Interchange of automatic pistol barrels

Probably most of such interchanges in military type pistols occur unintentionally. In the case of such pistols, particularly those which are used for training purposes, very few keep their original barrels. Intentional interchange is sometimes practiced by the criminal. Such interchanges have taken place, even during the course of a murder trial. In the Sacco-Vanzetti case it was discovered that such a substitution had been made. Fortunately, a Commonwealth expert had made a photograph of the...

Early Unique models

Undated booklets issued by the factory at some time prior to World War 11 give short descriptions of the eleven models which had been developed. These models are given catalog numbers which are not consistent with the dates of introduction of the various models. Obviously model designations were not assigned to each model at the time of its introduction, but were chosen at some later date for the probable purpose of identification of the different types available to the customer and to assist...

Info

Muzzleloader Identification Markings

Czech Automatic Pistols, published privately by Harry Wandrus and John Griebl. (Used by permission.) Fig. 143. 7.65 mm. Czech Mod. 27. Provided with silencer. Fig. 143. 7.65 mm. Czech Mod. 27. Provided with silencer. Fig. 144. Czech and German markings on Czech Pistole Modell 27. No. 1 (Top) Late in World War II, during German occupation. No. 2 Early World War II, during occupation. No. 3 Original Czech markings, to 1939. No. 4 Same as No. 1, except dull finish was used. Fig. 144. Czech and...

Markings on the cartridge

Cartridges, especially those fired in automatic or repeating firearms, often show repetitive marks which are useful in the identification of the type (and sometimes the make) of weapon used and of the individual arm when test cartridges fired in it are compared with an evidence cartridge. Impressions that are made by file marks, tool marks, or other inequalities on the surface of the breechblock when a shell sets back against it under high pressure are likely to be more reproducible than marks...

Replacement of a firing pin

Such replacements are not difficult to make in the case of most automatic pistols, but are more difficult in some other types of arms. The author has had one such case involving a rifle. A game warden who was in a tree making a deer survey was shot by a hunter who mistook him for a bear. Upon discovering his mistake the hunter ran away. No bullet was recovered but a fired rifle shell was found in the vicinity of the shooting. While the firing pin impression was a good one, other markings, such...

Chinese pistols

Excellent copies of the Mauser Military Pistol have been made in China, and apparently in considerable numbers. These were produced in at least two arsenals-the Hanyang Arsenal and the Shansei Province Arsenal-and they may have been made 3 at others. Those made at the Shansei Arsenal seem to be the ones most frequently encountered in the U.S., and they appear in both the 7.63 mm. Mauser and the .45 Colt calibers. They always are marked with Chinese characters. These indicate the Type (or Model)...

Reproducibility of measurements made by the rifling meter

Table No. 3 shows the reproducibility of measurements obtainable by the use of the rifling meter for a rifled barrel that has a uniform twist and is in very good condition. Frequently the twist is not uniform throughout the length of the barrel and in such cases (with exceptions noted below) an average is taken. Occasionally one portion of a barrel will show good, uniform rifling and another portion will show irregularities due to wear, corrosion, or faulty rifling. In such cases the...

Smith and Wesson automatics

S& W Model 1913-The great popularity of the automatic pistol in the early part of the century resulted in a plethora of designs and models. Arms manufacturers were naturally anxious to cash in on this increasing demand for something new. Among the resulting productions was the .35 caliber S& W automatic which was based on patents acquired from Charles Ph. Clement of Liege, Belgium. just why this poorly designed pistol was chosen as a starting point is not known, but it may have been...

Roth Sauer pistol

This 7.65 mm. pistol was manufactured by J. P. Sauer u. Sohn in Suhl, Germany. It was invented by Georg Roth of Vienna, Austria, and appeared on the market in about 1905. The arm is based on patents issued in 1898, but it also has features which appeared in an earlier pistol designed by Karel Krnka in 1895. The cartridge, known generally as the RothSauer cartridge, but also as the Roth-Frommer in Hungary, is identical except for powder loading to a cartridge developed by Frommer for his Mod....

No gun identifications

Positive identifications of firearms that have led to the solution of major crimes have been made in cases where no suspect gun was found. In some instances fired cartridges, either known to have been fired by the suspect on a previous occasion in a gun which belonged to him or found in the possession of a suspect, have been instrumental in solving the case. In other cases a bullet known to have been fired by the suspect from a firearm known to have belonged to him (or to have been in his...

Rifling specifications

The following tables of rifling specifications are by no means complete, but they do cover a very large number of rifled arms that the firearms examiner is likely to encounter. While this book is devoted mainly to hand guns it was thought desirable to include rifling specifications for many rifles as well, since they are frequently used in the commission of crimes. As pointed out in the text, it must be remembered that specifications represent an ideal rather than an actual accomplishment. In a...

Method of measurement

A number of instruments have been used by various investigators for the measurement of the widths of land and groove impressions on fired bullets, such as the filar micrometer, measuring microscope, traveling microscope (comparator ), tool maker's microscope, etc. (3, 4) (Fig. 84). All of these have been tried out in the author's laboratory, and reasonably satisfactory measurements can be made with any of them on bullets fired from new guns, where the edges of the land impression will usually...

Imprint of the Breech End o f the Barrel

If we examine the shell head from both sides, beginning at the extractor mark, we come upon the deformations on the forward face (edge) of the shell rim mentioned in the first part of this article, provided the cylindrical part of the shell fits far enough into the chamber so that the shell head is flush with the breech end of the barrel. Strangely this latter condition does not exist in the case of most Spanish pistols, and in the case of the Mann Pistols (calibers 6.35 and 7.65) the cartridge...

Re filing or reshaping the firing pin

Such changes could be made and the possibility should be kept in mind. Many firing pins have definite identifying characteristics which can be removed very easily by filing or by a little work with an emery cloth. Here again a bright surface would be suspicious but the brightness can be very easily removed. If one had to depend wholly on firing pin impressions this might be a useful technique for the criminal, but, fortunately, we usually have other markings on a fired shell which are even...

Degree o f twist o f the rifling

In the degree of twist of the rifling one again finds a great variation from manufacturer to manufacturer. Many revolvers made a great many years ago had much less twist than those made currently. Quite a number of makes used a twist of over 30 inches (for one complete turn of the rifling), and some even more. An Iver Johnson American Bull Dog had one turn in 40.9 inches a New Colt 38 had one in 48.3 inches Col. Le Mat's Pat. Rev., one in 55.7 a Maynard Tape Primer revolver, one in 88.8 a Colt...

Remington pistols

Model 51-The Remington automatic pistols, manufactured by the well known Remington firm of Ilion, N.Y., which has operated under various names since its founding in 1816 by Eliphalet Remington, were based on designs originating with John D. Pedersen. His first patent application relating to automatic pistols was filed on July 30, 1915, and was renewed on July 17, 1919. The basic patent was issued on August 3, 1920, and bears Pat. No. 1,348,733. Several additional patents were issued in 1920,...

Firing a bullet through a bulged barrel

Bulges in a barrel frequently occur when there is already some object in the barrel, such as a cleaning rag or a previously fired bullet which did not clear the barrel. Several such barrels have come to the author's laboratory-one with a lodged bullet still in the barrel. Because of the increase in diameter in the region of the bulge, a bullet fired through a bulged barrel will lose firm contact with the rifling and after passing the bulge the lands and grooves already impressed on the bullet...

Automatic Pistolstar Patent For The Cartridge Made In Spain

This pistol was evidently made after 1911 and before 1919, as it does not have the method of disassembly present on the 1919 Type. A Star pistol quite similar in design, but differing in some respects, bearing the Serial No. 58,276 has exactly the same inscription as that shown in the ALFA illustration of 1911. This, as will be shown, is a 1919 Type, credited to Bonifacio Echeverria. It appears that there may have been a firm operating under the name Julian Echeverria y Orbea and that this firm...

Sharp Shooter and Joloar pistols

The Sharp Shooter automatic pistols were of a simple blowback type which followed the design shown in Spanish Patent No. 68,027. The JO-LO-AR pistols are of the same design and bear the same patent number, with the addition of Spanish Patent No. 70,235. The former patent covers the design of the pistol, while the latter covers the addition of a cartridge case extractor, which was granted to Jose de L. Arnaiz on September 12, 1919. It is conjectured that the name JO-LO-AR was derived from the...

T

Rhodesian Rifles

Disassembled. Fig. 157. M.A.S. 1925 Mod. No. 1. Disassembled. Fig. 158. 7.65 mm. French Service Pistol Type A No. 4. Fig. 158. 7.65 mm. French Service Pistol Type A No. 4. Fig. 159. French Service Pistol M1935-A. Partially disassembled. Fig. 159. French Service Pistol M1935-A. Partially disassembled. Fig. 160. French Service Pistol M1935-A. Sectional view. Fig. 160. French Service Pistol M1935-A. Sectional view. Fig. 163. 7.65 mm. Long. French Service Pistol...

Electrolytic Etching Firearms Identification

The final conclusions were that solutions Nos. 2, 8, 9, 10, and 11 can be used successfully on cold rolled steel. Solutions 1, 2, 3, and 5 will give good results on cast steel. When No. 3 is used the metal has to be immersed in the solution and the solution boiled to get good etching. This often cannot be done, so No. 3 is not recommended. Solutions Nos. 2, 3, 4, and 10 can be used successfully on malleable cast steel. No solution found to date is equally good for all of the different kinds of...

Mannlicher pistols

Mannlicher rifles, designed by Ferdinand Ritter von Mannlicher (born in 1848), have long been known as among the most excellent of their time. They date back to about 1878 in design and 1880 in manufacture. Mannlicher soon became interested in the idea of producing a military weapon that would be automatic and in 1885 he brought out a light machine gun which embodied several of the features that later appeared in his first automatic pistol made in 1894. Many of his original conceptions appear...

MAB pistols

The M.A.B. automatic pistols, made by Manufacture d'Armes Automatiques of Bayonne, France, are patterned after the Browning models. They are well made and are quite popular in the U.S. Production began in 1921, and up to and including World War II pistols were made in 6.25, 7.65, and 9 mm. Short (ACP) calibers. Following the war a .22 caliber model was brought out and some larger-caliber models were also added. For a considerable period during World War II the plant was operated under the...

Restoration of serial numbers

Occasionally guns found at or near the scene of a shooting or taken from a suspect will have had the serial number removed either by filing or, less frequently, by grinding. The serial numbers on stolen guns are also frequently removed. The practice of removing serial numbers is not as popular among criminals as it once was as they have now learned that their efforts are futile. Fortunately, when occasion demands, there are methods whereby numbers which have been removed can often be restored...

Widths of lands and grooves

The widths of lands and grooves show a great variation, even for guns having the same number of grooves. Here again each reputable manufacturer has adopted certain specifications and tolerances but often these appear to be window dressing as they are not always closely followed, and, indeed, some manufacturers appear not to have had any specifications to be followed. This question of widths is dealt with at length in a later chapter. Suffice it to say here that some guns have grooves and lands...

Patent L Yovanovitch Model

There are no proof marks or other markings. As to rifling, the pistol has 6 grooves, right hand twist, with one turn in 8.4 inches. The bore diameter is 0.3508, groove diameter 0.3590, and land width 0.045 inches. All the above data were taken from one specimen (No. 3344), the rifling of which was in good condition. It is said that a substantial order for pistols was obtained from Haile Selassie of Ethiopia in 1954 and that these were made and delivered. This statement has not been confirmed,...

Other markings

Other marks should always be looked for. Defects in the chamber where the cartridge lies at the moment of explosion will sometimes produce repetitive marks on the side of a brass shell. Sometimes these marks are only bulges rather than marks that have distinctive character, but they should be looked for. On the other hand, marks which do have a distinct individuality are sometimes found. The imprints made by the lips of magazine clips in auto loading arms may at times be useful. Usually,...

Some general observations regarding bullets

Before the advent of smokeless powder, plain lead or lead hardened by the addition of small amounts of antimony or tin (or both) was used for bullet making. But with the higher velocities attainable with this new powder, metal fouling became a serious problem, and this led to the use of surface coating of the lead bullets with some harder metal. Bullets for low powered .22 cal. rifles are still made of plain lead alloy, or they may have an extremely thin protective coating of copper or of some...

Erfurt Lukon Purku

The description of the ejector marks introduces us to the characteristic imprints to be found on the shell head. We shall first discuss the pistols equipped with special ejectors. Whenever an examination of the imprints on the shell head is undertaken, it is essential to determine first the exact position of the shell at the time of firing. Usually it will be possible to do this, as explained above, on the basis of the extractor and chamber rim marks. In the discussion which follows, we shall...

Experimental types

Firearms Nomenclature Diagrams

A pistol about which very little seems to be known is that developed by Tomisiro Komuro, of Tokyo, in the period 1905-06. These were supposedly chambered for the 7.65 mm. Browning cartridge. A few hundred specimens were made, presumably in the period 1906-1910. The fact that specimens vary in construction details from specimen to specimen suggests that they were never made on a production basis, but probably were handmade. None of these seem to have appeared in this country before World War I...

1930 Sauer Duralium

Sauer pistol was the first to be brought out and is properly called the 1913 Modell as it was introduced in that year. It frequently is referred to as the Old Model. As a matter of fact, no model designation was assigned to it until early in the 1920's, when a smaller version of the same model appeared in 6.35 caliber (Fig. 241). The 1913 Mod. is characterised by its rather unique appearance. The barrel is housed in a rather large tube or cylinder, with a spiral recoil...

Rifling pitch on fired bullet

The measurement of rifling pitch on a fired bullet is difficult at best, and it is impossible unless the bullet is in very good condition. The chief difficulty is to ascertain precisely the axis of the bullet. If the bullet is mutilated or deformed at all, as lead bullets usually are and jacketed bullets too frequently are, the measurement of rifling angle cannot be made with the precision necessary to be of any value. For a bullet that is in near perfect condition a satisfactory measurement...

Mauser blowback pistols

The first Mauser patents on blowback type pistols date from 1907, and many patents were taken out from 1907 to 1915. Work on a fixed-barrel type of arms was first done on rifles in 1907, but in 1908 interest had shifted to experimental work on a hand gun of this type. Mauser's first attempt was to produce a military pistol in 9 mm. Parabellum caliber, and this resulted in a pistol designated as Modell 1909. Although an instruction book was issued, indicating that the pistol was expected to meet...

Pistole Nambu Seisakusho

The three standard military pistols used by the Japanese, all of which were of 8 mm. caliber, were the Nambu (designed in 1904), the Nambu Type 14 (1925), and the Nambu Type 94 (1934). A 7 mm. nonstandard type, to be discussed later, was also used to some extent by officers. Japanese pistols naturally are marked in Japanese, either in words or symbols (the latter being used to designate arsenals). The Japanese characters appearing on the right side of the receiver on the Nambu (1904), reading...

Table

Catalog data for Mikros-1958 Model pistol *Note that dimensions and weights are stated to be the same in spite of the difference in bore. The 1958 is designated the K Model, the .22 being the Ke and the 6.35 the Kn. Having an external hammer adds a measure of safety, as the position of the hammer indicates whether the gun is or is not cocked. Furthermore the pistol can be carried uncocked with a cartridge in the chamber, and can be cocked and fired with one hand. In case of a misfire the gun...

Principles involved

While there are many questions that come up in firearms investigations, the two that come up most frequently are (1) What kind of a gun was used, and (2) was this particular gun used Both of these questions involve a study of the markings which are left on the fired bullet or cartridge, or both. On each there will be two types of markings repetitive and accidental. The accidental markings may have some relation to the investigation (instances of which will be mentioned later) but are of no...

Principles and theory

The accuracy of flight of a fired bullet depends to a considerable degree on its velocity, rate of spin, shape, and the perfection of that shape. If anything happens to deform the bullet or to make it at all imperfect in shape its flight will not be true. When a cartridge is fired in a revolver the bullet jumps forward and acquires a very considerable velocity before it encounters the rifling which, presenting a curved contour, produces a change in direction. When the bullet strikes the rifling...

Sauer pistols

Sohn, of Suhl, Germany, in 1900 brought out a unique 4-shot repeating pistol of 7 mm. caliber, which was patented not only in Germany but also in Belgium, England, the U.S., and Russia. This pistol evidently became very popular in Europe. Their first venture into the field of automatic, or self-loading, pistols appears to have been in connection with the production of the Roth-Sauer, one of two pistols designed by G. Roth of Vienna. The larger model, known as the Roth II was made...

Measurements o f land widths in a DWM Luger automatic

A series of six bullets which had been fired from a D.W.M. Luger, dated 1916, serial No. 3837-a, were measured to ascertain the reproducibility of land widths. The land impressions on the test bullets were very clean cut, and, consequently, very satisfactory measurements could be made. The average width of the four land impressions on each of the six test bullets was 0.1136 inch, with the largest deviations being 0.0002 and -0.0003 inch. The ammunition used was 7.65 mm. Luger, Remington...

Discussion

Bradford and Brackett 3 have pointed out that when the distance between the two edges of a groove on a bullet is measured by the optical method, one measures a distance on a plane surface and not actually the curved distance following the contour of the bullet which they consider to be the true width of the groove. They give a formula whereby the difference can be calculated and a series of curves showing the corrections for various groove widths on bullets from .22 to .45 cal. In the case of...

The comparison camera

Those who for years have had occasion to use a comparison microscope for the examination of bullets and other objects know how very tiring such examinations may become. Not only are they tiring, but they are productive of eyestrain. Both of these difficulties disappear with the use of the comparison camera 1 - the basic idea of which was suggested by May and by Lewis. The operator sits in a comfortable position looking directly ahead at images on a large ground-glass screen. The images are...

Mller pistol

Though this pistol was never put on the market, and perhaps not more than a dozen prototype models were made, it is an arm that is of interest to collectors. No law enforcement officers are ever likely to encounter one. It was designed and patented by Bernhard M ller of Winterthur, Switzerland, and the models were constructed in ca. 1902 to 1907 Fig. 219 . A specimen was submitted to the Swiss for Army Trials in 1904, but it was rejected. In U.S. Army Trials made in 1905 it suffered a similar...

Franz Stock Pistol

The Stock pistols, made by Franz Stock of Berlin, Germany, are of a simple blowback type They came out in the early 1920's in all three calibers .22, 6.35 mm., and 7.65 mm. The first two to be produced were evidently the 6.35 mm. and the 7.65 mm. as they are the only ones mentioned in the 1923 edition of Bock. The AKAH Catalog issued in March 1925, however, shows all three as being available Fig. 261 . The pistol has a fixed barrel. The slide, which extends the entire length of the barrel, has...

Bergmann Early types

Theodor Bergmann was one of the first to produce a practical automatic pistol, the actual inventor of which was Louis Schmeisser, however. In the period 1892 to 1905 many designs were produced and the pistols were manufactured at Bergmann's Industriewerke at Gaggenau Baden , Germany. These early Bergmann pistols are now collectors' items of very considerable value because only a few guns were made in many of the designs produced some even being practically prototypes and because by 1907 the...

Rmer pistol

The R mer was made by the R merwerk Aktien Gesellschaft of Suhl, Germany, in the mid-1920's. It was provided with two interchangeable barrels with lengths of ca. 21 2 to 3 inches and ca. 61 2 inches. Different specimens show variations in lengths. Interchangeability of barrels enabled one to convert the pistol quickly from a pocket pistol to one for target use. Some specimens will be found to have an adjustable front sight for the longer barrel. A 26-inch barrel has been reported but not...

Introduction

Firearms identifications are of interest to those engaged in law enforcement and to gun collectors, but from quite different points of view. The law enforcement officer is chiefly concerned with bringing to justice persons who have committed crimes, while the collector is interested in guns because of a fascination that only a gun collector can fully understand. Both need to know all that they can learn about firearms and it is hoped that the material here presented will be useful to both...

DWM pocket pistol

The D.W.M. pocket pistol was brought out by the Deutsche Waffen u. Munitionsfabrik of Berlin late in 1921 and was given the official nomenclature Pistole D.W.M. Modell 22, but the following year the name was changed to Pistole D.W.M. Modell 23, although the only apparent change was in the introduction of hard rubber grip pieces instead of plain wood pieces. Despite the official nomenclature the pistol is generally known, more simply, as the D.W.M. Pocket Pistol. Since the manufacture of...

Oriental pistols other than Japanese

Information concerning pistols of Oriental manufacture, other than those made in Japan, is meager and often conflicting. Most of the pistols made in the Orient, other than Japan, are copies of pistols made by Mauser, Fabrique Nationale, and, occasionally, Colt. While there are many copies of the Mauser and F.N. there are but few of the Colt. The author has seen a quite good imitation of the .45 U.S. Army Model 1911A which was made at the Pusan Jin Iron Works in Pusan, Korea. The barrel,...

Pitfalls for the unwary

Offhand judgments are nowhere more dangerous than in the field of firearms investigations, where the life or liberty of a person may be at stake, and the old adage that a little learning is a dangerous thing is nowhere better exemplified. Even those who have had years of experience frequently run into something new and unexpected. A good philosophy to adopt is to expect the unexpected. An investigator who knows all the answers is a very dangerous person Some, but by no means all, of the...

Schouboe pistols

This group of pistols originated in a design produced by Jens Theodor Suhr Schouboe, Technical Manager of the Dansk Rekyriffel Syndikat in Copenhagen, and for which he secured Danish Patent No. 6135 dated December 2, 1902. Although many changes and modifications were made in later years, it appears that he secured no further patents Figs. 248, 249 . Manufacture of the Schouboe pistols began with a 7.65 mm. pocket model intended for commercial sale. As there was little demand for it, less than...

Erma pistols

The ERMA pistols were made by the firm Erfurter Maschinen u. Werkzeugfabrik, B. Geipel, G.m.b.H., Abetilung Waffenfabrik. The name ERMA was derived from this name and came into common use for the firm itself as well as for its products. This firm made at least four different models of small-caliber .22 rifles, as well as the ERMA pistols. Two types of .22 cal. L.R. pistols were made, at different times. They are referred to as the Alte Modell and the Neues Modell. Both are of the fixed-barrel,...

Star Bonifacio Echeverria

The firm of Bonifacio Echeverria or STAR, Bonifacio Echeverria, S.A., as it is now known is one of three manufacturers who are now allowed to make automatic pistols in Spain. Their products have been widely and favorably known in many countries, including the United States, where they seem to be enjoying a wide sale. The early history of the company is not clear, and accurate information as to its early activities is difficult to get because all records were destroyed by fire in the Spanish...

The series military pistols

These are copies, for the most part, of the Mauser Military Pistols. While they appear to be much the same, there are in fact a number of changes. Commercial manufacture and sale date from ca. 1928 and were discontinued in the late 1930's. Model 900-Box magazine, 10 rounds, charger loaded, 7.63 mm. Mauser caliber. Model 902-Integral box magazine, 20 rounds, charger loaded, 7.63 mm. Mauser caliber. Model 903-10- or 20-round insert magazines, 7.63 mm. Mauser caliber. Model F-Similar to Mod. 903...

Gabilondo pistols

The name Gabilondo has been connected with the manufacture of firearms for over half a century and is well known the world over. It is one of three companies now permitted to make automatic pistols in Spain. It is also permitted to make revolvers. The original firm was founded in 1904 under the name of Gabilondos y Urresti-the plural being used because two families of cousins were involved. In 1909 the cousins separated and the name was changed to Gabilondo y Urresti, under which name the...

The Mayor Pistol

ACP pistol bearing the marking MAYOR ARQUEBUSIER is a simple blowback in design. It appeared in two forms as to slide construction. In the earlier form the slide was of one-piece construction extending the entire length of the pistol and having a portion of the upper part of the front end cut away for the upward ejection of the fired shell, the extractor being located at the top of the slide at the rear of the cut away portion. In the later form of the pistol the slide extends the...

Pistols other than the UNIQUEmade by the same firm

As has already been mentioned, pistols with names other than UNIQUE were manufactured, some for sale by the manufacturer and others to be sold by certain dealers. Mikros-The Mikros is an example of the former i.e., marketed by the manufacturer . It was made in both 6.35 and 7.65 mm. calibers, and was sold from 1934 until 1939. This pistol is quite different in design from the UNIQUE. The barrel and frame are integral, and the recoil spring is housed in a channel below the barrel. Some of the...

Mugica pistols

The Mugica automatic pistols are a product of Gabilondo y Cia., sold by Jose Cruz Mugica, a manufacturer of shotguns in Eibar. A 1958 communication from the former states that the Mugica is the same as the Llama produced specially for Mr. Mugica to fill an order from Siam. In 1951, however, the Mugica firm issued a four-page pamphlet describing in some detail several models of the Mugica pistol he was offering for sale. The three models illustrated all bear Mugica's markings, including his...

Campo Giro pistols

The count of Campo Giro Don Venancio Lopez de Ceballos y Aguirre was a widely known army officer and firearms designer at the turn of the century. The automatic pistols which bear his name originated around 1900. The earliest form, dating from 1904 to 1905 often referred to as Modelo 1904 , was a recoil-operated arm with an obliquetravel locking wedge housed below the barrel at the chamber. This 1904 Type or prototype was reportedly made at the Oviedo Arsenal Fab. de Armas Portatiles de Oviedo...

Le Page pistols

The firm now known as Manufacture d'Armes Le Page, S.A., of Liege, Belgium, was established in 1790 and has long been known as a manufacturer of fine quality shotguns, rifles, and revolvers. At the time of the annexation of Belgium by France under the rule of Napoleon there was created the Manufacture Imperial d'Armes de Guerre, which kept as a Government monopoly the manufacture of all military weapons. This naturally created a great handicap to independent firms who had been supplying such...

Glisenti pistols

Glisenti 1910 Assembly

The original Glisenti pistol was patented in Italy on June 30, 1905, by the Societa Siderurgica Glisenti, Carcina Brescia , Italy. It was manufactured by this firm from 1906 on and was originally called the Pistola Automatica Glisenti. The pistol was adopted by the Italian Army in 1906, as the Pistola Automatica M906, and at the time was chambered for the 7.65 mm, Parabellum cartridge, In 1909, however, it was decided to increase the caliber to 9 mm, and to use a weakly loaded Parabellum...

Determination of caliber from weight of bullet

The weight of a fired bullet may be useful in determining the caliber or probable caliber in those cases where, because of deformation, a measurement of diameter cannot be made. It is applicable only in those instances where it is clear that no appreciable amount of metal of the bullet has been lost. An extensive compilation of weights, calibers, and types of cartridges has recently been prepared at the H. P. White Laboratory and is reproduced here by permission. The information in Table A-20...

Zehna pistol

The Zehna pistol, of 6.35 mm. caliber, was designed by Emil Zehner in about 1919-1920 and prototype forms were made in 1920 and perhaps in early 1921. When commercially produced, in mid-1921, the pistol differed somewhat from the prototypes. It was manufactured by the Zehner Metallwarenfabrik at Suhl, Germany. While it appears to have been moderately successful its production seems to have ceased somewhere around 1928. It appears in the 1927 Genschow Catalog but is not in the 1928 edition. The...

Steyr pocket pistols

As has been stated elsewhere, Nicolas Pieper of Herstal, Belgium, took out patents on various designs of pocket pistols, some of which he manufactured and some of which were licensed to others. Among the latter, the pistols made by the Oesterreichische Waffenfabrik Gesellschaft at Steyr, Austria, are important. These were based on early Pieper patents, as is stated on every specimen. Patents on these pistols were taken out in England and in Switzerland, also. Pistols based on Pieper patents...

Tubular types

Astra pistols Models 300 and 300 1, 2, 3, 4 , 400, 600, and the 3000 series are of the tubular cross section Browning modification type and date from 1921 to 1948 in inception. The Campo Giro influence is evident. The 300 and 400 models were pre-World War II models, the 600 a war model, and the 3000 and 4000 series are of post-World War II origin. Model 400-Also known as the 1921 Military Model. This preceded Mod. 300. Several forms and modifications exist. Usually it will be found in 9 mm....

Webley pistols

The only English-made automatic pistols which have been produced in considerable numbers are those made by Webley and Scott, Ltd. of Birmingham and London. An experimental model was built in 1903, based on a design patented in the same year by W. J. Whiting Brit. Pat. No. 19,032 - 1903 . This pistol was of the locked-breech type with recoiling barrel, under which was a spiral recoil spring. Only a few specimens were made as it was not considered a success. Webley 1904 model-In 1904 Whiting...

Fiala magazine pistol

Fiala is a magazine pistol rather than an automatic, it closely resembles several of the .22 cal. automatics, including the early Colt, and it has some features found on automatics. Consequently, it seems worth while to include it in this chapter. The pistol was made by the Blakslee Forging Co. of New Haven, Conn., for the Fiala Arms and Equipment Co. of New Haven. It was introduced in 1920 and a total of 4044 pieces were made up to 1923, at which time manufacture ceased. The...

Savage pistols

The original design for the automatic pistol which later became known as the Savage, since its production was taken up by the Savage Arms Co. of Utica, N. Y., seems to have been the work of William Condit. The first development and prototype manufacture appear to have taken place in the first months of 1904. Later in that year Condit joined with Elbert H. Searle with whom further improvements were jointly made. By 1905 two distinctly different models had been produced in prototype form 1 a...

Walthers of foreign manufacture

Some time after the close of World War If, manufacture of the 7.65 mm. Mod. PP Walther was started by the firm Mre. de Machines du Haut Rhin at Mulhouse Bourtzwiller, France, under license from Walther Figs. 282, 283 . Later a .22 cal. model also appeared. These pistols seem to be of excellent quality, as would be expected if, as reported, they are produced under the supervision of Walther. In 1948 the manufacture of a copy of the 9 mm. Mod. PP Walther, known as the Kirikkale, was begun at the...

Helfricht pistols

These German pistols, which were also sold under the name Helkra, were reportedly patented by Hugo Helfricht of Zella-Mehlis, and were manufactured by Alfred Krausser of that city. The name Helkra no doubt was derived by combing the first three letters from the names Helfricht and Krausser. These pistols seem to have originated sometime around 1920. There appear to have been four models or, more properly, types, as no model designations seem to have been made before the appearance of Mod. 4,...

Browning Fabrique Nationale Blowback Series to

The Browning automatic pistol was patented in the U.S. on April 20, 1897, by John M. Browning, several patents being issued to him on that date. Soon thereafter the Fabrique Nationale D'Armes dc Guerre in Herstal, Belgium, secured a license to use the patents and to conduct its own development of a pistol based on the features covered by these patents. At the same time development work was proceeding at the Colt factory in the U.S. By 1898, F.N. had achieved an original design based on the...

Stock pistols

The Stock pistols, made by Franz Stock of Berlin, Germany, are of a simple blowback type They came out in the early 1920's in all three calibers .22, 6.35 mm., and 7.65 mm. The first two to be produced were evidently the 6.35 mm. and the 7.65 mm. as they are the only ones mentioned in the 1923 edition of Bock. The AKAH Catalog issued in March 1925, however, shows all three as being available Fig. 261 . The pistol has a fixed barrel. The slide, which extends the entire length of the barrel, has...

Robar pistols Jieffeco and Melior

The Jieffeco pistol was designed by H. Rosier and, in its first form, appeared in about 1910. It is advertised in the ALFA Catalog of 1911. An earlier form was designed by Rosier around 1906-07, but this did not come on the market. The Jieffeco pistols were made by Robar and DeKerkhove, in Liege, Belgium, under S.G.D.G. patent No. 24875. S.G.D.G. Patent Without Government Guarantee The brand name or mark Jieffeco was no doubt derived from the name Jannsen Fils et Cie., who owned it and for whom...

Identification Marks On Langenhan Air Pistols

Extractor marks made by automatic and repeating firearms can frequently be matched and often very effectively, as shown in several of the accompanying photographs Figs. 31 to 35 . In repeating guns, the depth of the impressions will vary considerably, depending on the vigor of the operator. Some guns will give excellent repetitive extractor marks while others will not. A loose extractor will give trouble. Some guns will produce well-defined ejector marks, but they are usually not as useful as...

Walther pistols

The Waffenfabrik Walther was founded by Carl Walther in Zella-Mehlis then known as Zella St. Blasii in the year 1886. Walther came from a long line of ancestors who had engaged in the manufacture of weapons. One ancestor, Matthias Konrad Pistor, established a weapons factory in 1745. For many years the principal products of the Walther factory were hunting arms and target rifles. In 1908, together with his cousin, Friederich Pickert a wellknown revolver manufacturer , and also assisted by his...

Tokarev Identification

Until the development of the Tokarev automatic pistol, the side arm used in Russia was the revolver, either the 7.62 mm. Nagant or the Belgian Pieper of the same caliber. These pistols are practically alike. The last Belgian contract expired some time in 1898 or 1899 and manufacture of the Nagant began at Tula in 1900. The Belgian numbering series was continued through 1917, when manufacture was interrupted. When it was resumed in 1921 a new numbering series, starting with No. 1, was instituted...

Warner pistols

The history of the Warner Arms Corporation is not entirely clear and its activities are relatively unimportant but do merit some consideration. F. B. Warner, then of Brooklyn, N. Y., imported and sold the German-made Schwarzlose 7.65 mm. pistol which had been patented by A. W. Schwarzlose on April 13 and August 24, 1909. Just when Warner began selling this pistol is not known, but it is stated on good authority that its manufacture was discontinued in 1912 and that the machinery, tools,...

P38 Cyg Manufacture

An auxiliary, insertable barrel was available for the 7.65 mm. models, which permitted the use of the 4 mm. Zielmunition 20 cartridges for target practice up to about 10 yards. Modell MP-This model was developed secretly as it was a distinct violation of the Versailles Treaty which forbade the making of pistols of larger caliber than 7.65 mm. Both of the principal manufacturers of automatic pistols in Germany, Mauser as well as Walther, were violating the...

Yugoslav pistols

The only manufacturer of pistols of any importance in Yugoslavia is the Voino Tekhnichki Zavod Army Technical Factory located at Kragujevac. It is not known when this firm originated, but it had been in operation many years before World War II. About 5000 workers were employed. During the war the Germans bombed the plant, but soon thereafter they rebuilt it and installed considerable modern German machinery, which was left behind when they retreated. Many foreign-made pistols had been imported...

Furor 7.65mm

Burgham Mars name used in several countries Cesar a Cesar was alsomade in Spain Perfect The great preponderance of 7.65 mm. pistols listed, coupled with the known popularity of the 6.35 size, leads one to suspect that the list is not complete as far as the 6.35 mm. pistols are concerned. Mod. E-2. Arrow points to lever which, when turned, releases automatic pistols. Top Model D-1. Middle Model E-2. Bottom

Bernardelli

The firm of Vincenzo Bernardelli, located at Gardone V.T., Italy, is one of the oldest manufacturers of Europe still in operation. It was founded in 1865 and has long enjoyed a reputation for fine workmanship. Bernardelli learned the art of firearms manufacture as an employee of the Franzini Arms Factory located in Gardone Val Trompia. This was one of the important factories of its day, and Bernardelli had become chief of the Damascus barrel division. In 1865 he had decided to set up his own...

How Deadly Is A Mab .25 Caliber Pistol

The M.A.B. automatic pistols, made by Manufacture d'Armes Automatiques of Bayonne, France, are patterned after the Browning models. They are well made and are quite popular in the U.S. Production began in 1921, and up to and including World War II pistols were made in 6.25, 7.65, and 9 mm. Short ACP calibers. Following the war a .22 caliber model was brought out and some larger-caliber models were also added. For a considerable period during World War II the plant was operated under the...

Identifying Sauer H38

Sauer pistol was the first to be brought out and is properly called the 1913 Modell as it was introduced in that year. It frequently is referred to as the Old Model. As a matter of fact, no model designation was assigned to it until early in the 1920's, when a smaller version of the same model appeared in 6.35 caliber Fig. 241 . The 1913 Mod. is characterised by its rather unique appearance. The barrel is housed in a rather large tube or cylinder, with a spiral recoil...

Bergmann Pocket Models

Bergmann blowback pistols of earlier type ceased about 1904. Inasmuch as it is reliably reported that the firm of V. Charles Schilling, long associated with Bergmann, actually made these pistols for Bergmann in the period 1896 to 1904, at which time the Schilling firm was taken over by H. Krieghoff, it seems a safe conclusion that these circumstances account for the cessation of production. Pistols of this type and vintage, bearing the name of Bergmann, are found...

The rifling meter

As has already been pointed out, workers in the field of firearms identification often have need of rifling data not presently available to them, either in textbooks, reference books, or from firearms manufacturers. Not infrequently a bullet is brought to the laboratory and the examiner is asked what kind of a gun should be looked for, there being no gun or suspect and perhaps even no known motive for the crime that has been committed. In such a situation it is obvious that the investigation of...

Bergmann Simplex

According to the best recent information, the pistol that later became known as the 8 mm. Bergmann-Simplex was first issued as the Bergmann Selbstlade Pistole Modell 1901 and was introduced sometime in the winter of that year. In its original form it had a longer barrel than the Simplex and the grip frame shape was like the earlier 1897 Bergmann. By 1901-1902 the Mod. 1901 was reduced to a pocket type, with shorter barrel and a rounded grip frame characteristic of the final Simplex pistol. It...

Ruger pistols

The Ruger pistols, made by Sturm, Ruger and Co., of Southport, Conn., are comparative newcomers in the field, having been first brought on the market in 1949. They are deservedly popular because of their simple design, excellent performance, and price. The pistol is characterized chiefly by having an exposed barrel, a true bolt action rather than the common slide construction, and a streamlined grip frame fabricated from sheet metal stampings. The bolt is cylindrical in shape and is housed in a...

Radom VIS pistol

Previous to 1935 the Polish Army had been supplied with a variety of side arms, including the F.N. Browning, Colt, Luger, Mauser, and Steyr automatic pistols and the Nagant revolver. For obvious reasons this was not desirable, and the army officials decided to standardize on a single weapon. Manufacturers were invited to submit specimens for official testing in 1935. The firms Breda, Mauser, Skoda, and two Polish engineers by the names of Wilniewczyc and Skrzypinski entered the competition. As...

Tokarev pistols

Until the development of the Tokarev automatic pistol, the side arm used in Russia was the revolver, either the 7.62 mm. Nagant or the Belgian Pieper of the same caliber. These pistols are practically alike. The last Belgian contract expired some time in 1898 or 1899 and manufacture of the Nagant began at Tula in 1900. The Belgian numbering series was continued through 1917, when manufacture was interrupted. When it was resumed in 1921 a new numbering series, starting with No. 1, was instituted...

Tauler Pistol For Sale

The Tauler automatic pistols were identical to certain models of the Llama series produced by Gabilondo y Cia. and were given special markings for sale by Senor Tauler of Madrid. Tauler was a gunsmith and in addition was an Olympic champion and at one time Captain of the Secret Police. Gabilondo agreed to supply pistols marked with the Tauler trade mark for those contracts and sales made by Senor Tauler to Spanish police departments and other government departments. The Tauler name or trade...

Reising pistol

This is a .22 caliber target pistol which was designed by Eugene G. Reising, a resident of East Hartford, Conn., to whom basic patents were issued on May 16, 1916, and October 25, 1921, according to inscriptions on the pistols. His first application relating to a new and improved trigger mechanism for automatic fire arms was filed on June 19, 1915. U.S. Pat. No. 1,183,115 was granted on this application on May 16, 1916. An application for a patent on a new and improved fire arm, actually...

Czech service pistols

Praga-The first service pistol made in Czechoslovakia was the Praga, a 7.65 mm. pistol made by Zbrojovka Praga. Just when production was started is not known, but very likely in 1919. All of the specimens seen by the author were marked as made in 1920 and 1921, the highest serial number being 6409 date on barrel, 22-12-21 . Production ceased by 1926 as the firm went out of business in that year. This pistol was a modification of the F.N. Browning Mod. 1910. The barrel had three lugs, and the...

Lahti pistols

Parabellum Lahti military pistol was designed by Aimo Johannes Lahti, who for some time was Chief of the Government Arsenal of Finland. He was an arms designer of note, having previously designed rifles and the Finnish machine gun. The pistol was designed shortly before 1935 and, since it was adopted as the Finnish service hand arm in 1935, it was given the nomenclature L-35. It was manufactured by Valtion Kivaari Tehdas State Rifle Factory at Jyvaskyla. The...

Rifling methods

Modern rifles, revolvers, and pistols have barrels which are rifled, i.e., they have spiral grooves in the inner surface, the purpose of which is to cause the bullet to acquire a rapid spin on its longitudinal axis, the gyroscopic effect of which keeps the bullet from yawing or tumbling in flight. This method of improving the accuracy of the flight of a bullet has been used for hundreds of years and no one knows just when the principle was first discovered. These grooves in the bore of the...

Ruby class or Eibar type

Around 1910 the Spanish firearms industry began the manufacture of a style of automatic pistol patterned after the blowback, internal-hammer design used by Fabrique Nationale in their Modele 1903 Browning and by the Colt Co. in the manufacture of their Hammerless Pocket Model of 1903. The Spanish imitations differed in minor points from model to model, but all of them preserved the characteristics which easily marked them as Browning imitations. The common design was a 5- or 7-round type, in...

Korovin Tula Pistol

This is a 6.35 mm. pistol designed by S. Korovin and manufactured at one of the Tula arsenals in the U.S.S.R. This particular aresenal armory or factory is the Tulski Oruzheiny Zavod Tula Weapons Factory and guns made there are frequently found to be marked with the letters Toz. It is believed that all of the Korovin pistols were made at this one factory and that they were intended for nonmilitary use, as attested by the fact that specimens are marked with a triangle having the letter T...

Kommer Waffenfabrik Zella-mehlis Pistole Kaliber

Four types or models of Kommer pistols made by the Theodor Kommer Waffenfabrik in Zella-Mehlis, Germany, are known. The dates at which these various models appeared are not known and no production figures are available. It does not seem likely, however, from such data as are at hand that the total production could have been very large. The first type, to which no model number was assigned, is shown in the AKAH A. Kind Catalog of 1922 and presumably appeared around 1920 or 1921. It is a 6.35 mm....

Le Francais pistols

The Le Francais series of automatic pistols, made by MANUFRANCE Manufacture Francaise d'Armes et Cycles de St. Etienne, France , are of considerable interest because of their novelty of design and quality of workmanship. Four models were produced, in three calibers the 6.35 mm. Modele de Poche Pocket Model , the 6.35 mm. Policeman, the 7.65 mm. Le Francais no other designation , and the 9 mm. Browning Long Le Francais designed for military or police use . The 6.35 mm. models were designed...

Fabrica De Armas Garantazadas

Made first at Hamada and later at Nagoya Arsenals Zehner Metallwarenfabrik E. Zehner Waffenfabrik Hispano Argentina Fabrica de Automoviles Manufacturers of revolvers and nonautomatic pistols Foreign-made revolvers and nonautomatic pistols Foreign-made revolvers and nonautomatic pistols Deane, Adams amp Deane and others in England Esperanza y Unceta, Unceta y Cia., Astra-Unceta y Cia. present name

Patent Haeussler Adlerwaffenwerke Engelbrecht And Wolff

The specimens examined Nos. 1231 and 1245 both bear the same monogram on the grip pieces. This shows an eagle with outstretched wings, a banner, two concentric circles beneath the banner in which appear the letters MHZ presumably for Max Hermsdorf, Zella , below which are the words FABRIK ZEICHEN Factory Mark . While it is not confirmed, it is believed that the pistol was actually made by Engelbrecht and Wolff for Max Hermsdorf, owner of the Adlerwaffenwerke, the contemplated distributor. The...

Pat Brevete Drgm

Bergmann Simplex

The letters D.R.G.M. stand for Deutsche Reich Gebrauch Muster i.e., the German Reich License for Use . The presence of the French word Brevete does not necessarily mean that the gun was not made in Germany as it does appear on pistols definitely known to have been made there-some early Bergmanns for example. The conclusion is that both may have been made in Belgium, and this is further borne out by the identity of all details in the grip monogram which consists of the word SIMPLEX. Admittedly,...