In 1925, Winchester Repeating Arms Co., New Haven, Conn., announced production of the Winchester Model 54 bolt-action rifle chambered for the revolutionary cal. .270 WCF cartridge. Both rifle and cartridge were immediately successful. The action design of the Model 54 was basically that of the Mauser 98. It had a one-piece bolt with dual front locking lugs, cock-on-opening action, and a Mauser-type staggered-column, integral box-magazine. The Model 54 was made in several grades and chamberings, and in both sporting and target styles.
In 1937 the Model 54 was displaced by the Model 70 bolt-action rifle incorporating several improvements, including an independent bolt stop, hinged floorplate, speed-lock ignition, forged-steel trigger guard, and a better stock design. The Model 70 also featured a safety permitting installation of low-mounted scope sights, and a single-stage trigger of superior design. The bolt handle was redesigned for lowest possible scope mounting and the knob positioned opposite the trigger for maximum effectiveness in rapid-fire.
Since its introduction the Model 70 has achieved an enviable reputation throughout the world. Many consider it to be the finest factory-made bolt-action rifle. It has been produced in a variety of styles for target and sporting purposes. The list of chamberings ranges from the tiny .22 Hornet through the 458 Winchester Magnum.
It is currently available in cals. .220 Swift, .243 Winchester. .264 Winchester Magnum, .270 Winchester, .308 Winchester. .30-'06, .300 H&H Magnum. .338 Winchester Magnum, .375 H&H Magnum, and .458 Winchester Magnum. Obsolete chamberings are .22 Hornet, .250 Savage, .257 Roberts, 7 mm. Mauser, 7.65 mm. Mauser, 9 mm. Mauser, .358 Winchester, and .35 Remington.
A development of the post World War II period is the Featherweight model with aluminum-alloy trigger guard, floorplate, and buttplate, and lightened barrel and stock.
Although the basic Model 70 action design has remained virtually unchanged since its introduction, there have been numerous changes in styles, models, and available calibers.
To remove receiver (1) and barrel (3) from buttstock. remove forearm stud screw (5). magazine cover hinge plate screw
(44), magazine cover assembly complete with magazine spring (40) and follower (39), and front and rear guard bow screws (49-50). Lift receiver and barrel out of buttstock carefully. Remove guard bow
(45) from buttstock.
Receiver parts—ejector (23). bolt stop (28), trigger (30), sear (35) with respective springs—are all easily removed from receiver by drifting out their appropriate pins. Bolt stop plunger (26) and spring (27) are removed from hole at left rear of receiver after removing bolt stop. Assembly is accomplished in reverse order. To facilitate correct reassembly, care should be taken to keep springs and pins in order.
2. Receiver plug screws
2A. Metallic sight base plug screws (in left of receiver—not shown here)
4. Forearm stud
5. Forearm stud screw
6. Rear sight assembly (Lyman shown here —various types available)
7. Front sight (various types available)
8. Breech bolt
9. Extractor ring
11. Firing pin spring
12. Firing pin sleeve
13. Firing pin
14. Breech bolt sleeve
15. Safety lock (old style)
16. Breech bolt sleeve lock
17. Breech bolt sleeve lock spring
18. Breech bolt sleeve lock pin
19. Firing pin stop screw
20. Safety lock plunger
21. Safety lock plunger spring
22. Safety lock stop pin
24. Ejector spring
25. Ejector pin
26. Bolt stop plunger
27. Bolt stop plunger spring
28. Bolt stop
29. Trigger pin
31. Triggei stop screw nut
32. Trigger stop screw
33. Trigger spring
34. Trigger spring adjusting nuts (2)
36. Sear spring
37. Sear pin
39. Magazine follower
40. Magazine spring
41. Magazine cover
42. Magazine cover hinge plate
43. Magazine cover hinge pin
44. Magazine cover hinge plate screw
45. Guard bow
46. Magazine cover catch
47. Magazine cover catch spring
48. Magazine cover catch pin
49. Front guard bow screw
50. Rear guard bow screw
Note—Buttstock, buttplate, screws, various sling swivels available, and remaining standard buttstock fittings are omitted for clarity
2 Turn extractor (10) to position shown and push forward, releasing extractor from lips of extractor ring (9)
"safe" and "fire". Then remove bolt, depress breech bolt sleeve lock (16), and unscrew percussion assembly from breech bolt and move safety lock to "fire" position
to rear slightly. Turn firing pin sleeve Va turn in either direction as shown and allow sleeve (12) and spring (11) to come forward, taking care to avoid letting the tightly compressed spring get away. Remove spring and sleeve from firing pin. Breech bolt sleeve (14) can be removed from firing pin by unscrewing firing pin stop screw (19). Reassembly is accomplished in reverse order ■
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