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Pig. 15 Dowel-pin plate and then forcing it through the required-size hole.

(b) Lapping plates: These are used to lap a true parallel surface. While not necessary for the beginner, as he advances into fine precision work he will require two of these plates, one of iron and one of lead. The one of cast iron should be 1 x 10 x 10 inches with the surfaces perfectly true, one side checked about % inch apart, and charged with fine abrasive. The lead lapping plate is made on a cast-iron base 1 x 10 x 10 inches with a number of holes drilled in the surface about t> deep, then boxed in on all sides and a 50-50 mixture of lead and tin poured until a %-inch thickness is built up from the surface of the cast-iron plate; this is then planed off smooth. You then have a lapping plate that you can use for fine abrasives rwlv. using the emery or dry rouge on the lead plate to secure a very high finish on a surface. On the cast-iron plate, use the finest emery and olive oil.

(c) Oilstone plate: A cast-iron plate 1 x 10 x 10 inches is planed off to a smooth surface and used to true oilstones as they become worn to an uneven surface. It is impossible to do your best work with uneven oilstones or stones which have become clogged from use, so you must true up your stones. Use from 90 to 120 carborundum and water. This cuts the surface of an oilstone very fast, and in a short time you have a perfect stone again.

Planes, Wood-working—These come under the headings of block, jack, smoothing, and rabbet planes. All of these are used in stock and cabinet work, and of course every one is more or less familiar with the jack plane, block and smoothing planes from their general use in all wood work. Get these three to begin with, and if you can pick up some of the old-time wooden planes our forefathers used, add these to your collection. Some work is still best accomplished with these. Their use in stock work will be discussed in Chapter IV.

(a) Rabbet planes: As a general rule there is very little call for such a plane in stock work, but for special jobs outside of stock work there is often a place for it. A router plane is a plane-like tool under that name. This is used for surfacing a flat bottom when you wish to put in an inset as on the forearm, or to rout out a channel where you wish to place a special insert. This plane saves a lot of time.

(b) The spoke shave: You will find this tool one of the most useful in stock work. There are a number of different forms of spoke shaves, and you will readily become familiar with their use. They are inexpensive and a variety will add to your ease in working. If they are kept at a keen cutting edge they will enable you to form up a stock to far better outlines than with a wood rasp. There is a spoke shave of orange wood called the ''Little Wonder'' made by W. Johnson, of Newark, New Jersey; the stock is of wood and is perfectly shaped to get around odd forms; the cutter is of good steel, and you can maintain a good cutting edge at all times. If the blade should bccomc loose in the handle, all that is necessary to tighten it is to place two wood screws against the tangs of the cutter which goes through the handle. Stanley also makes different forms of iron spoke shaves, and these can be added when the need arises. The chapter on stork work explains the use of these in detail.

Punches—These come under the headings of prick punches, center punches, drift punches, nail punches or nail sets, and wood punches.

(a) Center or prick punches: The best punches are those you make yourself from worn Swiss needle files. You can use both ends, making them in about three-inch lengths, ground round, and the temper drawn to a purple. The next best center punch is of a smaller size and made from dental burrs. Altho these burrs are small, they are convenient for laying out where fine center marks are required. As it is not necessary to draw the temper on these, you can grind up at least six and place them in a block. Of course you can buy center punches such as the Starretts' automatic adjustable-stroke center punch, but the ones you make yourself arc the best. You will also need a one-quartcr-inch center punch, and this can be made of drill rod, hardened and the temper drawn to a blue.

(b) Drift punches: These can also be made of % and inch drill rod, from Vic to % inch ends. You can have your local machine shop make a set of these. It is also a wise policy to have two of each size, as you break them often. For the smaller sizes, dental burrs are the best as they hold up very well. You will find that dental burrs play a large part in gun work, so the next time you go to your dentist, ask him if he has a box of burrs that have become too dull for him to use any longer.

(c) Nail sets, or nail punches: A set of these can be bought very reasonably. Have them annealed and the ends turned down for a length of about 1 inch. Reharden and draw the temper to a blue, and polish out the cupped end. These punches arc required to drive the round-headed pins out of fine shotguns, as a cupped punch of this nature does not mar the ends.

(d) Wood punches: These punches have cupped ends made from and % inch drill rods—the cutting edge made sharp by tapering from the rod size back about V> inch to the desired size you wish to make the point. The sizes are from V16 to % inch in Va>>. Such punches are used to make a beaded border on fancy checkering and in a number of places to improve the design of wood carving.

Polishing Wheels—If you have a buffing head or intend to use one side of your Apex electric grinder, you will find it necessary to procure the following buffing wheels, 8 x 1 x V2 inch hole: muslin, cotton, flannel, woolen, felt, chamois, buckskin, leather, and sheepskin. Also get an Utility Electric Motor and a small set of polishing wheels, as the list shows, to polish small parts.

Tap Wrenches—Add these to your list along with the wrenches to take the different sized taps.

Pliers—Go to any hardware store and pick out a number of different kinds. You will find them very necessary.

Reamers—Under this heading come hand reamers, ♦aper-pin reamers, rose, chucking or machine reamers, English broaching reamers, chambering reamers, expanding reamers, counterbores, and burnishing reamers.

You will find that a number of years are required to collect all the reamers needed. Of course it is possible to purchase a great number of reamers, such as the standard sizes, still these are not satisfactory, as the relief is ground on these reamers for the every-day needs, while to obtain the most satisfactory results you must stone a reamer to the cutting edge to get a perfectly reamed hole. I make most of my reamers and have a good many, yet not a day passes that I do not need a new one. Here I shall only skim over the reamers and their purposes; in a later chapter T shall go into detail.

(a) Hand reamers: These can be had in sizes as needed. They come in sets from to 1 inch and you will find very little use for the large sizes in gun work. They can only be used by hand, using a tap wrench to pass them through the holes. Never use this form of reamer in a machine such as a drill press or lathe.

(b) Taper-pin reamers: This class of reamer has a taper of Vi inch per foot or .0208 inch per inch. There are two classes of these reamers, one for hand use and the other for use in a drill press or lathe. The hand reamers are those required by the gunsmith and come in sizes from 2000 to 313. They are so proportioned that each overlaps the

Fig. 16

Taper-pin reamers, straight and spiral fluted. The latter produces superior results

Fig. 16

Taper-pin reamers, straight and spiral fluted. The latter produces superior results size smaller about V2 inch, so the necessary set is from 3000 to £8. Figure 16 illustrates the two most generally used.

(c) Rose chucking or machinc reamers: Only buy these as you need them, for in time you will make a set. Purchase the size near the particular size required, then grind it and stone the cutting edge so the hole comes to the desired size. Shown in Figure 17.

Fig. 17 Machine reamer

Fig. 17 Machine reamer

(d) English broaching reamers: This is the type of tapered reamer used by watch makers and jewelers. They come in smaller sizes than the taper-pin reamers, so get a full set of these. They not only come in handy where it is necessary to fit a small tapered pin, but to ream out sight apertures to any desired size. William Dixon of Newark, New Jersey, carries a full line of such tools.

(e) Cherries: These are used for making bullet moulds and must be made specially when you have an idea for a new form of bullet or for a special-size round bullet.

(f) Barrel reamers—chambering reamers and burnishing reamers: A chapter on barrel making in the second volume deals with these.

(g) Expanding reamers: In this type of reamer the ilutes are slotted and have either a taper pin or nut on the end to expand the flutes. It is very seldom used in gun work, and besides is very expensive. One is illustrated in Figure 18.

Fig. 18 Expanding reamer

Fig. 18 Expanding reamer

(h) Counter bores: Counter bores are used to make a flat-bottomed hole. They have a pilot to fit a drilled hole, so that the counterbored section of the hole will come perfectly true with the drilled hole. They are used in connection with fillister-head screws and a number of other purposes in gun work. This tool must also be made, as you cannot buy the sizes required. A flat-bottomed drill, ground up, will answer in a number of cases where the work is not too particular. Counterborcs are used in a number of places on stock work where a counterbored hole is required to fit insets of buffalo horn, ivory, ebony, where a drill so used wrould break out slivers, an accident which must not happen on a finished stock. You will find that counter-

bores are like reamers. It requires a long time to collect a set. Figure 19 shows a standard coun-terbore.

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