Bulges in a barrel frequently occur when there is already some object in the barrel, such as a cleaning rag or a previously fired bullet which did not clear the barrel. Several such barrels have come to the author's laboratory-one with a lodged bullet still in the barrel. Because of the increase in diameter in the region of the bulge, a bullet fired through a bulged barrel will lose firm contact with the rifling and after passing the bulge the lands and grooves already impressed on the bullet will not be in phase with the grooves and lands of the gun beyond the bulge. Consequently, a new set of rifling impressions will be made on the bullet. In looking for the weapon that fired a bullet bearing duplicate rifling marks, particular attention should be paid to weapons having bulged barrels. Duplicate sets of rifling marks can also be produced by recovering a fired bullet, reloading it in a cartridge and firing it a second time. If the two sets of rifling marks do not agree this is a very probable explanation.
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