boiling in lye prior to the bluing must still be done as explained later.

WORKING DOWN BARRELS: The barrel of our Springfield service and national match rifle is rough turned almost its entire length, having only four or five inches at the muzzle smoothed down, since the remainder is hidden by the forend, hand-guard and rear sight base. When this or any other rifle having a very rough barrel is converted into a sporter, it should, if possible have the barrel removed from the action, turned down smooth in a lathe, and ground. This being beyond the reach of the amateur remodeler, however, the following method is nearly if not quite as effective.

In one sense it is better, since it involves no danger of some machinist turning the barrel down too small, or perhaps springing it in the turning process.

Secure a "Vixen" file, which has very large, deep single teeth cut on a curve. This file will be an inch, or an inch and a quarter wide—the wider the better. Set it in a vise and break it up into pieces two to three inches in length and grind the broken ends smooth on an emery wheel. Clamp the rifle action in the vise leaving the entire barrel available for working. Hold a short piece of the file in right hand as shown in Figure 123, planing off the barrel evenly and removing all high spots. Do not take too deep a cut, and work completely round the barrel, until all the rings made by the turning tool are planed off. The short length of file, laid lengthwise of the barrel avoids the danger of making a wavy surface, as you would be almost certain to do otherwise. The Vixen file cuts very rapidly and of course forms larger flats than would a finer file. To remove them, strike or drawfile the barrel first with a wide mill file (one inch or wider) ; then cross polish vigorously with No. 1/2 carborundum cloth to show up the flats; next draw-polish with folded emery or carborundum cloth on palm of hand; again cross-polish lightly with No. 0 cloth, then strike and polish as already explained, starting with the large pillar file.

POLISHING PROBLEMS: The foregoing includes all essential principles of barrel polishing, and should enable one to handle

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