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the effects produced on the cartridge by the various appliances and attachments of the loading device. If the newer loading tools have a fault, it is in this confounded effort to combine operations and thereby load ammunition more rapidly. In reloading ammunition, or in manufacturing it, speed of production is always a secondary consideration. Safety is of primary importance and it is dependent largely, if not entirely, upon proper inspection—on the subject of which a considerable amount of space has already been given throughout this book.

It is true that some ammunition manufacturing and loading machinery performs a series of operations without permitting hand gauging or visual inspection of the work. BUT—all such machines are equipped with mechanical or electrical devices which perform the proper inspection necessary to insure the safety and quality of the finished product. These inspection or gauging devices are not depended upon to perform their functions unfailingly. They arc subjected to continuous tests and checks by die operator of the machine, who frequendy inserts cartridges or components containing the defects that the detectors are supposed to pick out, to make sure that the apparatus is functioning perfecdy. The moment one of these defective cartridges or components passes its detector, the machine is shut down and a machine setter is called to make the proper adjustments. Then, of course, there is always the foreman who is around to make sure that the operator uses the defective samples with sufficient frequency. This is vasdy different from a loading tool that perfunctorily performs a series of operations without consideration of the quality of product which comes out of the other end of the machine.

It is not to be understood from these remarks that any tool which combines loading operations isn't any good for, even though the combination of operations is unwise, it is usually possible for the operator of the tool to separate the operations and perform them one at a time. A simple example of this is the combining of the operation of expelling fired primers and the seating of new ones. This ij not practical, is prejudicial to the best accuracy in ammunition, and with heavy loads may actually be unsafe. Yet it would be unwise to condemn any reloading tool, merely because it combines these two operations, provided the design of the tool will permit the operator to separate them. Principally for these reasons, the different makes of tools will not be referred to or compared, but rather the process of loading will be viewed and discussed in the light of the results which must be accomplished. In this way the text will serve for use with any type of loading tool—past, present or future. The loading of good ammunition is more of a ballistic problem than a mechanical one and it is the ballistic phase that manufacturers and designers of loading tools apparendy ignore.

In order to tie in the performance and use of loading tools to this ballistic phase of handloading, the general subject of ballistics will first be briefly discussed, then the sequence of events that take place when a firearm is die-charged. The rifle will be used as a basis for a description of the loading of ammunition, after which the peculiar problems relating to the revolver and automatic arms will be given.

Some of this may be a duplication of what has already been written in other parts of the book, though from a different viewpoint, but it is ncccssary to consider this sequence of events chronologically, even though some of them may have been referred to in considering the performance of various ammunition components.

The science of ballistics is an interesting one to most shooters but it is not the purpose of this book to-go into the theoretical or mathematical side of the subject, rather, to stick to the practical aspects. As a matter of fact, mathematical ballistic calculations arc about as useful to the hand-loader as the proverbial silk pajamas are to an Eskimo, because the application of practically all ballistic formulae are dependent upon definite numerical values which can only be obtained with the facilities of a ballistic laboratory.

Barrel Vibrations. Stripped barrel and action In lower view shows wires strung evenly along the barrel. By tapping receiver tang with a mallet« the wires are moved about by the barrel vibrations and group themselves at the nodes—as shown in upper view.

■ . , IK. -» \" ' i.-.

Illustrating the manner in which the .45 Automatic cartridge la positioned and held la th« chamber of the service pistol.

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