Engineer Tools

M 4. Importance.—a. The engineer soldier is an expert in many things. One of his most important skills is the use of many kinds of tools; some, hand tools, others, power tools. Tools are the basic implements o: the engineer. They go along with Ills unit and arc always at hand. With tools the engineer accomplishes many tasks. How well and how quickly he does his Job depends upon—

11) His skill.

(2) His physical condition.

<3> The condition of his tools.

b. All of these are the responsibility of the Individual soldier. His own life and the lives of his fellow soldiers depend upon the took and the skill with which they are used.

® 5. Care.—Mainly upon you, the soldier who uses these tools, depends the condition of the tools. When the supply sergeant or his assistant issues tools to you, you become responsible for them. Clean and oil them before you return them. If you are careful in the use of your tools, if you use them in the correct manner. If you are quick to notice and report such things as dullness, battered heads, and rough spots on handles, the Job of keeping tools in good condition is easy.

E 6. Safety.— tools, are sharp. If they are handled improperly you or a comrade may be hurt. Learn to use your tools correctly; the correct way is both the easiest and the safest way. Here are a few general safety rules. Do not forget any of them.

b. Do not lay sharp tools, such as axes, adzes, and peavics, on the ?round where they can be stepped on, fallen on, or run into.

v. When swinging a tool, make sure all others are a safe distance away.

d Make sure all tool heads are tight on their hardies.

e. Do riot get in the way of another soldier who is using a tool.

Si 7. Use.—Toois are designed to do work ■with a minimum of effort. The untrained man tires himself by forcing his tools, gripping them too hard, or using an improper position. The trained man is relaxed, lets his tools da mo3t of the work, and uses his mind, eyes, and hands to guide the tools.

■ fl. Engineer Toot Sets.—Each engineer organization is equipped with the hand tools needed for accomplishing the work usually assigned to it For convenience in selecting tools for a particular job, they are grouped into sets, such as carpenter, blacksmith, pioneer, and demolition sets. Learn to know the contents of the various squad and platoon sets.

■ 9. Hand Tools.—Most of the tools you use are hand tools, the most important of which are discussed below. These discussions are only a guide, however; they are not a substitute ior actual training and extensive practice. Apply the things you read here at the first opportunity.

a. Ax (see fig. 2).—Before starting to swing the ax, make sure that there is no interference in any direction. If there are overhanging limbs or undergrowth In the way. clear them out first. Make sure of a firm footing and see that no one is dangerously close. In swinging the ax, be especially careful to stand so that if the mark is missed, or Ji the ax glances off, it will not strike you. (See figs. 3 and 4.) Keep your eyes on the point to be struck. Never throw the ax or leave it lying on the ground; instead, drive it into a log or stump, or put it In Its box. Never use the ax to drive metal stakes.

Figure l.—Proper way to carry ex. ads. and two-man cro«cut saw.

b. Hatchet (see fig. 2).—The hatchet is used for light trimming work such as framing timber, sharpening stakes, or splitting wood. The position of the hand depends upon the desired blow. Hold It near the end of the handle to strike a heavy blow for heavy cuts and near the head for light trimming strokes. The hatchet has a hammerhead which may be used for driving medium-size nails.

c. Adz (see fig. 2).—The adz is a hewing and smoothing tool used by engineers mainly to remove bark and to square

Fzouaa 2.- Mowing tools.

® Down swing. 0 Swing completed.

Fig una l.—Uaing the ax on steading timber.

Fzouaa 2.- Mowing tools.

® Down swing. 0 Swing completed.

Fig una l.—Uaing the ax on steading timber.

round Umber. It must be used carefully or the user may be injured. The correct way to use the adz is to stand astride the log and take short hewing strokes. (See flg. 5J The log Is first scored with chopping strokes, or with shallow cuts made with a saw.

Fjoube 6.—Pick,

d. Pick and pick mattock (see flg. 6).—You should be able to use the pick or pick mattock with either the right or left hand leading. The pick Is swung In a manna- similar to that used in swinging the ax. (See flg. 3.> To use Jt with the right hand leading, stand with your ieet comfortably placed, left hand at the handJe end, right hand near the

9 u pick head, body bent slightly forward, and arms hanging naturally. Carry the pick head behind and above your right shoulder without changing the position of your hands. Swing the pick head forward, allowing the handle to slide through your right hand until your hands meet, and continue the stroke downward. Keep your eye on the point to be struck.

e. Shovels (see flg. 7).—You should be able to use the shovel with either a right- or left-hand swing. After Ailing it by one of two methods (flg. 8 ® or ®), press the handle down and back to free the shovelful from the rest of the material. Then hold the handle down while raising the weight of the full shovel with the other hand. In casting, allow the handle to slide through the lower hand in the most convenient manner. Do not use a shovel as a pry.

Saws.—Saws are oi various design, depending upon the kind of work required.

(I) Hand saws (flg. &<£).—There are two kinds of hand saws—crosscut and rip. A crosscut saw has knifelike teeth and is used to cut wood across the grain. A ripsaw has chisellike teeth and is u^rt to cut wood with the grain. The hand saw is used in most common carpentry work. A saw nit should be started by guiding the blade against the thumb of the left hand and drawing the saw backward (flg. 10).

Extending the forefinger along the handle aids in guiding the blade. Hold the saw lightly and do not try to push it into the wood; move it back and forth with a full. Ion? stroke, letting it do ;ts own cutting.

Extending the forefinger along the handle aids in guiding the blade. Hold the saw lightly and do not try to push it into the wood; move it back and forth with a full. Ion? stroke, letting it do ;ts own cutting.

Pigvjie 7.—Long-handled and D-handled shovels.

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