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Fioitse 31.—Using the hammer.

carry heavy logs with peavies, men should be distributed equally on each side of the log. (See flg. 40.)

k. Bars (see flg. 14) .—There are several kinds of bars, of varied shapes: crowbar, wrecking bar, pinch bar. These are prying tools and are used as levers. In using these bars, secure as much leverage as possible and take small "bites" each time. Be satisfied with relatively small movement at the cost of little effort, instead of doing excessive work to make a large move.

I. Brush hook (see flg. 155.—The bTush hook is a sharp, curved cutting tool used to clear underbrush and to trim branches. It should be swung with both hands at the handle end.

m. Machete Csee flg. 16).—The machete (pronounced muh-SHAY-tay, muh-SHET-ee, muh-SHET) has a long, extremely sharp blade with a wooden handle. It Is used to clear underbrush and trim small branches. It is swung with one hand. Keep it In its sheath when not in use.

n. Earth auger (see flg. 17).—The earth auger is an extremely useful hole-boring tool for the engineer. The 6-and 10-inch sizes are most commonly used. As far as possible, keep the cutting blades out of contact with rocks; use it with care in rocky ground.

o, Wire cutters (see flg. 18).—Wire cutters are especially designed to cut barbed wire. The rubber-cove red handles are insulated against live wires. The bent hooks on the searching nose are used to pull the wire toward the operator. The cutters are used with two hands.

p. Side-cutting pliers (see flg. IB).—Side-cutting pliers are used both for holding and cutting, essentially with one hand.

q. Pocketknije (see flg. 19>.—The pocketknife has four blades, which include a combination reamer and leather punch blade, a screw driver and bottle-opener blade, a can-opener blade, and a cutting blade. It is equipped with a clevis for attachment to a carrying chain, thong, or cord.

r. Wrenches (see flg. 20).—The two chief adjustable wrenches are the monkey wrench for angular bolts or nuts.

and the pipe wrench for round fittings. Note the differences between them.

15 9

s. Brace and bit (see fig. 21).—The brace and bit Is a boring tool with a variety of bit sizes. It has different bits lor wood-boring and for metal-boring. Make sure the wood drills do nob come into contact with foreign material such as rocks and nails.

t. Ship-ring aucjer (see fig. 22).—The ship-ring auger is a long boring tool used to bore holes deeper than those made with the bit and brace.

Piolue 15.—Brush hook.
Fiovkk 15.—Machete sliid sheath.

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