Self Igniting Firebombs

The exact origin of the Molotov cocktail is unknown. Over the last fifty years it has been the single most popular weapon of insurgents worldwide.

As a rule, it was a weapon of last resort, as one can always find bottles and a liquid that will burn, no matter how tight the restrictions on more conventional arms are. Various armies have taken note of its effectiveness and have, at least, instructed their troops in its construction. Some have gone a step further and attempted to develop Molotov cocktails as production items. Various types of fuzes have been tested, but none have been particularly successful.

The following section contains three kinds of fuzes—chemical, mechanical, and chemical-mechanical. They are representative of types used, ranging from bad (No. 76 GrenadeJ to excellent (Fieser Incendiary Grenade), with a stop in between for marginal. They give a reference point for where we have been in the past and where we may go in the future.

NOTE: Credit for the invention of the seif-igniting firebomb may well go to the Fenians, the nineteenth-century forebears of today's ERA. "Fenian fire/' as their particular version was called, consisted of white phosphorous dissolved in carbon disulfide. Bottles of this liquid were thrown down chimneys or through windows to set houses afire.

No. 76 Self-Igniting Phosphorous (SIP) Grenade

The SEP grenade was a Molotov cocktail-type weapon developed early in World War 11. It consisted of a common 1-pint glass bottle containing a mixture of benzene, water, white phosphorus, and a strip of raw rubber. The rubbeT strip became quite soft and sticky from contact with the benzine, and this gave it some adhesive qualities in use. Ideally, the grenade ignited spontaneously when hurled against a tank or other target.

The SIP's manufacturer originally intended to use it to demonstrate the incendiary qualities of his mixture, but it apparently caught the fancy of certain higher-ups, who ordered the military to test it for possible adoption. It was tested by various branches of the British military, all of whom hated it (with no small justification, I might add—if you drop it, it ignites). It finally came to rest with the British Home Guard, who received it enthusiastically. They had always had a soft spot for weapons of this type.

The SIP was cheap and easy to produce, but it had several drawbacks: 1) due to its design, any accidental breakage during handling could prove disastrous; 2) at low temperatures it was slow to ignite: and 3) 1 pint is too small for an effective firebomb. It was spectacular, smoky, and usually quite ineffective. It was also adopted by the British army as a substitute standard weapon until something better came along. When something did. it was discarded as soon as possible, but it was not declared obsolete officially until 1944. In anticipation of the German invasion that never came, the Home Guard buried caches of these weapons, which still pop up at the most inopportune times. It usually occurs when a bulldozer is clearing land for a building project and rips up the cache. This is what we in the business call a "surprise."

White Phosphorus Grenade

CRGWN STOPPER

GLASS BOTTLE

3ENZENE

WATER

No. 76 Self-Igniting Phosphorous Grenade, actual size.

RAW RUBBER

WHITE-

PHOSPHORUS

Japanese Impact Ignition Ffrebomb

This device was developed by the Japanese for the primarily jungle combat of the Pacific Theater of Operations. Due to the lack of many things hard enough to break the bottle in the average jungle, they reasoned that an impact ignition fuze would be most effective.

The fuze itself consisted of a brass body containing a striker/percussion cap assembly, a hair spring, and a safety nail. Upon impact, the inertia of the striker would overcome the resistance of the hair spring and fire the percussion cap, which in turn fired the detonator. It was similar in many respects to the British "All-ways" fuze used in the Gammon grenade, but it lacked the delay arming feature ofthat fuze. Once the safety nail was removed, it was armed. Any rough or sudden movement could cause the fuze to function.

The bottles were usually supplied empty for field-loading and were of about 1-pint capacity. They were shaped like an ordinary Japanese beer bottle and had detailed instructions pasted on the side. Shipped in cases of twenty-four, they were also supplied with a small wooden funnel for loading and twenty-four fuzes, individually packed in small aluminum cans. Captured examples were tested and proved to be unimpressive. In many cases the detonator would break the bottle but not ignite the fuel. High explosives are not always effective in setting fire to Gammable liquids. It would have been better to use a slightly larger charge of firecracker flash powder as opposed to the tiny (1/4 "XT) detonator that was employed. This type of fuze, if developed further for improved function and ease of manufacture, could be very useful.

Japanese impact ignition Moiotov fuze.

Coi Ignition

PERCUSSION CAP

DETONATOR

SAFETY P K (NAIL)

BRASS COVER CAP

STRIKER AND PERCUSSION CAP HOLDER

STRIKER

BRASS CASE

RUEBER x WASHER

SAFETY PIN HOLE

Grenade Nipolit

SAFETY PIN

FUZE BODY

SPECIAL CLIP-ON CAP

OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS

WWII Japanese self-igniting firebomb.

L.F. Fieser Incendiary Grenade

This device was invented by the same design team that developed the original napalm filler for firebombs. During a trip to Aberdeen Proving Grounds in late 1941, Dr. Louis Fiesar, head of the team, was impressed by the large air intakes on a (then) modem tank. He reasoned (rightly) that a well-placed firebomb, dropped on the engine deck, would cause it to stall, fill the interior with smoke, and possibly set the lubricating oils on fire. Though it was noted that American tanks were more vulnerable in this respect than their German counterparts. development was started in early 1942. The device they came up with—and later patented—was one of the best of its type. It was safe to handle, easy to use, and, best of all, self-igniting.

Rather than use white phosphorus (WP), as the British did in their No. 76 grenade, it was decided that diethyl zinc would be more suitable. This material will ignite spontaneously in air at temperatures much lower than WP. A small number of grenades were made for tasting by the army but were turned down as "unsafe." Though this grenade was as safe as it is possible to make this type of weapon, it faded into history. According to Dr. Fieser, the text of the patent is the only report on this weapon still in existence. He covertly provided the details of its construction to the Haganah in the period immediately before the Israeli War of Independence, but no details of its employment are known.

Miirch 28, 1950 l. r. fieser et al 2,501,766

IWCB73IACT PUod fot 21,

Louis Fieser

Louis F Fï«er Ôtfôrg* G. Harris £m¿nu*l 0. H*r¿hbprg Mor/my Morqana

Frederic* C. JYoreffo Stearns T. P(/tnam~

Louis F Fï«er Ôtfôrg* G. Harris £m¿nu*l 0. H*r¿hbprg Mor/my Morqana

Frederic* C. JYoreffo Stearns T. P(/tnam~

zfciAj s

L.F. Fieser et. al. incendiary grenade. U.S. Patent filed February 21, 1944.

Pu tented Mur. 28, 1950

2,501,766

UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE

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incendia/y grenade patent.

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Ttift fnlUnrtra rrfarrür.ts a^ al •act»e í tu tue (Utf oí tfcij ?cter.l zrnrta ÄTATSS PATÖTTI ma-l»ri N10» Uftlr

Patthfr IST.OMJ

^ija Itlttf

TOPXIQN ?ATnHTB

Courir? O real ürlUlo

OWBrlUb May 7,1*3

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