A study of the reproducibility of the measurement

The data recorded in Table 4 resulted from a study of the widths of land impressions on a series of lead bullets fired from a group of seventeen .38 Spl. S& W revolvers, all of which had seen extensive use prior to and after their purchase by the Berkeley, Calif., Police Department.* *These bullets were submitted by Mr. A. A. Biasotti, formerly with the Wisconsin Crime Laboratory and now at the Laboratory of Criminalistics, Office of the District Attorney of Santa Clara Co., San Jose, Calif....

Acknowledgment

To give credit to all the individuals and organizations that have been of assistance in furnishing information, firearms, and counsel during the several years in which material for this publication has been accumulating would be quite impossible. The data resulting from measurements and photographs of firearms (both made by me) could not have been obtained without the cooperation of a great many persons too numerous to mention individually. Such a list would include literally scores of my...

Additional markings and objects attached to fired bullets

Other things that happen to a bullet may be of use in special instances. Frequently when a lead bullet passes through cloth an impression of the weave will be found on the end of the bullet and this may be compared with those experimentally made by firing similar bullets from the suspect gun through the cloth under simulated conditions. This may indicate which of two or more bullets that were fired was the one that passed completely through a body-a very important point when two guns were...

An alternate method for measuring land impressions

A fairly satisfactory measurement of the width of a land impression on a fired bullet may be made by using a stage micrometer, graduated to read to 0.01 mm., in conjunction with a comparison microscope. The stage micrometer is a glass microscope slide, about 1 x 3 inches, upon which is engraved an accurate scale, in either the English or metric system, i.e., graduated to 0.001 inch or to 0.01 mm. The bullet is placed on one stage of the comparison microscope and the micrometer slide is mounted...

Axis of rotation method

Still another method was studied and the results were quite successful. Instead of making settings on the sides of the bullet, in the manner already described, to determine the axis of the bullet, a procedure of determining the axis of rotation was devised and the angles that the driving edge of the land impressions made with this axis of rotation were measured and averaged. The bullet is mounted as before and is centered in the same way. Then a fine straight quartz fiber (ca. 0.005 inch in...

Bore diameter and caliber

The term caliber ( nominal caliber would be a more proper term) refers to the diameter of the bore of a rifle, revolver, or pistol. It is not used in the case of shotguns, with the exception of the little .410. Actually it is a rather general term, as it does not, except in a few cases, actually describe the diameter of the bore. For example, taking data from a single manufacturer, the specified bore diameters at the muzzle for Colt automatic pistols and revolvers (as of 1945) are given in...

Center fire firing pin marks

Firing pins used in center fire guns frequently have a considerable degree of individuality also. The ends often have concentric rings made by the cutting tool that formed them and these are impressed in facsimile on the copper at the bottom of the firing pin impression. Inasmuch as these rings are different for all firing pins and since they can often be matched under the comparison microscope with their counterparts on test shells, they are always looked for. Some firing pins have ends that...

Class characteristics

It will be well at this point to discuss what are known as class characteristics, as the term applies to rifling. Class characteristics are those features which, because of the differences laid down in the specifications of different manufacturers, will (if actually followed in the processes of manufacture) often give a promising clue to the make and model of the gun from which the evidence bullet was fired. These characteristics are 1. The land (bore) and groove diameters 2. The direction of...

Collecting test bullets

Obviously it is important to collect test bullets in such a manner that additional marks will not be put on them after they leave the muzzle of the barrel. The most common procedure is to fire bullets from low powered guns into clean cotton waste, or into cotton batting. For high powered guns, such as many rifles, a better procedure is to fire them into oiled sawdust. The author uses a wooden box, 8 by 8 inches by 6 feet, set horizontally and open at the top. One end is also open and over this...

Components of the meter

The head-The head is not unlike the tail stock of a modern lathe (Fig. 75). It consists of a lead screw threaded left hand and actuated by a hand wheel. This lead screw is supported by a bronze bearing. Bronze was used because of the pressure that is necessary to start a disc or bullet down the barrel being tested. The lead screw actuates a steel ram, which has a narrow groove milled its entire length. A short spline in the front of the ram housing engages with this groove, thus preventing...

Confusion of serial numbers

In some cases serial numbers may be of considerable importance, such as in tracing ownership of a gun. The subject of restoration of serial numbers has been dealt with elsewhere in this book. Serial numbers should be examined with care so that alterations or additions that may have been made will be detected. Sometimes the digits are not clearly stamped and may be misread if they are not examined closely with a lens. The digits 0, 6, and 8 seem to be the ones that cause most confusion, though 1...

Contents

PART I, Laboratory identification of a firearm Chapter 1. Principles involved 3 Chapter 2. Bullet identifications 10 Chapter 3. Cartridge identifications 22 Chapter 5. Restoration of serial numbers 77 Chapter 6. Pitfalls for the unwary 81 Chapter 1. Data on hand guns 91 Section I Rifling measurements on automatic pistols 92 Rifling measurements on revolvers and nonautomatic pistols 115 Data on automatic pistols arranged by number of grooves and direction of twist 132 Chapter 2. Data for some...

Data for some old revolvers with gain rifling

In the course of this study of rifling characteristics, in which over 2500 handguns (revolvers, pistols, and automatics) have been measured, a number of revolvers have been found that have gain rifling, i.e., the rate of turn increases from breech to muzzle. Although such rifling has been known for a long time, it does not appear to have been used in handguns except for a few models of fairly early Colts and Remingtons. Its use was soon given up, but there are in existence today, in museums and...

Data on revolvers and automatic pistols arranged by caliber and manufacturer

Measurements made on a large number of hand guns are presented in Tables 16 and 17. An arbitrary separation into the two types of guns has been made. Table 16 includes automatic (or self-loading) pistols Table 17 includes revolvers and nonautomatic pistols. A few submachine gun barrels were also measured. The guns in each table have been arranged according to caliber and the manufacturers are listed alphabetically under each caliber. In quite a number of cases the name of the manufacturer could...

Depth of grooves

The depth of the grooves on a fired bullet has little application to the problem of identification of a firearm. While it is fairly easy to determine by measurement the depth of the grooves in a rifled barrel it is very difficult to measure the depth of a groove on a fired bullet, and even where measurements are possible they ordinarily have little meaning. If all fired bullets were undamaged and perfectly symmetrical and if each represented precisely the cross section of the barrel,...

Determination of caliber from weight of bullet

The weight of a fired bullet may be useful in determining the caliber (or probable caliber) in those cases where, because of deformation, a measurement of diameter cannot be made. It is applicable only in those instances where it is clear that no appreciable amount of metal of the bullet has been lost. An extensive compilation of weights, calibers, and types of cartridges has recently been prepared at the H. P. White Laboratory and is reproduced here by permission. The information in Table A-20...

Direction of rifling twist

Obviously there are but two possibilities here, but they are extremely important because a bullet having grooves which slant to the left ( Colt Type) could not have been fired from a gun having rifling that slants to the right ( S and W Type), quite apart from any other features. Every firearms examiner of experience has probably had police officers or sheriffs bring in a gun and a bullet which clearly show right hand twist for one and left hand for the other. The only U.S. manufacturer who now...

Discussion of results

By making measurements of the rifling angle at intervals of 0.2 inch throughout the entire length of a barrel, data were obtained which made it possible to make graphs or plots which show the rate of change of the rifting angle. This was done for all the barrels that were in sufficiently good condition to measure, and it was found that the plots fell into six general types, as shown in the graphs. In Type I the rifling angle increases regularly from breech to muzzle. This was the type most...

Extractor Basic Forms

We have classified the fundamental forms of the extractor marks, on the basis of our researches, into four groups, for the purpose of determining the particular type of pistol involved. Figure 286 illustrates these four basic forms of extractor imprints, as they appear on the shell head, assuming that these latter are transparent. The broken lines in each case show the part of the extractor hook that will leave a mark. In the case of form No. I, the extractor hook lies straight up and down,...

Extractor Marks

Among the most important marks on a shell are those made by the extractor, not because it is possible to determine from them definitely what type of pistol was used, but because these serve as an excellent starting point for deciding from an examination of a shell found at a scene of a crime what type of weapon was used, and also because they are valuable in checking our other observations. These impressions give the examining officer the first clue as to the position of the shell in the...

Fired bullets that have no rifling marks

The bullet may have been fired (1) from one of several smooth bore arms or (2) from a barrel in which the rifling has been worn away so completely as to leave no rifling marks-an occurrence by no means uncommon. The bullet may have been fired (3) from a zip gun-a homemade gun having a gas pipe or other tube for a barrel. Many such cases have occurred. It may have been fired (4) in a shotgun by the use of an adapter, of which many have been available. Or the evidence...

Firing a bullet through a bulged barrel

Bulges in a barrel frequently occur when there is already some object in the barrel, such as a cleaning rag or a previously fired bullet which did not clear the barrel. Several such barrels have come to the author's laboratory-one with a lodged bullet still in the barrel. Because of the increase in diameter in the region of the bulge, a bullet fired through a bulged barrel will lose firm contact with the rifling and after passing the bulge the lands and grooves already impressed on the bullet...

Firing pins for either rim or center fire

Marlin Mod. 1892) were supplied with two firing pins, one for center fire and the other for rim fire cartridges. The possibility of interchange of firing pins after the commission of a shooting should be kept in mind, particularly in cases where firing pin impressions and other markings on a shell case are inconsistent. Another situation is presented by certain models of the single-shot Ballard rifles which were supplied with reversible firing pins, one end...

Firing test bullets

In firing test bullets it is good practice to use the same make of ammunition as that submitted as evidence, preferably ammunition taken from the gun itself when confiscated or in possession of the suspect. This will not only help to assure similarity, which often is important because of variations in the same brand as well as in different brands, but it will also meet the objections of opposing counsel who will very likely raise the question as to the similarity of test ammunition. If one does...

Foreword

Mathews, a 1903 graduate of the University of Wisconsin, with later Master's and Doctor's degrees from Harvard, is one of the real pioneers in criminal investigation work involving firearms identification. His first criminal case was in 1923 and involved the metallographic analysis of certain parts of a bomb which had killed one person and badly injured another. As a result of his success in this case, other cases, including firearms examinations and identifications, soon came to his...

Groove depths

The depths of grooves is, of course, readily determined from the data obtained by the procedure described above. In the case of barrels having an even number of grooves the groove depth will be one half the difference between the groove and bore diameters. For barrels having an odd number of grooves the depth of the grooves will' be the difference between the groove diameter (as defined above) and the bore diameter. Table 6 illustrates the reproducibility that may be obtained by the procedures...

Info

The number of these 1896 pistols which were made is not known, but it could not have been very large. The pistols are not common. Furthermore, the serial numbering on later types, which continued directly from the numbering of these 1896 types, is in the lower thousands. 1897, 1898, and 1899-Full production of the 6and 10-round types continued through these years. Only minor external machining differences between these and the 1896 type can be noted. The grip pieces were changed to horizontally...

Interchange of cylinders

An example is the firing of a .44-40 type cartridge in a revolver designed for the .44 Spl. cartridge by substituting a cylinder bored for the .44-40 type. Most criminals would not have access to such specially bored cylinders and the possibility of the use of one in a criminal case is remote. Revolvers which have cylinders designed for the use of automatic pistol type of ammunition may have a normal cylinder substituted therefor, or vice versa. Here again the chance of this being done is...

Introductory statement

To assist the investigator who wishes to ascertain the possible make of an automatic pistol from which an evidence bullet has been fired, from measurements and observations he has made on that bullet, the data contained in Tables 16 and 17 have been rearranged according to the number of grooves and direction of twist for each of the calibers from .22 to .455. These are given in Table 18. As a knowledge of the groove diameter is of little importance, for reasons explained in a previous chapter,...

Isbn

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 71-180107 With THOMAS BOOKS careful attention is given to all details of manufacturing and design. it is the Publisher's desire to present books that are satisfactory as to their physical qualities and artistic possibilities and appropriate for their particular use. THOMAS BOOKS will be true to those laws o f quality that assure a good name and good will. Printed in the United States of America Composed by Superior Typesetting, St. Louis, Missouri and...

Kimball carbine auto

Kimball of Detroit, Michigan, designed and produced a few prototype models of an automatic pistol to take the powerful .30 cal. U.S. carbine cartridge. The gun was of the blowback type with a free-floating barrel which, it was claimed, made the gun more accurate and reduced the kick. The inventor stated that the barrel recoils straight back 3 16 inch eliminating a great deal of the recoil, thereby keeping the gun on target for faster shooting in an emergency. A unique feature...

Lahti pistols

Parabellum Lahti military pistol was designed by Aimo Johannes Lahti, who for some time was Chief of the Government Arsenal of Finland. He was an arms designer of note, having previously designed rifles and the Finnish machine gun. The pistol was designed shortly before 1935 and, since it was adopted as the Finnish service hand arm in 1935, it was given the nomenclature L-35. It was manufactured by Valtion Kivaari Tehdas (State Rifle Factory) at Jyvaskyla. The...

Lighting equipment

At the lens end of the instrument and back of the carriage is a diffusing screen of opal glass illuminated by an ordinary 75-watt light bulb in a desk type reflector, thus providing a white background for the objects being photographed. There are two adjustable, microscope-type object illuminators (Spencer) which are so positioned that they give oblique lighting to the specimens. These lights are controlled by two rheostats (Fig. 65) so that their intensity can be matched or balanced. This is...

Lr

Models 1, 2, 3, and 4, Types D and E-This series of pistols was introduced in 1954. They are of the fixed barrel type, all have external hammers, operate in the same manner as the Mod. 52, and disassemble in the same manner. The chief differences are in the barrel lengths, sights, grip designs, and accessories (Figs. 262 to 266). Those guns chambered specially for the .22 L.R. cartridge are designated by the capital letter D, while those specially chambered for the .22 Short are designated by...

Mauser military pistols Recoiloperated lockedbolt type

In 1894 Paul Mauser, the inventor genius of the firm Waffenfabrik Mauser, of Oberndorf a N, Germany, set himself the task of designing a military pistol which would possess certain characteristic features which he considered necessary. The pistol should be of the recoil-operated, lockedbolt type, with magazine loading accomplished by stripping cartridges from a clip into a magazine well situated in front of the trigger, all of which principles had been so successfully used in the famous Mauser...

Mayor pistol

The 6.35 mm. (ACP) pistol bearing the marking MAYOR ARQUEBUSIER is a simple blowback in design. It appeared in two forms as to slide construction. In the earlier form the slide was of one-piece construction extending the entire length of the pistol and having a portion of the upper part of the front end cut away for the upward ejection of the fired shell, the extractor being located at the top of the slide at the rear of the cut away portion. In the later form of the pistol the slide extends...

Measurement of land impressions

If the measurements of land impressions (grooves) on fired bullets are to have any meaning it is obvious that they must be made by a method that gives both reproducible and reliable results. Preferably it should be a method which does not require the use of prohibitively expensive equipment. If equipment generally available in crime detection laboratories can be modified or added to in order to get a satisfactory means of measurement, so much the better. We believe that this requirement has...

Measurements o f land widths in a DWM Luger automatic

A series of six bullets which had been fired from a D.W.M. Luger, dated 1916, serial No. 3837-a, were measured to ascertain the reproducibility of land widths. The land impressions on the test bullets were very clean cut, and, consequently, very satisfactory measurements could be made. The average width of the four land impressions on each of the six test bullets was 0.1136 inch, with the largest deviations being +0.0002 and -0.0003 inch. The ammunition used was 7.65 mm. Luger, Remington...

Measurements of land widths in new guns of same make and model

It has long seemed desirable to the writer to make a study of the land impressions made on (A) plain lead bullets and (B) metal-cased bullets which had been fired from the same guns. It also seemed desirable to make a study of the variations in land widths which occur in the same make and model of guns made by a reputable manufacturer. The writer was furnished sets of bullets, both plain lead and metal cased, which had been fired from the same guns. These guns were the .38 Spl. Smith and...

Method of measurement

A number of instruments have been used by various investigators for the measurement of the widths of land and groove impressions on fired bullets, such as the filar micrometer, measuring microscope, traveling microscope (comparator ), tool maker's microscope, etc. (3, 4) (Fig. 84). All of these have been tried out in the author's laboratory, and reasonably satisfactory measurements can be made with any of them on bullets fired from new guns, where the edges of the land impression will usually...

Methods of comparison

Before the advent of the comparison microscope in firearms identifications in the 1920's, and for some time thereafter, bullet matchings (and shellmatchings also) were sometimes made by. other methods now seldom used. Sometimes a convincing identification of a bullet could be made by measuring in sequence the widths of the grooves on the evidence and test bullets and comparing them. These measurements were made with a filar micrometer (Fig. 13), an instrument readily obtainable. This is a...

Miscellaneous notes on automatic pistols

The title of this Part quite correctly describes its contents. The material represents an accumulation of results of several years work and is of such a nature that it is not well adapted to a set format or pattern of presentation. For obvious reasons no claim of complete coverage of automatic pistols is made. The multiplicity of makes and models, together with the paucity and unreliability of information concerning many which are known to exist, makes such coverage impossible. Fortunately many...

Mm caliber

Burgham Mars (name used in several countries) Cesar (a Cesar was alsomade in Spain) Perfect The great preponderance of 7.65 mm. pistols listed, coupled with the known popularity of the 6.35 size, leads one to suspect that the list is not complete as far as the 6.35 mm. pistols are concerned. Mod. E-2. Arrow points to lever which, when turned, releases automatic pistols. Top Model D-1. Middle Model E-2. Bottom

Mm models

Sauer pistol was the first to be brought out and is properly called the 1913 Modell as it was introduced in that year. It frequently is referred to as the Old Model. As a matter of fact, no model designation was assigned to it until early in the 1920's, when a smaller version of the same model appeared in 6.35 caliber (Fig. 241). The 1913 Mod. is characterised by its rather unique appearance. The barrel is housed in a rather large tube or cylinder, with a spiral recoil...

Mm types

A 7 mm. version of the original Nambu pistol was produced in the early 1920's. Essentially it is a smaller model of the original Nambu, though it differs in some minor features. It is 63 4 inches long as compared to about 9 inches, weighs 23 ounces as compared to 29 ounces, and has a magazine capacity of 7 cartridges whereas the 8 mm. type accommodates 8 cartridges. The cartridge is one especially designed for this gun. The grip safety was retained. These small pistols were apparently favored...

Other metals harder than lead

Other metals, such as zinc or tin, could be cast as bullets and handloaded. These metals, because of their hardness, would not take identifying rifling marks. No case is known to the author where such bullets have been used by a criminal, but surely such cases will occur sooner or later. A person intent on murder would not be likely to be disturbed as to the effect such hard bullets would have on the rifling in his gun. A spectroscopic analysis of the residue in a barrel in which tin or zinc...

Other older models

Astra 700 Special - This pistol was produced around 1925. It was simpler in construction than the preceding models and had no grip safety. Some 4000 of these were made and sold as an economy pistol. Astra 700 - In more recent years (exact date not known) a new 700 Model was designed but was made only in prototype form. Only a few specimens were made. Astra 1000 - This 7.65 mm. pistol was made for Astra-Unceta y Cia. by a firm in Ermua. It had an 11-round magazine. No figures as to production...

Others Pending

The reason for the change in the inscription lies in the fact that in 1910 the company had joined with the Union Metallic Cartridge Co. and operated under the joint name Remington Arms-Union Metallic Cartridge Co., Inc. until 1920, at which time the name was changed back to the former name of The Remington Arms Co., under which it had operated from 1888 to 1910. The caliber of the M-51 pistol is stated on the barrel and can be seen through the shell ejection port. It does not appear on the...

Oversized bore in rifled barrels

An oversized bore results in slippage of bullets fired through it and since successively fired bullets do not slip in exactly the same manner repetitive markings are not produced. Identifications can not be made on such bullets. The effect is naturally one of varying degree. Sometimes by firing a number of test bullets enough semblance of identity may be found to warrant a conclusion. In other cases no semblance of identity will be found when test bullets are compared either with each other or...

Patent L Yovanovitch Model

There are no proof marks or other markings. As to rifling, the pistol has 6 grooves, right hand twist, with one turn in 8.4 inches. The bore diameter is 0.3508, groove diameter 0.3590, and land width 0.045 inches. All the above data were taken from one specimen (No. 3344), the rifling of which was in good condition. It is said that a substantial order for pistols was obtained from Haile Selassie of Ethiopia in 1954 and that these were made and delivered. This statement has not been confirmed,...

Pistols of caliber

Up to and during World War II no .22 caliber pistols were made by this firm, but in about 1950 attention was turned to the production of such pistols. Modele Rd-While this is the factory designation, the pistol was sold under the name Ranger and was so marked on the grip plates. It is a rather conventional type, modeled to a very considerable extent after the 7.65 mm. pistol made in the later portion of World War II. It has much of the external appearance of the Kriegsmodell, with the exception...

Pitfalls for the unwary

Offhand judgments are nowhere more dangerous than in the field of firearms investigations, where the life or liberty of a person may be at stake, and the old adage that a little learning is a dangerous thing is nowhere better exemplified. Even those who have had years of experience frequently run into something new and unexpected. A good philosophy to adopt is to expect the unexpected. An investigator who knows all the answers is a very dangerous person Some, but by no means all, of the...

Post World War II developments

Modele C-This 7.65 mm. pistol follows a new design. While resembling the early Browning, in that the recoil spring (and its guide) are located below the barrel, the arm has an external hammer and also an indicator which tells whether the pistol is cocked. Several safety features are stressed (1) the customary thumb safety is present and in an easily accessible postion (2) the presence of an external hammer in itself is a safety feature since its position is easily determined and, in addition,...

Re filing of breech face

Such a procedure, if skillfully done, could cause trouble. Fresh filing would of course be obvious because of the bright appearance of the freshly filed surface-but the surface could be easily oxididized, reblued or renickeled, as the case required, by a person having the necessary skill, so that it would be very difficult to determine whether recent filing had been done. Obviously a much easier and simpler procedure in most cases would be to dispose of the weapon. However, in case it was known...

Re filing or reshaping the firing pin

Such changes could be made and the possibility should be kept in mind. Many firing pins have definite identifying characteristics which can be removed very easily by filing or by a little work with an emery cloth. Here again a bright surface would be suspicious but the brightness can be very easily removed. If one had to depend wholly on firing pin impressions this might be a useful technique for the criminal, but, fortunately, we usually have other markings on a fired shell which are even...

Relining a barrel

No cases are known to the author where this practice, quite common for legitimate purposes when barrels become badly worn, has been used to conceal a crime. However the possibility exists. The fact that such an operation has been performed is readily revealed by an examination of the muzzle of the gun which will clearly show a ring of demarcation between the metal of the liner and that of the original barrel. Finding barrels which have such liners, however, is not prima facie evidence that they...

Remington pistols

Model 51-The Remington automatic pistols, manufactured by the well known Remington firm of Ilion, N.Y., which has operated under various names since its founding in 1816 by Eliphalet Remington, were based on designs originating with John D. Pedersen. His first patent application relating to automatic pistols was filed on July 30, 1915, and was renewed on July 17, 1919. The basic patent was issued on August 3, 1920, and bears Pat. No. 1,348,733. Several additional patents were issued in 1920,...

Replacing a revolver barrel

In the case of most solid-frame revolvers the barrels are not easily removed, especially by an unskilled person, and such substitutions are not common. In the case of some cheaply made foreign revolvers of the solid-frame type the barrels can be unscrewed without difficulty-some even without tools. In well-made solid-frame revolvers a vise would be required and an unskilled person would probably leave marks of the vise on the gun. In the case of the tip up or break open type revolver only a...

Reproducibility of measurements made by the rifling meter

Table No. 3 shows the reproducibility of measurements obtainable by the use of the rifling meter for a rifled barrel that has a uniform twist and is in very good condition. Frequently the twist is not uniform throughout the length of the barrel and in such cases (with exceptions noted below) an average is taken. Occasionally one portion of a barrel will show good, uniform rifling and another portion will show irregularities due to wear, corrosion, or faulty rifling. In such cases the...

Reticle or grid method

While the following method does not have the precision of the method already described it has the advantage that the equipment necessary is more likely to be available. It requires a good compound microscope provided with a well-made mechanical stage which includes a graduated circle and a vernier scale by means of which readings to 3' of angle may be made. Provision must also be made for holding the bullet firmly in a horizontal position and for rotating it on its axis. The stage is provided...

Rifling specifications

The following tables of rifling specifications are by no means complete, but they do cover a very large number of rifled arms that the firearms examiner is likely to encounter. While this book is devoted mainly to hand guns it was thought desirable to include rifling specifications for many rifles as well, since they are frequently used in the commission of crimes. As pointed out in the text, it must be remembered that specifications represent an ideal rather than an actual accomplishment. In a...

Sauer pistols

Sohn, of Suhl, Germany, in 1900 brought out a unique 4-shot repeating pistol of 7 mm. caliber, which was patented not only in Germany but also in Belgium, England, the U.S., and Russia. This pistol evidently became very popular in Europe. Their first venture into the field of automatic, or self-loading, pistols appears to have been in connection with the production of the Roth-Sauer, one of two pistols designed by G. Roth of Vienna. The larger model, known as the Roth II was made...

Schmeisser Machine pistols

*These are, of course, submachine guns rather than automatic pistols. The basic designs for these pistols were patented in the period 1930-1936, by Hugo Schmeisser, Chief Engineer of the C. G. Haenel Waffen and Fahrradfabrik of Suhl, Germany. The prototype version, known as the Maschinenkararabiner 36 (marked MKb 36) may have been hand-made at the Haenel plant. The MKb 36 was chambered for the 9 mm. Parabellum cartridge. It had a full-length barrel and a full wood stock. After certain...

Smith and Wesson automatics

S& W Model 1913-The great popularity of the automatic pistol in the early part of the century resulted in a plethora of designs and models. Arms manufacturers were naturally anxious to cash in on this increasing demand for something new. Among the resulting productions was the .35 caliber S& W automatic which was based on patents acquired from Charles Ph. Clement of Liege, Belgium. just why this poorly designed pistol was chosen as a starting point is not known, but it may have been...

Some general observations regarding bullets

Before the advent of smokeless powder, plain lead or lead hardened by the addition of small amounts of antimony or tin (or both) was used for bullet making. But with the higher velocities attainable with this new powder, metal fouling became a serious problem, and this led to the use of surface coating of the lead bullets with some harder metal. Bullets for low powered .22 cal. rifles are still made of plain lead alloy, or they may have an extremely thin protective coating of copper or of some...

Star Bonifacio Echeverria

The firm of Bonifacio Echeverria (or STAR, Bonifacio Echeverria, S.A., as it is now known) is one of three manufacturers who are now allowed to make automatic pistols in Spain. Their products have been widely and favorably known in many countries, including the United States, where they seem to be enjoying a wide sale. The early history of the company is not clear, and accurate information as to its early activities is difficult to get because all records were destroyed by fire in the Spanish...

Table

(Measurements made with the filar micrometer) Note The technique illustrated in this table is not only outmoded, because of the adoption of the comparison microscope which affords a much more positive means of identification, but would be inapplicable in these days when so many barrels are rifled by either the broaching or the button-swaging process. Barrels rifled successively with the same broach (or button) will have rifling grooves (and lands) which will show the same sequence of widths,...

The base

The base of the instrument is a 1-inch thick American black walnut board edged with a modified OG bead all around. Inset on the under side of this base are two pieces of cold rolled steel, 1 4x1 inch, through which are threaded the three adjusting screws whose ends terminate in knurled knobs, thus giving a three-point support for the instrument. In order that the operator may be seated in a normal position at the instrument, the entire assembly is set on three pyramidal wood blocks of the...

The camera

The camera is not unlike the conventional 8x10inch view camera. It is cone-shaped, being about 5 inches square at the lens end and about 12 inches square at the plate end, and is 30 inches long. The small end has two lens rings mounted one above the other. Actually the comparison camera consists of two rigid camera enclosures mounted one above the other with an adjustable horizontal dividing septum to be described later. The lens rings carry a matched pair of Bausch and Lomb lenses. Lenses with...

The carriage

This part of the instrument (Figs. 62, 63, 64) has in its assembly the mechanism for transmitting vertical, horizontal, longitudinal, and circular motion to specimens being compared and photographed. It is so arranged that the image of one object may be juxtaposed above the other exactly. The carriage travels on a pair of 1 2-inch square tracks, 8 inches in length and secured to the base of the instrument, and it is actuated by a 1 4-inch lead screw (G in Fig. 65) having 28 threads to the inch....

The comparison camera

Those who for years have had occasion to use a comparison microscope for the examination of bullets and other objects know how very tiring such examinations may become. Not only are they tiring, but they are productive of eyestrain. Both of these difficulties disappear with the use of the comparison camera (1) * - the basic idea of which was suggested by May and by Lewis. The operator sits in a comfortable position looking directly ahead at images on a large ground-glass screen. The images are...

The problem of vibration and its elimination

In laboratories where there is troublesome vibration, special arrangements must be made to meet this situation since relatively slow-speed photography is used in photographing guns. In the processes involving magnification, such as photographing objects under a microscope, vibration is particularly troublesome. Mounting the photographic equipment on a base which is firmly attached to the floor usually increases the difficulty since vibrations of the floor will be transmitted to the apparatus...

The rifling meter

As has already been pointed out, workers in the field of firearms identification often have need of rifling data not presently available to them, either in textbooks, reference books, or from firearms manufacturers. Not infrequently a bullet is brought to the laboratory and the examiner is asked what kind of a gun should be looked for, there being no gun or suspect and perhaps even no known motive for the crime that has been committed. In such a situation it is obvious that the investigation of...

The series military pistols

These are copies, for the most part, of the Mauser Military Pistols. While they appear to be much the same, there are in fact a number of changes. Commercial manufacture and sale date from ca. 1928 and were discontinued in the late 1930's. Model 900-Box magazine, 10 rounds, charger loaded, 7.63 mm. Mauser caliber. Model 902-Integral box magazine, 20 rounds, charger loaded, 7.63 mm. Mauser caliber. Model 903-10- or 20-round insert magazines, 7.63 mm. Mauser caliber. Model F-Similar to Mod. 903...

The use of adapters

Ammunition especially designed for use in revolvers or for use in automatic pistols can be fired in rifles (or shotguns) by the use of adapters or supplemental chambers. The principal manufacturers of these in the United States have been the Winchester Repeating Arms Co. and the Marble Arms and Manufacturing Co. They have been produced in great variety, the Marble Co. listing as many as twenty-three. Table 13 shows a number of cartridges and the various rifles in which they may be fired by the...

Threedimensional photographs

It is well known that to determine the true shape of an object two eyes are better than one. In the examination of such things as firing pin impressions (and many others) it is very important to determine their true, shapes and this cannot be done with the ordinary monocular microscope because one sees the object from one viewpoint only. With a binocular microscope (the Greenough type, having two separate optical systems) one uses both eyes and consequently secures two images of the object,...

UNIQUE and related pistols

The UNIQUE pistols are a product of the firm Manufacture D Armes des Pyrenees located at Hendaye in the southwestern part of France near the Spanish border. In addition to the pistols bearing the brand name UNIQUE, the firm made many others which bore the brand name of the dealer to whom they were supplied. Some of these were identical (or practically so) with the UNIQUE line, while others were of different design. Both will be dealt with later. Factory literature indicates that the production...

Visual examination

Some firearms examiners resort to a visual comparison of the slopes of the rifling grooves of the evidence bullet with the slopes on bullets which have been fired from guns whose rifling twist is known. This comparison can be done with the bullets placed under the comparison microscope or, still better, with the comparison camera where the enlarged images of the bullets are viewed on a ground glass. In either case the two bullets are placed in the usual positions and well-defined grooves are...

Oriental pistols other than Japanese

Information concerning pistols of Oriental manufacture, other than those made in Japan, is meager and often conflicting. Most of the pistols made in the Orient, other than Japan, are copies of pistols made by Mauser, Fabrique Nationale, and, occasionally, Colt. While there are many copies of the Mauser and F.N. there are but few of the Colt. The author has seen a quite good imitation of the .45 U.S. Army Model 1911A which was made at the Pusan Jin Iron Works in Pusan, Korea. The barrel,...

References

The Comparison Camera. Jour. Crim. Law and Criminology 37 247 (1946). 2 MATHEWS, J. H., and HENKE, LEE K. The Rifling Meter. Ibid. 35 134 (1944). 3 BRADFORD, L. W., and BRACKETT, J. W. R. Identification News. March 1953. 4 MUNHALL, B. D. Proceedings of the I. A. I. 1950 (pp. 166-171). Fig. 45. Early type comparison microscope. Employed by Albert S. Osborn for document examinations. Constructed by Bausch & Lomb. Fig. 46. Diagram illustrating tli principle...

Interchange of automatic pistol barrels

Probably most of such interchanges in military type pistols occur unintentionally. In the case of such pistols, particularly those which are used for training purposes, very few keep their original barrels. Intentional interchange is sometimes practiced by the criminal. Such interchanges have taken place, even during the course of a murder trial. In the Sacco-Vanzetti case it was discovered that such a substitution had been made. Fortunately, a Commonwealth expert had made a photograph of the...

Early Unique models

Undated booklets issued by the factory at some time prior to World War 11 give short descriptions of the eleven models which had been developed. These models are given catalog numbers which are not consistent with the dates of introduction of the various models. Obviously model designations were not assigned to each model at the time of its introduction, but were chosen at some later date for the probable purpose of identification of the different types available to the customer and to assist...

Markings on the cartridge

Cartridges, especially those fired in automatic or repeating firearms, often show repetitive marks which are useful in the identification of the type (and sometimes the make) of weapon used and of the individual arm when test cartridges fired in it are compared with an evidence cartridge. Impressions that are made by file marks, tool marks, or other inequalities on the surface of the breechblock when a shell sets back against it under high pressure are likely to be more reproducible than marks...

Replacement of a firing pin

Such replacements are not difficult to make in the case of most automatic pistols, but are more difficult in some other types of arms. The author has had one such case involving a rifle. A game warden who was in a tree making a deer survey was shot by a hunter who mistook him for a bear. Upon discovering his mistake the hunter ran away. No bullet was recovered but a fired rifle shell was found in the vicinity of the shooting. While the firing pin impression was a good one, other markings, such...

Chinese pistols

Excellent copies of the Mauser Military Pistol have been made in China, and apparently in considerable numbers. These were produced in at least two arsenals-the Hanyang Arsenal and the Shansei Province Arsenal-and they may have been made 3 at others. Those made at the Shansei Arsenal seem to be the ones most frequently encountered in the U.S., and they appear in both the 7.63 mm. Mauser and the .45 Colt calibers. They always are marked with Chinese characters. These indicate the Type (or Model)...

Roth Sauer pistol

This 7.65 mm. pistol was manufactured by J. P. Sauer u. Sohn in Suhl, Germany. It was invented by Georg Roth of Vienna, Austria, and appeared on the market in about 1905. The arm is based on patents issued in 1898, but it also has features which appeared in an earlier pistol designed by Karel Krnka in 1895. The cartridge, known generally as the RothSauer cartridge, but also as the Roth-Frommer in Hungary, is identical except for powder loading to a cartridge developed by Frommer for his Mod....

No gun identifications

Positive identifications of firearms that have led to the solution of major crimes have been made in cases where no suspect gun was found. In some instances fired cartridges, either known to have been fired by the suspect on a previous occasion in a gun which belonged to him or found in the possession of a suspect, have been instrumental in solving the case. In other cases a bullet known to have been fired by the suspect from a firearm known to have belonged to him (or to have been in his...

Imprint of the Breech End o f the Barrel

If we examine the shell head from both sides, beginning at the extractor mark, we come upon the deformations on the forward face (edge) of the shell rim mentioned in the first part of this article, provided the cylindrical part of the shell fits far enough into the chamber so that the shell head is flush with the breech end of the barrel. Strangely this latter condition does not exist in the case of most Spanish pistols, and in the case of the Mann Pistols (calibers 6.35 and 7.65) the cartridge...

Degree o f twist o f the rifling

In the degree of twist of the rifling one again finds a great variation from manufacturer to manufacturer. Many revolvers made a great many years ago had much less twist than those made currently. Quite a number of makes used a twist of over 30 inches (for one complete turn of the rifling), and some even more. An Iver Johnson American Bull Dog had one turn in 40.9 inches a New Colt 38 had one in 48.3 inches Col. Le Mat's Pat. Rev., one in 55.7 a Maynard Tape Primer revolver, one in 88.8 a Colt...

Automatic Pistolstar Patent For The Cartridge Made In Spain

This pistol was evidently made after 1911 and before 1919, as it does not have the method of disassembly present on the 1919 Type. A Star pistol quite similar in design, but differing in some respects, bearing the Serial No. 58,276 has exactly the same inscription as that shown in the ALFA illustration of 1911. This, as will be shown, is a 1919 Type, credited to Bonifacio Echeverria. It appears that there may have been a firm operating under the name Julian Echeverria y Orbea and that this firm...

Sharp Shooter and Joloar pistols

The Sharp Shooter automatic pistols were of a simple blowback type which followed the design shown in Spanish Patent No. 68,027. The JO-LO-AR pistols are of the same design and bear the same patent number, with the addition of Spanish Patent No. 70,235. The former patent covers the design of the pistol, while the latter covers the addition of a cartridge case extractor, which was granted to Jose de L. Arnaiz on September 12, 1919. It is conjectured that the name JO-LO-AR was derived from the...

T

Gun Sectional View

Disassembled. Fig. 157. M.A.S. 1925 Mod. No. 1. Disassembled. Fig. 158. 7.65 mm. French Service Pistol Type A No. 4. Fig. 158. 7.65 mm. French Service Pistol Type A No. 4. Fig. 159. French Service Pistol M1935-A. Partially disassembled. Fig. 159. French Service Pistol M1935-A. Partially disassembled. Fig. 160. French Service Pistol M1935-A. Sectional view. Fig. 160. French Service Pistol M1935-A. Sectional view. Fig. 163. 7.65 mm. Long. French Service Pistol...

Electrolytic Etching Firearms Identification

The final conclusions were that solutions Nos. 2, 8, 9, 10, and 11 can be used successfully on cold rolled steel. Solutions 1, 2, 3, and 5 will give good results on cast steel. When No. 3 is used the metal has to be immersed in the solution and the solution boiled to get good etching. This often cannot be done, so No. 3 is not recommended. Solutions Nos. 2, 3, 4, and 10 can be used successfully on malleable cast steel. No solution found to date is equally good for all of the different kinds of...

Mannlicher pistols

Mannlicher rifles, designed by Ferdinand Ritter von Mannlicher (born in 1848), have long been known as among the most excellent of their time. They date back to about 1878 in design and 1880 in manufacture. Mannlicher soon became interested in the idea of producing a military weapon that would be automatic and in 1885 he brought out a light machine gun which embodied several of the features that later appeared in his first automatic pistol made in 1894. Many of his original conceptions appear...

MAB pistols

The M.A.B. automatic pistols, made by Manufacture d'Armes Automatiques of Bayonne, France, are patterned after the Browning models. They are well made and are quite popular in the U.S. Production began in 1921, and up to and including World War II pistols were made in 6.25, 7.65, and 9 mm. Short (ACP) calibers. Following the war a .22 caliber model was brought out and some larger-caliber models were also added. For a considerable period during World War II the plant was operated under the...

Restoration of serial numbers

Occasionally guns found at or near the scene of a shooting or taken from a suspect will have had the serial number removed either by filing or, less frequently, by grinding. The serial numbers on stolen guns are also frequently removed. The practice of removing serial numbers is not as popular among criminals as it once was as they have now learned that their efforts are futile. Fortunately, when occasion demands, there are methods whereby numbers which have been removed can often be restored...

Widths of lands and grooves

The widths of lands and grooves show a great variation, even for guns having the same number of grooves. Here again each reputable manufacturer has adopted certain specifications and tolerances but often these appear to be window dressing as they are not always closely followed, and, indeed, some manufacturers appear not to have had any specifications to be followed. This question of widths is dealt with at length in a later chapter. Suffice it to say here that some guns have grooves and lands...

Other markings

Other marks should always be looked for. Defects in the chamber where the cartridge lies at the moment of explosion will sometimes produce repetitive marks on the side of a brass shell. Sometimes these marks are only bulges rather than marks that have distinctive character, but they should be looked for. On the other hand, marks which do have a distinct individuality are sometimes found. The imprints made by the lips of magazine clips in auto loading arms may at times be useful. Usually,...

Erfurt Lukon Purku

The description of the ejector marks introduces us to the characteristic imprints to be found on the shell head. We shall first discuss the pistols equipped with special ejectors. Whenever an examination of the imprints on the shell head is undertaken, it is essential to determine first the exact position of the shell at the time of firing. Usually it will be possible to do this, as explained above, on the basis of the extractor and chamber rim marks. In the discussion which follows, we shall...

Experimental types

Firearms Nomenclature Diagrams

A pistol about which very little seems to be known is that developed by Tomisiro Komuro, of Tokyo, in the period 1905-06. These were supposedly chambered for the 7.65 mm. Browning cartridge. A few hundred specimens were made, presumably in the period 1906-1910. The fact that specimens vary in construction details from specimen to specimen suggests that they were never made on a production basis, but probably were handmade. None of these seem to have appeared in this country before World War I...