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Fiourk 27.—Carpenter's level.

Fiourk 27.—Carpenter's level.

Figure 28.—Pneumatic clay digger with spade and moll-polnt attachments.

Figure 28.—Pneumatic clay digger with spade and moll-polnt attachments.

Figure 29.—Pneumatic wood drill. 21

WHsawv mm

WHsawv mm

Figure 30.—Pneumatic rock drill.

Figure 30.—Pneumatic rock drill.

Figure 31v—Pneumatic pavement breaker with Bhcathing-drlver attachment.

Figure 31v—Pneumatic pavement breaker with Bhcathing-drlver attachment.

Figure 32.—Pneumatic nail driver with, chisel attachment.

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Figure 32.—Pneumatic nail driver with, chisel attachment.

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BLADE ig I pi

BLADE ig I pi

Fiolre 33.—Pneumatic circular timber saw.

Fiolre 33.—Pneumatic circular timber saw.

Flffuitz 34.—Pneumatic chain saw. ■ 12. Felling Trees.—With an ax, cut a deep notch near the base oi the tree (see flg. 3B) on the side toward which the tree is to fall. Then saw the tree on the opposite side to cut the remaining fibers, using steel wedges, if necessary, to keep the saw from binding. To cut the trunk clear of the stump, the saw cut should be started opposite the point of the notch. Where it is desired to keep the base of the tree firmly attached to the stump after felling, as In making a tree road block, the saw cut should be made considerably higher than the notch, so that all fibers will not be severed when the trunk falls. It is often advisable to use guy lines

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Fiauxa 35.—Gaaollne-drivea chain saw.

Fiauxa 35.—Gaaollne-drivea chain saw.

to guide a tree in falling and sometimes to use hand or motor power to pull a tree in a desired direction.

■ 13. Makinq Timber Joints.—In rough carpentry work, the butt Joint and the lap joint are used to Join or splice two pieces of wood so that they form one continuous piece. (See flg. 37.) The butt Joint requires the use of fishplates to hold the ends together. The lap joint is made by overlapping the ends of two timbers and nailing them together. This is the simplest and quickest splice for bracing and like uses.

■ 14. Driving Driftpins.—Driftpms (heavy iron spikes) are used to fasten large timbers together. Since driftpins are made of relatively sort iron, holes must first be bored in the wood before the pins are driven. TTiese holes should be slightly smaller in diameter than the pin itself; for example, the hole for a Vfc-inch drlftpin should be made with a inch bit.

■ 15. Handling Loads.—a. Heavy K/fs.—The proper method of lifting heavy loads is to make the legs -do the work. (See ftg. 38.) I>o not bend over from the waist and throw all the strain on the groin and back muscles. Improper methods of lifting often cause a hernia (rupture).

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