Figure Effects of winds

NOTE: When in doubt, the gunner aims the initial burst directly at the center base of the target and, using the techniques of observation and adjustment of fire, adjusts the fire onto the target.

b. Wind Measurement. Wind is highly variable and sometimes quite different at the firing position than at the target position. Even though the wind is blowing hard at the firing position, trees, brush, or terrain could protect the path of the round. The wind can vary by several miles per hour between the time a measurement is taken and when the round is fired. Therefore, training time should not be wasted trying to teach gunners an exact way to measure wind speed. They should know that even though wind can affect trajectory, it can be overcome by adjusting fire. A wind gauge can be used for precise measurement of wind velocity. When a gauge is not available, velocity is estimated by one of the following methods.

(1) Observation Method. The following information can assist in determining wind velocities.

(a) Winds under 3 mph can barely be felt, but the presence of slight wind can be determined by drifting smoke.

(b) Winds of 5 to 8 mph constantly move the leaves of trees.

(c) Winds of 8 to 12 mph raise dust and loose paper.

(d) Winds of 12 to 15 mph cause small trees to sway.

(2) Pointing Method. A piece of paper or other light material can be dropped from shoulder height. By pointing directly at the spot where it lands, the angle can be estimated. As shown in Figure 4-11, the angle is also divided by the constant number 4 to determine the wind speed in mph. However, this only indicates the conditions at the firing position; the conditions may be different at the target.

Figure 4-11. Pointing method.

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