Hzchn xnhch

Prepn and props are described in Refs. Forms salts, such as picrate, yel powder melting with decompn at 272-3°

Refs: l)Beil 26,353 2)G.Forssel,Ber 24,1846

(1891) & 25,2132(1892) 3)H.M.Woodburn & R.C. O'GeeJOC 17,1236 & 1241-2(1952) & CA 47, 8066(1953)

2.2'-Bi-(l-nitroso-2-imidazoline)\ called Bis-[l-ni-troso-&z-imidazolinyl-(2)] in Ger\,

H2C-(ON)N/ XN(N0)-CH2 42.84%; greenish ndls(from ale), mp 173° (dec). Was prepd by Forssel by treating 2,2'-bi-(2-imid-oline) with K nitrite and concd AcOH Refs: l)Beil 26,363 2)G.Forssel,Ber 25,2133

Note: No mono- or di-nitro compds were found in Beil or in CA through 1956

Bilcarbit. Same as Bicarbite

BIL and BIM are cast double-base proplnts developed at ABL. Their compn and props are given in conf Propellant Manual SPIA/M2( 195 9), Unit Nos 500 & 501

B1NARY.TERNARY AND QUATERNARY MIXTURES. These mixts may consist of two, three or four components being either exclusively expls or one or more expls with non-expls, such as oxi-dizers(AN, K chlorate, K perchlorate, Ba nitrate, peroxides, etc), pulverized fuels(such as C, Al, Mg, Zr, etc) or fuels which may act as binders, de-sensitizers or waterproofing agents(such as wax, paraffin, shellac, resins, plastics, etc)

These mixts can be either eutectics(partly or completely) or non-eutectics and the purposes of the mixts can be as follows:

a) To facilitate cast-loading into shells, bombs, warheads of rockets, etc,of high mp expls, such as PA, PETN or RDX

b) To improve the expl characteristics of some HE's, such as mixing them with oxidizers or pulverized metals c) To stretch an insufficient supply of some expls (such as TNT), which might accur during a war d) To render some expls(such as PETN, RDX or Tetryl) less sensitive to mech action, which can be accomplished by mixing them with wax, paraffin, etc

Historical. If one does not take into consideration BkPdr, which is a ternary mixt of an oxidizer(K nitrate) and fuels(C & S), and the unsuccessful attempts of Berthollet, Augendre and Blake(see Ref 4b,p 309) to improve BkPdr by replacing K nitrate with K chlorate, the first successful mixts suitable for blasting and for some military purposes were expls proposed beginning in 1871 by H. Sprengel. These expls were liquid and solid. The liq expls consisted of a liq oxidizer(such as strong nitric acid or nitrogen peroxide) and a liq or solid fuel (such as MNB, MNN, PA, petroleum, etc). The solid Sprengel expls, now known as Cheddites, consisted of an oxidizer(chlorate or perchlorate) and a fuel(PA, MNB, MNN, etc) (Ref 5a,p 354). E.Street rendered Cheddites less sensitive to mech action by incorporating some castor oil(or other desensitizer). These mixts were sometimes called Street Explosives or Streetites(J\ef 4a,p 310). Later composite expls, Anilithe, Hellhofite, Oxonite, Oxyliquite, Panclastite, Promethee, Rack-a-Rock, etc, were only modifications of Street expls. However, none of these expls was suitable for loading shells. The same may be said about Dynamites, invented by A.Nobel, although some attempts were made to use them for shell loading. Many Dynamites are, however, suitable as military demolition expls. Dynamites contg collodion cotton are called Gelatin Dynamites and the strongest of such mixts is Blasting Gelatin. Stettbacher(Ref 12b) proposed in 1929 an expl mixt known as Pentrinit which may be considered as a non-freezing, very powerful dynamite and which is suitable for military purposes. It consisted of NG and at least 20% of PETN. By incorporating 4 to 6% of collodion cotton in such mixts, the so-called Gelatinpentrinits were obtained

One of the first known castable military expl mixt is probably the French Melange DN 60/40, also called DD 60/40, developed with the intention of overcoming the difficulty of cast-loading straight Melinite (PA). In the DD 60/40 expl: PA60 & DNPhenol 40%, the 2nd component lowers the mp of PA from ca 122° to ca 85°, while at the same time it reduces the expl characteristics of PA(Ref 15). Many other binary, ternary, etc mixts were developed in France in addn to DD 60/40 and most of them are listed in this section

Many of the mixts developed during WWI in Germany, GtBritain, Russia and the US were intended to stretch the available supply of TNT and of other HE's. The most important of such compositions were mixts of AN and TNT, called Amatols. As the shortage of TNT and of other HE's was even more acute in Germany during WWII than during WWI, many substitute expls(called Ersatzsprengstoffe) were developed. Some of these expls consisted of NaCl and TNT. To a lesser extent this shortage of TNT was felt in Russia(Ref 9a & 12c). The US and GtBritain were, however, fortunate to obtain during WWII an abundant supply of TNT due to the Amer development of synthetic toluene from petroleum. This abundance of TNT rendered practical the development of new binary, ternary, etc mixts in which TNT was utilized as a carrier for more powerful expls(such as PA, Tetryl, PETN, RDX, EDNA, etc), which alone were not suitable for cast-loading because of high mp's. The resulting mixts are known as Picratols, Tetra-tols, Pentolites, Cyclotols, Ednatols, etc. Another development in the direction of binary and ternary expl mixts was the incorporation of Al powder. These mixts, known as Aluminized Explosives, are described in Vol l,p A146-L and have pronounced increased blast effects(Ref 15)

Binary mixts and their eutectics were examined by many investigators, such as Giua(Ref 1), Wogrinz & Vâri(Ref lc), Taylor & Rinkenbach(Refs 2,3 & 3a), Urbanski(Ref 4a), Campbell et al(Refs

10,11 & 12), Ficheroul 1 e(Ref 12a), Desseigne(Ret 13) & Yamasue et al(Ref 17)

Ternary mixts were investigated by Tomlinson (Ref 6), Phillips(Ref 7), Aaronson(Ref 8), Eriksen (Ref 9), Campbell et al(Refs 10 & 11) and Medard (Ref 13c)

Some quatenary mixts were used in Germany during WWII, eg: Ammonit S-6 which consisted of TNT 40, HNDPhA 30, GuN 20 & Al Powder 10%; and KMA Block which contained TNT 40, HNDPhA 30, DNN 20 & Al powder 10%(Ref 17, p Ger 44)

Thomas(Ref 16) described a method of analysis of some binary expls using a solvent for separating the components

The following is a selected list of binary, ternary, and quaternary expls, foreign and US:

Belgium Alsilite(see Vol l,p A141-R); Baelenites (see Vol 2); Casteau(AN 90 & nitrodextrin 10% with or w/o 5% resin added); Centralite TA(AN 79.5, TNT 14.5, RDX 2.0, DNT 1.0 & Al powder 3.0%); Coopalite('AN 79, TNT 13, NG 4 & woodflour 4%); Dynamite ///(AN 62.0, NG 26.0, DNT 9.5, cellulose 1.3 & NC 1.2%); Favier Explosives (mixts of AN with DNN, TNT & other ingredients); Maca-rite(Pb nitrate 71.9 & TNT 28.1%); Megadyne(mixt of Amm perchlorate, Al powder & paraffin wax); P ermite(AN 78, TNT 8 & Ca silicide 14%); Vel-terine(AN 93 & Amm trinitrocresylate 7%); Wa/-lonite(AN 90 & Nitrotar 10%); Yonckites(mixt of Amm perchlorate with MNN, TNN, TNT and other ingrediants) [Dr L.Deffet.Bruxelles, private com-munication(1954) and other sources]

France: Ammonal(AN 82, TNT 6, DNT 5, Al 5 & woodmeal 2%)(See also Vol l,p A290 Table); Cresylite 60/40 (Trinitro-m-cresol 60 & PA 40%); Explosifs nitrates & Explosifs nitrates a I'aluminium (See N2TN, NDNT, NT, NTN, NX and Refs 5a & 13a); Explosif S(or 5c> same as Schneiderite; MDN or MFDN (PA 80 & DNN 20%); MDPC(PA 55, DNPh 35 & TNCrs 10%); Melinite O- see MO; Melinite P- see MP; MMn (PA 70 & MMN 30%); MO (Melinite 0)(PA with some TNCr); MP (Melinite P) (PA 88 & paraffin 12%); MTTC(PA 55, TNT 35 & TNCrs 10); M7X(PA 55, TNT 35 & TNX 10% or PA 30, TNT 25 & TNX 45%); N2TN(AN 50, Na nitrate 30 & TNN 20%); NDNT (AN 85, DNN 10 & TNT 5%); /VT (AN 70 & TNT 30%); NTN (AN 80 & TNN 20%);NX(AN 77 & TN-m-xylene 23%); Pan-clastites of Turpin(mixts of liq fuels such as MNB gasoline, CS2 with liq nitrogen peroxide)(Compare with Anilithe, described in Vol l,p A443-R);

Schneiderite or Explosif Sc(or S)(AN 87-8 & DNN 13-12%), Xylite P (PA 50, TNT 40 & TN-m-xylene 10%) [Refs 4b, 5a and the books of Pascal(1930), Venin,Burlot & Lecorche(1932) and Pepin-Lehalleur (1935)]

Germany: Amatol 39(DNB 50, AN 35 & RDX 15%); Amatol 40(DNAns 50, AN 35 & RDX 15%); Amatol 41 (AN 52, tech Ca nitrate 6, EDADN 30, RDX 10 & montan wax 2%); Ammonal / (AN 54, TNT 30 & Al 16%); Ammonal //(AN 72, TNT 12 & Al 16%) (Ref 18,p Ger 4); Ammonit 43C(AN 45, tech Ca nitrate 10, GuN 15 & TNT 30%; emulsifier, "Vult-amol", added 0.5%); Ammonit HI (AN 50, tech Ca nitrate 15, PETN 10 &RDX 25%) (Ref 18,p Ger 6); Ammonit H8(AN 50, K nitrate 25, RDX 15 & PETN 10%); NaCl Explosive (TNT 40-50 & NaCl 40-50%) (Ref 18, p 44); Fillers 32 to 38 (PETN-Wax in various propns); Filler 45 (PETN 50 & TNT 50% with 30% wax added); Filler 52(DNB 50, AN 35 & RDX 15%); Filler 86 (EDADN 46, RDX 18 & wax 36%); Filler 92-H 10(RDX 90 & wax 10%); Filler 105 or Trialen 105(RDX 15, TNT 70 & Al powder 15%); Filler 106 or Trialen 106 (RDX 25, TNT 50 & Al 25%); Filler 107 or Trialen 107 (RDX 20, TNT 50 & Al powder 30%); Filler 108 or Tritolital(KDX 20, TNT 60 & Al 20%); Filler 109 or Trialen 109 (RDX 70, Al 25 & wax 5%)(Ref 18,pp Ger 46-8); Hexamin Explosives (such as HNDPhA 27.9, TNT 55.7 & Al 16.4%) (Ref 18,p Ger 88); Monakit I (An 81, K or Na nitrate 5, TNX 13 & flour l%)(Ref 18, p Ger 114); Nitrolit (TNAns 60 & AN 40%)(Ref 18, p Ger 122); Pentritols (PETN/TNT in various propns) (Ref 18,p Ger 128); PH-Salt Explosives (see Ref 18,p Ger 132), R-Salt Explosives (see Ref 18,p Ger 70); Trialen(see Fillers 105, 106, 107 & 109); Tritolital(see Filler 108); Tritrinal (TNT 2 parts & TNN 1 or 2 parts) (Ref 18,p Ger 209); Unterwassersprengstoffe(Ref 18,p Ger 212 -13)

Note: Many other composite Ger expls are listed in Ref 18

Italy: Alhite(see Vol l,p A120-L); ANS(see Vol 1, p A457-R); Cheddites (such as K chlorate 80, MNN 12 & castor oil 8%; Amm chlorate 82, DNT 13 & castor oil 5%; Na chlorate 75.0, MNT 23.2 & collod cotton 1.8%); Cremonite (AN 48.8 & Amm picrate 51.2%); Cyclonite-AN-Wax Military Explosive (RDX 22.0, AN 73.4 & wax 4.6%); Cyclonite-Wax Military Explosive(RDX 95 & wax, dyed red 5%); Dinamiti (Dynamites; many compns are known); Dinamon(AN 69, K chlorate 8, TNT 20 & Al 3%); Dinitronaph-thalene-Containing Explosives(MST or Nougat,

Schneiderite and Siperite); Dinitrotoluene-Contain-ing Explosive s (such as DNT 19, collod cotton 1, Na chlorate 59 & PETN 21% or DNT 17, TNT 3-5, PETN 18, collod cotton 0.5, Amm perchlorate 36, & Na nitrate 25%); Echo or Escho(AN 62, Al 25, fat 7.5 & N 5-5%); Esplosivo da guerra, listed in CA 451770(1951) (TNT 30-90, PETN 65-5 and Al powder 5"30%; part of the TNT may be substituted by DNN); Esplosivo da guerra, listed in CA 44, 6130(1950) (RDX 75-90 & Al powder 25-10%); Esplosivo da mina, listed in CA 45,1709(1950)(RDX or PETN 75 & nitro-iso-butylglycerintriacetate 25%); Esplosivo da mina, listed in CA 45, 3160(1951)[TNT (of which up to 50% may be substituted by DNN) 30-9, RDX 65-5 & AJ powder 5*30%]; Esplosivo plastico, listed in CA 43,7688(1949) (RDX 85-89, petrolatum 10-12, thiocol 0.5-2 & glycerophthalic resin 0.5-2%); Filler FNP (AN 75, PETN 20 & wax 5%); Filler for 500-kg Time Bomb(PETN 65 & penta-erythritol-tetraacetate 35%); FNP (see Filler FNP); GDI, GDI1, GD2, GDIM, GEO & GEOM are gelatinized mining expls contg NG; Hidrolita (mixt of RDX or PETN with AN, paraffin & 5-7% water); Im-perialite(AN 85*90 & Al scales 15-10%); MABT (mixt of PA, TNT & DNPh), MA T(PA 60 & TNT 40%); MET CPA 60 & DNPh 40%); MNDT (see under Siperite); MST (see Nougat); Nitramite or Avigliana 3(see Vol l,p A5I6-R); Nitronaftita(BJDX 75-80 & MNN 25-20%); Nougat or MST (AN 50, TNT 43 & DNN 7%); PAM & PANA (expl mixts based on PETN); PETN Explosives(mixts of PETN with wax, TNT, DNT, NG, AN, PETA, etc); Piombite(Pb nitrate 76, TNN 16, ca silicide 5 & vaseline 3%); PNP(AN 75, PETN 20 & wax 5%); Sabulites (mixts of AN with Ca silicide and TNT or TNN); Schneiderite(AN 87.5 & DNN 12.5%); Siperite or Syperite (AN 72.8, DNN 10.5 & TNT 16.7%); Solfite(AN 83-8 & S 17 -12%); Stabilites(mixts of NG, TNAns & NG); Toluol ammonal (AN 47, TNT 30, Al 20 & carbon 3%); Tritolita or Tritolol (mixts of TNT with RDX in various propns); Tritolital (TNT 60, RDX 20 & Al 20%); Tritolol(see Tritolita); Umbrites(NG 45.1 or 48,4, AN 41.4 or 37.3 & ferrosilicon 13.5 or 14.3%); Vibrite (AN 78, TNN 8 & Ca silicide 14%); Victo-rite [PA 53.7, K(Na or Ba) nitrate 4.9, K chlorate 39.0 & carbon 2.4%)(Refs 9b, 14a, 15a and other sources)

Japan: A(ko)(see Vol l,p A119-L); Ammonaru(same as Ammonal); Ammonyaku(see Vol l,p A383-L); Anbenyaku or Shobenyaku(see Vol l,p A401-R); Angayaku(see Vol l,p A402-R); B4(sameas Type 2 Explosive); Chanayaku(TNT 50 & RDX 50%); "E" (TNAns 60 & AN 40%); Ennayaku(K chlorate 80, MNT 15 & castor oil 5%); H2-Kongo(see Type 98H2

Explosive); Haensosan-bakuyaku(see under Type 88 Explosives); Haishokuyaku No i(Amm perchlorate 76.9, RDX 17.0, paraffin 4.8 & Si carbide 1.3%); Haishokuyaku No 2 (Amm perchlorate 48, GuN 20, RDX 25, paraffin 5 & graphite 2%); H examit[see A(ko), also called Otsu-B or Type A Explosive]; Karritto(see under Type 88 Explosives); Ko(see under Type 88); Koshitsu or Shouyaku-koshitsu (RDX 80 or 85 & oil 20 or 15%); Mk 2 (see Nigo-tanyaku Mk 2); Nigotanyaku Mk 2(TNT 40-70 & RDX 60-30%); Onayaku (PA 50 or 80 & DNN 50 or 20%); Oshitsuyaku(RDX 80 & vegetable oil 20%); Oshiyaku(PA 90 & wax 10%); Otsu-B [see A(ko)]; Pentoriru (PETN 50 & TNT 50%); Seigata(see Type 97 Explosive); Shoanbakuyaku (AN 79, DNN 10, NaCl 10 & sawdust 1%); Shoayaku (mixts of AN with DNN, TNT, GuN, NaCl, woodmeal, etc); Shobenyaku of Nanman Arsenal(see Anbenyaku in Vol l,p A401-R); Shobenyaku of Tama Factory (mixt of DNB,Tetryl & An); Shoeiyaku Explosives (PETN 91.5 & wax 8.5%; PETN 58 & RDX 42%) (see also Pentoriru); Shonayaku or Shon-o-yaku (AN 90 & DNN 10%); Shotoyaku(AN 50 & TNT 50%); Tanayaku Explosives (RDX 92 or 95 & wax 8 or 5%; RDX 83 & PETN 17%)(see also Angayaku, Koshitsu, Nigotanyaku and Type 94 Explosive); Tanoyaku (RDX 55 or 60, TNT 38 or 30 & Tetryl 7 or 10%); Torpex-Type Explosive (AN 43-2, GuN 28.8, RDX 8.0 & Al 20.0%); Type 1 Explosive (Amm picrate 81, Al 16, heavy oil 1 & woodpulp 2%); Type 1, Mk 5, P5(Amm picrate 86, ferrosilicon 11, heavy oil 1 & woodpulp 2%); Type 2(B4)(TNAns 60 or 70 & Al powder 40 or 30%); Type 88(Navy) or Karritto (Army) (AN 66, Si carbide 16, woodpulp 16 & petroleum 6%); Type 88(Ko) or Haensosan-bakuyaku (Amm perchlorate 75, ferrosilicon 16, woodpulp 6 & heavy oil 3%); Type 92 (Navy)(means straight TNT as well as the mixt of TNT 66 & Al powder 34%); Type 94M (Navy) (TNAns 60 & RDX 40%); Type 97H (Navy) (TNT 60 & HNDPhA 40%); Type 98H2 Kongo (Navy & Army) (TNAns 70 & HNDPhA 30%); Type A see A(ko), vol l,p A119-L)(Ref 8a and other sources)

Russia: Almatrites(see Vol l,p A140-L); Amatols ( (such as AN 80 & TNT 20% and AN 86.8 & TNT 13.2%); Ammokcil or Ammoksil (see Vol l,p A286 -R); Ammonals (such as AN 82, TNT 12 & Al powder 6%); Ammonits (such as AN 77.6, TNT 18.4 & woodmeal 4%); Ammonit-Goudronit(see Vol l,p A310-L); Ammonpek (see Vol l,p A382-L); Am-montol or Russkaya Smes' (see Vol l,p A383-L); Baronal-Type Explosive (Ba. nitrate 38.9, Al powder 46.1, TNT 14.7 & sulfur 0.3%); Bellites(see Vol 2); Dinamony (such as paraffined AN 89"90 &

fuels, such as peat, 11-10%); Dinitrobenzene-Con-taining Explosives (such as Bellites and K-l Splav -see under Benzene, Dinitro); Dinitronaphthalene -Containing Explosives (such as TNT 92 & DNN 8%; AN 87.5 & DNN 12.5%, Frantsuzskaya Smes', K-2 Splav, Russkii Splav and Schneiderite-Type Explosives); Fielder Explosives (mixts of 80/20 -MNB/turpentine with K chlorate & K permanganate); Frantsuzskaya Smes' (PA 80 & DNN 20%); Gbeksogen Explosives (such as RDX 71.9, TNT 16.4 & Tetryl 11.7%; RDX 75.1, A1 20.8 & binder 4.1% and RDX 53 & TNT 47%); K-l Splav(see under Benzene, Dini.tro); K-2 Splav (TNT 80 & DNN 20%); L-Splav (TNT 95 & TNX 5%); Melinit Explosives (such as Russkii Splav); Russkii Splav (PA 51.5 & DNN 48.5%); Schneiderite-Type Explosives (such as AN 87.5 & DNN 12.5; AN 88 & TNN 12% and AN 82 & TNN 18%); Tetryl Explosives (such as Tetryl 57 & TNT 43%); Trinitronaphthalene-Con-taining Explosives (such as Schneiderite-Type Explosives); Trinitrotoluene Explosives (such as TNT 50-80 & RDX 50-20% and RDX 71.9, TNT 16.4 & Tetryl 11.7%)(Refs 9a, 12c & 13b); Zhirov Explosiveslsee N.F.Zhirov,RusP's 4283 & 4(1927); CA 22,4821(1928)]

Sweden: Ammongelatine (see Vol l,p A295-R of this Encyclopedia); Ammoniakkrut(see Vol l,p A307-R); Ammonium Nitrate Dynamites or Extra Dynamites are probably similar to those described in Vol l,p A355; Black Powder(KN03 74-78, charcoal 12-15 & S 10-12%)(Ref 19,p 190);Blastines (see this volume); Bofors Plastic Explosive (see this volume); Bonites(see this volume); Dynamites (many compns are manufd in Sweden by AB Bofors Nobelkrut, Nitroglycerin AB, AB Norma Projektilfabrik, AB Nora Tandrofsfabrik, AB Svenska Krut-faktorierna and probably by other plants); Gelatin Dynamites (see under Dynamites); Hexotols, (military expls RDX/TNT-60/40 or 50/50 manufd by AB Bofors Nobelkrut(Ref 19,p 201); Hexotonals (military expls RDX/TNT/Al/Wax-40/44/15/1 or 40/44/15/5 manufd by AB Bofors Nobelkrut; another compn is RDX/TNT/A1/-3 0/50/20 with 1% wax and 1.5% carbon black added)(Ref 19,p 203); Nauckhoffs Explosive(Compn patented before WWI cont NH4C104 43, NH4N03 26 and 31% of soln prepd by dissolving 4ps of collodion cotton in 96ps of liqTNT (Ref la, pp 247 & 681); Novit (Underwater expl of WWI contained (TNT 50 & HNDPhA 50% and of WWII: TNT 55.7, HNDPhA 27.9 & A1 16.4%)(Ref 4b,p 294; Ref 5c,pp 38 & 41; Ref 9b,p 107); Territ (Blasting plastic expl patented before WWI by AB Nitroglycerin: NH4C104 43.0, DNT & TNT 27.8, NaN03 28.0& collodion cotton 1.2%)(Ref 3b,p 135

and Ref 4b,p 316)

Switzerland: Aldorfit(see Vol l,p A123-R); Ammon-pentrinit(see Vol l,p 382-L); Gamsit or Gelatine •Gamsit(NG21,NGc 5, collod cotton 1.6, woodmeal 0.4, liq DNT 12 & AN 60%); Gelatine-Aldorfit (NG with or w/o NGc 22, collod cotton 1.5, liq DNT with TNT 13 & AN 63.5%); Gelatine-Cbeddit(Na chlorate 79, coated with a-liq mixt of castor oil 5, DNT 2 & TNT 14 preheated to 40°); Gelatine-Gam-sit) (See Gamsit); Gelatine-Pentrinit (mixt of PETN, NG & collod cotton, such as PETN 50, NG 46 & collod cotton 4%); Gelatine-Telsit(NG with or w/o NGc 22, collod cotton 1.5, DNT 21 & AN 55.5%); Hexonit(such as RDX 20-50 & NG 80-50% or RDX 50, NG 46 & collod cotton 4%); Pentastit 93/7 (PETN 93, phlegmatized with 7% pentaerythritol-tetrastearate, with or w/o 20% A1 added); Pentastit 96.5/3.5 (PETN 96.5 & PETS 3.5% with or w/o 3.5% A1 added); Pentrinit (mixt of PETN with not less than 20% NG); Pentro or P entry I (mixts of PETN & TNT with or w/o A1 powder); Plastit(a plastic military expl based on PETN and manufd by Schweiz-Sprengstoff-Fabrik AG; its compn has not been revealed); Simplonit (Gamist with 10-15% A1 added); Telsit (see Gelatine-Telsit); Telsit-Gamsit (same compn as Gamsit)[Dr A.Stettbacher, Zurich, private communication( 1954) and other sources]

US and Great Britain: Alumatol(see Vol l,p A141 -R); Aluminized Explosives (see Vol l,p A146-L); Amatol (see Vol l,p A158-L); Ammonal (see Vol 1, p A287-L); Baratol(see Vol 2); Baronal(see Vol 2); Boronite(see Vol 2); Compositions A,B & C(see Vol 2); Cyclotols (see Vol 2); DBX (TNT 40, RDX 21, AN 21 & A1 18%); Ednatols (EDNA 50-60 & TNT 50-40%); HBX(TNT 38, RDX 40, A1 17 & wax 5%); Mz'«ex(TNT 40, RDX 5-15, A1 20 & Amm carbonate 35-15%); Minols (TNT 40 or 43, AN 40 or 37 & A1 20%); Octol (HMX 77 & TNT 23%)(Ref 20); Pento-lites (PETN 10-75 & TNT 90-25%); Pentonal(PETN 40, TNT 40 & A1 20%); PEP-3 (PETN 86 & oil 14%); Picratol (PA 52 & TNT 48%); PIPE(PETN 81 & oil 19%); PTX-1 (TNT 14, RDX 21 & Tetryl 65); PTX -2 (TNT 28.8, RDX 43.2 & PETN 28%); PTX-3 (TNT 27,Tetryl 18 & EDNA 55%); PTX-4 (TNT 31-5, PETN 13.5 & EDNA 55%); RiPE(RDX 85 & oil 15%); Shellite(PA 50 & DNPh 50%); Sodatol(Na nitrate 50 & TNT 50%); Tetratols (Tetryl 40-80 & TNT 60-20%); Torpex(TNT 37 or 40.2, RDX 45 or 41.5 & A1 18%); Tridite (PA 80 & DNPh 20%); Tri-monite (PA 90 & MNN 10%); Tritonal 80/20 (TNT 80 & A1 20%); Tritonal D-2 (80/20 Tritonal 95 &D2 -Wax 5%); UWE(same as Tritonal 80/20) Refs: l)M.Giua,Gazz 45 I, 352-8,557-66(1915) &

CA 10,598,1775(1916)(Binary mixts of nitro derivs of toluene and benzene and their eutectics) la)Colver( 1918),247 & 681 lb)Barnett( 1919), 112 lc)A.Wogrinz & P Vari,SS 14,249-51 & 267-70(1919) & CA 14,3530(1920)(Equilibrium diagrams of binary mixts of PA, TNT, DNT & MNN) 2)C.A.Taylor & W.H.Rinkenbach.JIEC 15,73-7(1923) (Estimation of the proportions of TNT & Tetryl from freezing point curves) 3)Ibid 15,795-6(1923)(The freezing point-solubility diagram of the system TNT-Picric Acid) 3a)Ibid 15,1070-3(1923)(The freezing point -solubility diagram of the system Tetryl-Picric Acid) 3b)Naoum, Expls(1927),135 4)NaoGm, NG(1928), 11,261 & 324 4a)Molina( 1930),340 4b)Stettbacher (1933),294,309-10 & 316 4c)M.Giua & G.Guastalla, Chim&Ind 29,64T(1933)(Study of binary systems of Centralite with p-MNT; 2,4-DNT, 2,4,6-TNT; PA and Bromo-2,4-dinitrophenol) 4d)T.Urbanski et al,

RocznikiChem 13,399-434(1933) & CA 28,27(1934); Ibid 14,239-45, 925-40(1934) & CA 29,6129(1935); Ibid 15,191-7(1935) & CA 30,2834(1936); Ibid 16, 353-65(1936) & CA 31,2502(1936); 17,585-90(1937) & CA 32,1556(1938) (Thermal analysis of various mixts contg nitrates, nitric acid esters and nitro compds) 5)Thorpe 4,(1940),464 5a)Davis(1943), 353-4 & 367(SprengeI Expls and N2TN, NDNT, NT, NTN & NX expls) 5b)Bebie(1943),35 & 73 5c)A.Stettbacher, Protar 9,38 & 41(1943 ) 6)W.R. Tomlinson,Jr,PATR 1360(1943); Ibid 1379(1944); Ibid 1402(1944); Ibid 1414(1944); 1429(1944) & Ibid 1452(1944) (Properties of ternary mixts of HE's) 7)A. J.Phillips, PATR 1445(1944)(Prop-erties of ternary mixts of HE's) 8)H.A,Aaronson, PATR 1469(1944) (Properties of ternary mixts of HE's) 8a)Anon, "Handbook of Japanese Explosive Ordnance", OpNav 30»3M(1945) 9)L.H.Eriksen, PATR 1506(1945) & Ibid 1623(1946)(Properties of ternary mixts of HE's) 9a)Shilling( 1946),79-85, 90-2,95,97-9,144-7 & 240 9b)All&EnExpls(1946), 107 & 134 10)A.N.Campbell & E.J.Pritchard, CanadjRes 25B, 183-97(1947) & CA 41,4647(1947) (Study of binary mixts PA-2,4-DNPh, TNT-DNPh and ternary mixt of PA-DNPh-TNT) 11)A.N.Campbell et al,CanadjRes 256,211-15(1947) & CA 41, 7220(1947) (Study of binary and ternary eutectics consisting of PA, DNPh & Picramide) 12)A.N. Campbell & N.A.Kushnarov,CanJRes 25B,216-27 (1947) & CA 4l,7218(1947)(Study of binary mixts of TNT-RDX, NENO-TNT and m-DNB-NENO) 12a)H.Ficheroulle,MP 30,98-100(1948) & CA 45, 8249(1951)(Studies of binary mixts of ethylenedi-nitramine, Amm ethylenedinitramate with AN and ethylenediamine nitrate showed that they are more sensitive and more expensive than the Fr std expl

Schneiderite. For this reason the above mixts are not recommended for filling projs) 12b)Stettbacher (1948),83-5 12c)Blinov 1(1948),17-20 13)G. Desseigne.MP 30,127-37(1948)(Study of binary mixts of PETN with m-DNB, DNAns & DNPh) 13a)Blinov 2(1949),64-5 13 b)L.Medard,MP 32, 213-16 & 223(1950) [Description of Explosifs Mi nitrates and Explosifs nitrates a Valuminium developed in France beginning in 1935 and then after WWII and approved by CSE(Commission des Substances Explosives). These expls consist of AN, a nitro-compd(such as DNN, TNT, pentolite, etc) with or w/o Al powder. For instance, the expl 63-CSE-1949 consists of AN 67, TNT 10 & Al 21% and its CUP(power by the Fr lead block expansion method) is 147(PA=100)] 14)L.F.Audrieth & D.D. Sager,USP 2,482,089-91(1949) & CA 44,839-40 (1950) [The three component expls: a)TNT/Tetryl /RDX b)Tetryl/TNT/EDNA and c)PETN/TNT /EDNA are characterized by their superior expl props, higher d, etc and for these reasons they are recommended for use in shells, bombs and mines]. 14a)Giua,Dizionario 2(1951),165 15)Kirk & Othmer 6(1951).19 & 56(Binary expls are described under Explosives) 15a)Belgrano(1952),118-22, 163.180-1,286 & tables l6)M.Thomas,MP 36,133 -62(1952) & CA 49,16435-6(1955) [Discussion of methods of separating components of binary mixts of nitrated derivs or nitrates by a solvent. From the amt of solvent just insufficient to dissolve a known wt of sample and the additional amt required to effect soln, the identity of the sample was detd. This was verified by addnl tests, such as mp, cryst form and colors obtd in acet soln with NaOH or NH3. The method was applied to the following eight mixts: a)PETN/DNB b)PETN/TNT c)PETN/DNN d)RDX/DNB e)RDX/TNT f) HNDPh A/TNT g)Tetryl/TNT h)NGu/TNT] 17)K.Yamasue et al,JapP 2097('54) & CA 49,2076 (1955) (A binary expl prepd by nitrating a mixt of 30% naphthalene & 70% toluene with 2.5 times its wt of 50/50 mixed nitric-sulfuric acid at 130°, rendered an expl with N 16.9% and mp 60° suitable for use in dynamites) 18)PATR 2510(PB No 161270)(1958),PP Ger 4,5,6,30,43-4,46-8,88,114, 122,128,132,170,203,209 & 212-3 19)Anon,"Analytical Methods for Powders and Explosives",AB Bofor.- Nobelkrut,Sweden(1958) 20)D.Price,Chem Revs ¿9,814-15(1959)

Binder or Agglutinant is a material, such as asphalt or bitumen, dextrin, starch, flow, glue, fossil gums, gelatin, milk sugar, petrolatum, resins, shellac, stearin, paraffin wax, sugar, syn thetic org plastics, NC, etc, used to hold solid substances together in a plastic mass. Binders are used in expls, proplnts and pyrotechnic cora-pns. Most binders serve at the same time as fuels (see also Adhesives in Vol l,p A102-R and under Bonding in Vol 2)

Refs: l)Hackh's( 1944), 127 2)H.A.Bruson & G.B. Butler,USP 2400806(1946) & CA 40,4526(1946) (Highly nitrated, vigorously combustible synthetic resin prepd by condensing TNT with HCHO and NH3 or a primary amine capable of forming a MeOH deriv, may be used as a binding material in expl compns) 3)H.Zenftman & A.McLean.USP 2527420(1951) & CA 46,2300( 1952) (Nitropolystyrenes contg 9.3 to 14.4% N are recommended as binders for expl compns in lieu of NC) 4)Kirk & Othmer 11(1953),334 (Binders in commercial pyrotechnic compns and in rockets) 5)Bjorksten Research Laboratories,Inc, "Polyesters and Their Application",Reinhold,NY (1956),21-34

Addnl Refs on Binders(not used as sources of info:

a)Frankford Arsenal Rept R.445(1943)(Stability of cellulose-alginate-glue binder for FA70 and FA-90A primary compns) b)S.Helf,PATR 1750(1949) (Tests of expl binder compds submitted by ADL) (conf) c)H.J.Eppig & J.D.Strachan, PATR 1801 (1950)(Self-hardening pyrotechnic compns) d)Pur-chase Description PA>PD»124 (1953), 4-6(Detn of binder-lubricant content in RDX) e)P.L.Nichols, Jr, et al,Caltech Progress Rept No 20.188(1953) (Prepn of nitric ester plasticizers and resin intermediates for composite propellant resin binders for AN propellants) f)Ibid, No 20» 197(1953)(The use of epoxide resin binders for AN propellants) g)SFAL Rept No 54-FFI-71,PicArsn,Dover,NJ(1954) (Investgn of binders for Pelleting Type III, Class A,Photoflash Powder) (conf) h)F.H.Doe, ERDE TechMemo 7/M/55( 1955)(Plastic proplnt based on polyisobutene as binder) i)E.E.Mason et al,Nav Ord Rept 5461(1957) (Preliminary investgn of cast-able perchlorate systems and binders for ammonium perchlorate)(conf) j)R.L.Wagner,K.G.Sheffield & D.E.Seeger,EDS SFAL Rept No 60,PicArsn,Dover, NJ( 1960)(Binder for RDX used in M47 Detonatcr consisting of 50/50 Ca resinate/Graphite) k)B. Jackson,S.M.Kaye & G.Weingarten.FREL Tech Note 40,PicArsn,Dover,NJ(1960)(Resins other than Laminae 4116 as binders in pyrotechnic compns) 1)US Military Specification MIL-B-10854(NG-comphor binder for pyrotechnic compns)

Binding Energy. See under Atomic (or Nuclear) Energy; Vol l,p A500-R

Bindone orAnhydrobisindandione(called Anhydro -bis-[a.y-diketohydrinden] and other names in Ger), C)8H10O3, microscopic tablets, mp 206-8°(dec). Prepn & props are given in Ref 1. Vanags(Ref 2) proposed to utilize the prop of bindone to give characteristic colors with primary amines, for testing nitrocompds by first reducing them to amines (by means of Zn+AcOH) and then adding bindone. The test is not specific, however, for nitrocompds but applies also to nitroso, azoxy- and hydrazo-compds

Refs: l)Beil 7,876,(484) & [8391 2)G.Vanags, ZAnalCh.em 126,21-35(1943) & CA 37,6593(1943)

Binitro-.Same as Dinitro-. See under corresponding parent compounds

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