Beginning in the 1870s J. Stevens & Co., later J. Stevens Arms & Tool Co., made single-shot, break-open shotguns with exposed hammers. In 1920 the firm was purchased by the Savage Arms Co., who continued the use of the Stevens name on many of their products. Savage-Stevens used other brand names as well, including Springfield.
Around 1929 the first shotgun to be called the Model 94 was merchandised as a Springfield. It had many desirable features such as two way top snap, rebounding exposed hammer, takedown construction, color case-hardened receiver, and an automatic non-selective ejector. Some of these features have been dropped and revived and dropped again in response to the economic climate over the decades.
Almost identical guns were marketed concurrently with the pre-war M-94 Springfield; these included the Springfield Models 944, a 4Vi lb. .410; 94-R with large fore-end and Jostam recoil pad. and 94-P with adjustable choke. Under the Stevens name were the Models 104 for small bores (24. 28. 32. and .410) and 107 for large and small bores.
After WW II the Springfield name was dropped, and by 1949 the "94 Stevens" briefly acquired a Tenitc stock and fore-end. By 1951 the plastic stock was replaced with walnut-finished hardwood, to the relief of traditionalists.
By the 1960s the shotguns were usually cataloged as the Savage-Stevens 94-C (in 12. 16. 20 gauges and .410 bore) and the youth model. 94-Y (in 20 ga. or .410 bore) with shorter stock and recoil pad.
The current production is marked Model 94 Series P and has the above-mentioned standard features except that the rebounding hammer has been replaced by a hammer with half cock notch and spring retracted inertia firing pin. and also has impressed checkering on the pistol grip.
Regardless of model name or variation, the Savage-Stevens-Springfield 94 is an attractive, popular, and economical beginner's gun or farm tool and deserves its 50-year-plus reputation for durability. ■
1. Break open the gun and insure it is unloaded. Remove fore-end by pulling its forward end down or. in some models, by removing the fore-end screw; push top snap (1) to either side and pivot barrel (7) down and off. This is all that is normally required for cleaning and maintenance. Remove buttplate screws (41) and buttplate (42). and with a long screwdriver loosen stockbolt (44) and remove stock (43). The inner works are now exposed for detailed cleaning and maintenance. On some of the later variations further disassembly involves the removal of "groove pins" that are not intended for removal and replacement as a part of routine maintenance. Older guns are assembled with standard push pins. Pins are removed from left to right and installed from right to left.
2. Drift out the trigger pin (22) and remove trigger (21) and trigger spring (20).
On newer models the trigger spring is an unsecured coil spring and care must be exercised to retain it when the trigger is removed. Remove the mainspring
(14) by using the blade of a screwdriver to compress it from behind and pivot it and the mainspring guide
(15) and the mainspring plunger seat (13) to the side. The locking bolt plungerv(3) and spring (2) are removed in the same manner. Notice the position of the bend in the locking bolt plunger (3); it must be in the same position for reassembly.
1 Top snap
2 Locking bolt plunger spring
3 Locking bolt plunger
4 Locking bolt assembly
5 Firing pin screw
6 Firing pin
8 Front sight
9 Top snap plunger spring
10 Top snap plunger
11 Top snap sleeve
13 Mainspring plunger seat
15 Mainspring plunger assembly
16 Top snap screw
18 Locking bolt, hammer pin
19 Trigger guard screw
20 Trigger spring
22 Trigger pin
24 Ejector spring
25 Ejector starter pin
26 Trigger guard
27 Trigger guard screw
28 Ejector hook
29 Extractor stop pin
30 Extractor lever pin
31 Fore-end spring
32 Fore-end spring spring
33 Fore-end spring spring pin
34 Fore-end spring housing screw
35 Fore-end spring housing
36 Fore-end spring pin
37 Fore-end iron head screw
38 Fore-end head
39 Fore-end wood
40 Fore-end screw
41 Butt plate screw
42 Butt plate
44 Stock bolt
45 Stock bolt washer
3. With a 90° screwdriver or similar tool, the. top snap screw (16) can now be removed. Then the top snap collar (11) can be gently pried off the top snap (1). freeing the top snap plunger and spring. Drift out the locking bolt and hammer pins (18), and these parts may be removed. The firing pin screw (5) is removed and the firing pin (6) withdrawn to the rear. On later models the firing pin is retained by a transverse pin and is spring retracted.
4. The inner trigger guard screw (19) can now be reached from the top for removal; also remove the outer trigger guard screw (27) and the trigger guard (26) is free. The extractor (23) should be uncocked; if it is not, uncock it by lifting slightly the flange on the left side of the ejector hook (28). Then apply some pressure against the extractor (23) and drift out the extractor stop pin (29), being careful not to lose control of the ejector spring (24) and ejector starter pin (25). Finally, drift out the extractor lever pin (30), and the ejector hook (28) can be removed.
To remove the fore-end parts, take out the fore-end iron screws (37) and fore-end head (38), then the fore-end spring housing screw (34) and the fore-end screw (40). There remain only the fore-end spring (36) and the fore-end spring pin (33) to be removed. On current models the fore-end is retained by a single screw. Reassembly holds no hidden surprises; parts are replaceable in the same manner they were removed.
In 1892, Arthur W. Savage, an inventor from Utica, N. Y., submitted 2 identical lever-action repeating rifles to a board of officers empowered to select a magazine arm for the U. S. military service. The rifles were sub-
3. Front sight
4. Barrel stud
5. Fore-end escutcheon
6. Fore-end screw
7. Dummy screw—telescope (4)
9. Sear screw
10. "Hammer indicator pin
11. Cartridge guide
12. Cartridge guide pin (2)
14. Automatic cutoff
15. Automatic cutoff spring
16. Breech bolt
17. Extractor pin
18. Hammer indicator spring
19. Hammer indicator
20. Hammer retractor spring
21. Hammer bushing screw
23. Hammer bushing
25. Firing pin
26. Firing pin securing pin
27. Trigger spring screw
28. Trigger spring
29. Breech bolt stop screw
30. Breech bolt stop
31. Trigger pin
32. Stock bolt washer
33. Stock bolt
34. Lever lock—safety
35. Lever lock tension spring
36. Lever bushing
37. Lever lock pin
39. Lever bushing screw
42. Sear screw nut
43. Carrier spindle support
45. Carrier spring
46. Carrier spindle
47. Carrier spindle head
48. Carrier spindle nut
49. Rear sight
50. Rear sight step
51. Carrier spindle head screw
52. Pistol grip cap
53. Pistol grip cap screw
55. 8altplate screw (2)
sequently eliminated from consideration during the course of the trials, but this did not deter Savage from offering an improved version of his rifle on the commercial market in 1895.
The original test rifles submitted to the Ordnance board were of hammer-less, solid-breech construction, with an open finger lever and a 9-round-capacity rotary magazine. The Model 1895 commercial type had a 6-round magazine with, a closed-loop finger lever. The Model 1895 rifle was made for the Savage Repeating Arms Co. of Utica, N. Y., by the Marlin Firearms Co. of New Haven, Conn. It was offered in both military and sporting type with only limited production of the former. Both models were chambered for the .303 Savage smokeless powder cartridge, which is ballistically similar to the .30-30 Winchester.
'Iho Savage Arms Co. was subsequently incorporated in 1897, and in January of 1899 offered the Savage Repeating Rifle Model 1899 in cal. .303 Savage only. Capacity of the rotary magazine was 5 rounds. An interesting feature was the magazine indicator which told at a glance how many rounds remained in the magazine. The numbers on the brass indicator were visible through a small port on the left side of the receiver.
The manual safety just in rear of the trigger guard loop locks the finger lever shut and blocks the trigger when en
gaged. A hinged bar in the front of the breech bolt was actuated by the firing pin to provide visual and tactile indication when the action was cocked. This feature was an improvement over the Model 1895 which had a round observation hole in the top of the breech bolt, opening into the firing pin well. It was thus possible to visually note whether the rifle was cocked or not, but dirt, rain, or snow could enter the port.
The Model 1899 was immediately popular with sportsmen throughout the world, and through the years has become the mainstay in the Savage firearms line. Changes in the basic action have been minor. The hinged bar cocking indicator was eventually dropped in favor of a small pin protruding through the upper receiver tang, and rear end of
ITo disassemble the Model 99, unscrew 2 buttplate screws (55) and lift away butt-plate (54). Then, using a long-shanked screwdriver, remove stock bolt (33) and stock bolt washer (32). Pull stock away from receiver (2). It may be necessary to tap the stock using palm of the hand. Caution: Tap stock straight to rear to avoid splitting. At this point, all working parts are exposod and accessible for cleaning, lubrication, etc.
4 Next, using a flat-nosed punch, drift out trigger pin (31). This allows trigger (38) to be removed. Use a plastic dish or tray to hold disassembled parts to preclude their loss
2 To further disassemble, remove breech bolt stop screw (29), breech bolt stop (30), trigger spring screw (27), and trigger spring
5 Continue disassembly by removing lever bushing screw (39). Use a proper-size screwdriver to avoid burring screw. After lever bushing (36) has been pushed out, lever may be lifted free from underside of receiver
3 Open action with a downward motion of lever (41). Breech bolt (16) may now be removed by sliding it slightly rearward and thence loft. Automatic cutoff (14) and automatic cutoff spring (15) will fall out at this time.
(Lever not shown in drawing for clarity)
6 Remove sear screw nut (42) with a split-bladed screwdriver. Sear screw (9) and sear (40) may now be removed. It is not recommended that any of the carrier assembly bo removed because of precise adjustment required to reinsert it breech bolt was changed from square to rounded contour. Both solid-frame and takedown models have been made in many grades. It was the first commercial rifle (1912) to be chambered for a high-velocity cal. .22 cartridge, the .22 Savage Hi-Power. It was also the first commercial rifle chambered for the .250-3000 Savage cartridge introduced in 1913. This cartridge drove its 87-gr. bullet at the then unheard of velocity of 3000 f.p.s.
The Model 1899 has been offered in several other calibers, including .25-35 Winchester, .30-30 Winchester, .32-40 Winchester, and .38-55 Winchester. At one time an auxiliary .410 shotgun barrel was furnished for takedown models. The .410 shotshells were loaded singly into the breech as they would not function through the magazine.
The Savage Model 99 is currently offered in .243 Winchester, .250-3000 Savage, .300 Savage, .308 Winchester, and .358 Winchester calibers in solid-frame styles only. Current factory designation is Savage Model 99 Hi-Power Lever Action Rifle.
7 Remove firing pin-hammer assembly from breech bolt and unscrew hammer bushing screw (21). Assembly may then be withdrawn-from breech bolt. Caution: Hammer retractor spring (20) will drop out as the complote assembly is removed. When reassembling, insert firing pin-hammer assembly into breech bolt to within W of rear bolt face, sembling, insert firing pin-hammer assembly of the hammer assembly may be necessary to seat hammer retractor spring properly. When in place hammer assembly will easily slide in rest of the way and spring will bear on protruding lip (A) of hammer bushing (23). (Hammer shown partially cut away for clarity)
8 Accomplish reassembly of Model 99 in reverse order. When reassembling, ensure that carrier spindle support (43) is proporly seated in receiver. Although the support is not removed, it may turn out of alignment when sear screw and other parts are removed—Mi
Savage Model 110 Rifle
The Model 110 bolt-action high power sporting rifle, introduced early in 1958 by Savage Arms Corp., was designed for simplicity of manufacture. Initial chamberings were in cals. .30-'06 and .270 Winchester. Its basic Mauser-type action with stag-gered-column box magazine cocks on opening of the bolt and is noteworthy for its clean functional design, provisions for handling gas, and ease of disassembly. An integral sleeve in rear of the barrel chamber completely shrouds the bolt face to reinforce the receiver ring in case-head area. Face of the bolt is deeply counterbored to enshroud the case head. A gas port between the locking lugs vents interior of the bolt and aligns with gas port in the receiver ring. Opposite side of receiver ring is also vented for escape of gas. A double-lug front baffle on the bolt in rear of the front locking lugs blocks the locking lug slots in the receiver when bolt is closed. Rear of the bolt is capped by a large screw to prevent rearward escape of gas from interior of bolt.
The tang safety locks both bolt and trigger when engaged. By lifting bolt and then engaging safety, cartridges in the magazine can be functioned through the action and ejected without fear of accidental discharge. Another feature of interest is the cocking indicator on right side of receiver bridge which elevates automatically when action is cocked, but drops when rifle is discharged. Magazine capacity of the Model 110 is 4 rounds, but when a round is in the chamber, cartridge capacity is 5.
In late fall of 1958 a short-action version designated Model 110 MC was introduced. It was initially chambered for cals. .243 and .308 Winchester, and was mechanically identical to the Model 110 except for the slightly shorter action.
In 1959, left-hand versions of both short- and long-action models were announced under the designation of Model 110 MC-L. These versions were mechanically identical to corresponding right-hand models except for reversal of the bolt.
1 Commence disassembly of Savage Model 110 by removing bolt assembly from receiver by depressing cocking indicator and holding back on trigger while withdrawing bolt assembly. Remove front and rear floorplate screws (37) and (40), which will permit the floorplate (35), floorplate insert (36), magazine follower (38), and magazine spring (39) to be lifted away from bottom of gun and complete barrel and receiver assembly to be lifted away from the stock. Continue by pushing out sear pin (13-arrow) from right to left. Pull down on front end of trigger bracket (17) and unhook back end from receiver (10). Sear (16), sear spring (15), and sear bushing (14) may be removed at this time. Disassembly of trigger mechanism is immediately apparent
2 To remove magazine box (29), push down and back on magazine latch (30), disengaging hooks on lower edge of magazine box. Ejector (31) and ejector spring (32) are removed concurrent with removal of latch. Pull magazine box back and lift front end up above receiver and push box forward and away
3 Disassemble bolt group by (A) removing bolt assembly screw (65) using coin as a screwdriver. Cocking piece sleeve (62) will be withdrawn as screw is removed, and (B) cocking piece pin (53) will drop out of bolt together with firing pin unit, which will also drop out by tapping rear of bolt body (52). Remove bolt handle (63) and rear baffle (54)
5 Next, drift out bolt head retaining pin (49) and lift bolt head (48), front baffle (50), and front baffle friction washer (51) away from bolt body (52)
4 Remove mainspring (59) by unscrewing cocking piece (61) and removing cocking piece lockwasher (60). Do not disturb striker stop nut (56) as this nut is adjusted at the factory to give correct firing pin protrusion
6 Remove extractor (47), using a small screwdriver, by exerting a slight pressure out and counterclockwise on opposite end (small arrow) from large extracting lip. Reassemble in reverse order. To replace bolt in receiver, it mu«t first be cocked. Accomplish this by placing cocking piece pin (53) against the edge of a square block, pushing down and rotating counterclockwise. This operation can be avoided by assembling bolt with cocking piece pin in rear (cocked) position. Hold back on trigger when inserting bolt in receiver ■
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