of the wound channel, thereby creating a very destructive, permanent wound.87
An aluminum bullet with a wounding capacity up to ten times greater than a conventional lead bullet has been developed for dealing with hijackers and hostage takers. It is claimed that it incapacitates quicker than ordinary bullets because of its lighter weight and consequent higher velocity. On hitting the target it reduces speed suddenly because of its light weight and does not pass through the body, thereby transferring all its kinetic energy to the target. The bullet has a self-lubricating nylon coating which is made to bond to the aluminum by first giving the metal some form of chemical coating.88
Another round of ammunition developed specifically for law enforcement use is the BAT (Blitz-Action-Trauma) ammunition. It is designed for high "stopping power" and for the projectile to have a short range of travel. The bullet is unjacketed and is made from solid copper alloy with a differing diameter hole all the way through the bullet from nose to base. This is illustrated in Figure 11.10.
A plastic plug fills the larger hole and part of the smaller one. On firing the cap separates from the bullet due to gas pressure acting through the hole in the base. Because of the lighter weight of the bullet compared to a conventional bullet it loses velocity, and hence energy, much faster, and consequently is less of a risk to innocent persons should the bullet miss its target.
Because of the larger nose cavity the bullet deforms rapidly in the target, substantially diminishing the risk of overpenetration or ricochet, both of which could injure innocent bystanders.89
A bullet specifically designed to shatter car windshields and to retain sufficient energy to wound the occupant is manufactured under the name of Equaloy. It is designed not to exit from soft targets. The bullet had a semi-wad-cutter profile, an aluminum alloy core, and is coated with white nylon.90
MagSafe bullets are bullets with gilding metal jackets, filled with an epoxy resin which has number 6 size hardened lead shot pellets embedded in it. Because of its substantially reduced weight, very high velocities are achieved. On impact the epoxy resin breaks up and releases the shot pellets, thereby transferring all the kinetic energy to the target.91 It also substantially reduces overpenetration and ricochet hazards.
Splat multipurpose ammunition (synthetic plastic loaded ammunition for training) uses a metal-filled plastic material which is injection-molded into the shape of a bullet. The bullets are much lighter than conventional equivalents and consequently achieve much higher velocities. They are frangible on impact and virtually eliminate overpenetration and ricochet hazards. Splat ammunition is available in a range of calibers and the mass, velocity, and frangibility of the bullets can be varied to suit the intended purpose. The .38" Special caliber aircraft load is designed to safeguard against perforation of aircraft windows and body panels while engaging hijackers and other rounds are designed to penetrate car bodywork and injure the occupants. A 12-gauge shotgun slug is designed for attacking door locks and hinges to gain entry in hostage situations and on doing so it completely disintegrates. Splat bullets produce wound cavities up to ten times larger than conventional lead bullets, do not over penetrate, and all the energy is transferred to the target.92
Shell X-Ploder bullets are self-defense short range bullets with a compressed core of shot. Upon impact they come apart causing massive tissue destruction. They are nonricocheting.
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