Ultimate Firearms Training Guide

Defensive Handgun Training Drills Book

This program has been authored by Mike Seeklander. He is a professional firearms instructor. He is also a former united state Marine, federal air Marshall, police office and federal firearms instructor. He has done quite a remarkable job of taking complex processes, breaking them down to more understandable training drills. His book is about the drills you should follow during a firearm training for you to successfully acquire the necessary skills in defensive shooting. With this guide, shooters can use the drills outlined in it to create a program of their own. With his years of training and former work profession, he is undoubtedly the guy to trust when it comes to handgun training drills. The book entails the drills to follow for both dry and live fire. You will also get to gain the confidence to defend your life when the need arises. The guide comprises of 11 dry fire drills and 13 live fire drills. The product can be acquired in two ways; Digital e-books, Personal delivery kindle book. The full program is highly recommended for those who wish to excel in this kind of sport. Due to the nature of its' seriousness, the product is only limited to adults and not children for security reasons. Read more...

Defensive Handgun Training Drills Book Summary

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Defensive Handgun Training Drills Book Review

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Marksmanship Training Tasks

The following marksmanship training guide contains the current tasks that are trained in basic rifle marksmanship programs, during basic combat training at ATCs, and during infantry OSUT. It provides a basis for structuring unit sustainment programs. The unit normally trains by performing a diagnostic test of the tasks and conducts training only for soldiers who must improve their firing skills. Training is usually conducted in a shorter time frame than at IET. Introduction to Rifle Marksmanship and Mechanical Training.

Chapter Marksmanship Training

Accurate shooting is the result of knowing and being able to put into use the important elements of marksmanship sighting and aiming, positions, and trigger manipulation. a. Marksmanship training is divided into two phases (1) Preparatory marksmanship training. b. Each of the two phases may be divided into separate instructional steps. One very important thing to remember, during all phases of marksmanship training, is that the training must be progressive. Section II. PREPARATORY MARKSMANSHIP TRAINING AND FAMILIARIZATION FIRING a. Before he receives instruction in marksmanship training, the soldier must have a good understanding of the functioning cycle. He must know how to disassemble and assemble the weapon. He must know the correct way of applying immediate action and all of the safety precautions. b. A thorough course in preparatory marksmanship training must precede any range firing. This training is given to all soldiers expected to fire the submachinegun. The soldier should...

Handgun Weaponlight

There are several things to consider in selecting the right WeaponLight for your handgun. Along with reliability, quality, and durability all of which are satisfied by choosing a SureFire you must decide how it will mount, whether it needs to be easily removable, what the best switching option is, and whether to use an LED or incandescent light source. SureFire X200 Series WeaponLights slide directly on to most handguns manufactured with integral accessory rails. Military Series WeaponLights are designed for rail-less handguns and are attached via model-specific, hard-mounted adapters that may require a special holster. While all SureFire handgun WeaponLights can be quickly detached, the hard-mounted adapter for the Military Series remains on the gun.

Before Cleaning Be Certain The Handgun And Its Magazine Contain No Cartridges

At regular intervals, after firing or whenever the handgun has been exposed to sand, dust, extreme humidity, condensation, immersion in water, or other adverse conditions, disassemble, clean and oil it. Proper periodic maintenance is essential to the reliable functioning of any firearm. To clean the handgun, proceed as follows 1. Disassemble (field-strip) the handgun to the extent described on page 13. 4. NOTE Only a light application of oil is needed to provide adequate lubrication of moving parts and to prevent rust. Excess accumulations of oil tend to attract particles of dust and dirt and may congeal in cold weather which can interfere with the safe and reliable function of the handgun.

Loading For Handgun Cartridges

Smokeless Powders Handloaders Guide

While developing the data presented in this loading guide, we have determined several rules of thumb that we will attempt to highlight in the form of helpful hints. But first we need to divide the discussion on loading handgun cartridges into two categories straight walled and bottlenecked. Let's examine straight-walled cartridges first. They are the most common configuration of handgun ammunition. Nearly every shooter has had at least one handgun chambered for a straight-walled cartridge at one time or another. Several important factors must be considered when reloading this type of handgun cartridge. The first is variation in case length. Uniform length is mandatory to assure that a uniform crimp can be applied to the bullet. The reloader must measure and trim, if necessary, each case every time they're loaded. For this reason, lighter weight bullets are not recommended to be used in magnum handgun cartridges with Accurate's No. 9 propellant. Loading heavier (i.e., longer) bullets...

Handgun Weapqnlight Models

WEAPONLIGHTS FOR HANDGUNS WITH INTEGRAL RAILS SureFire Handgun WeaponLights also fit some of the newest pistols with integral rails, such as the Beretta Vertec. SureFire engineers worked in consultation with designers from Beretta and other handgun manufacturers to assure compatibility.

Chapter Marksmanship Training M

M203 Leaf Sight

Marksmanship training is to teach the grenadier how to fire the grenade launcher and to prepare him mentally and physically to employ it in combat. His previous rifle marksmanship training provides a sound basis for training with the grenade launcher. a. Marksmanship training with the grenade launcher develops skill in b. The skills learned from previous marksmanship training with other weapons are similar to those skills required for firing the grenade launcher. Proficiency in all skills listed above is essential and can only be attained by proper training. b. In rapid fire training the firer is required to take positions and reload rapidly. The actions are included in two exercises which are described below for the prone position. Note. Either dummy rounda or empty cartridge cases may be used for this exercise. Live practice or high explosive ammunition is never used for rapid fire training except on the grenade range during range firing. A recommended method for constructing dummy...

Conduct Of Dryfire Training

A skilled instructor trainer should supervise soldiers on dry-fire training. Once an explanation and demonstration are provided, soldiers should be allowed to work at their own pace, receiving assistance as needed. The peer coach-and-pupil technique can be effectively used during dry-fire training with the coach observing performance and offering suggestions. Several training aids are available to correctly conduct initial dry-fire training of the four fundamentals (Appendix C). A supported firing position should be used to begin dry-fire training. Sandbags and chest-high support are used to effectively teach this position. While any targets at any range can be used, the primary aim point should be a standard silhouette zeroing target placed at a distance of 25 meters from the firing position. The other scaled-silhouette targets - slow fire and timed fire - are also excellent for advanced dry-fire training. After the soldier understands and has practiced the four fundamentals, he...

Shooting Straight Years Of Rifle Marksmanship Research

ARI has produced a rich history of rifle marksmanship research and related research products spanning more than two decades. Based on growing concerns that rifle marksmanship training was not producing qualified marksmen for U.S. Army units, ARI began a systematic examination of basic, advanced, and unit marksmanship training programs in 1977.1 After developing and implementing a series of improved marksmanship training programs in the early 1980s under the joint sponsorship of the U.S. Army Infantry School (USAIS) and the U.S. Army Forces Command (FORSCOM),2 ARI researchers began to increasingly focus their attention on issues related to marksmanship simulation and training devices.3 With an eye towards supporting the new training programs, new devices and simulators were either evaluated or developed in the 1980s and early 1990s. In 1992, ARI research began to address problems associated with night firing and night operations in general. Over a period of seven years, the...

Chapter Automatic Rifle Marksmanship

I, Thb chapter it a guide for personnel conducting automatic rifle marksmanship training with the M14A1, and the M14 with selector and M2 bipod thereafter referred to as the M14 modified). b, The automatic rifleman must frequently employ his weapon in the semiautomatic role for maximum effectiveness of fire. Therefore, proficiency in automatic rifle marksmanship requires that the individual has satisfactorily completed rifle marksmanship training. Training in automatic rifle marksmanship is intended to further develop skill in firing em automatically and to emphasize in the soldier's mind that the automatic rifle need not always be employed in the automatic role. e. Fundamentals of automatic rifle marksmanship do not conflict in any way with those taught in semiautomatic rifle marksmanship training. The skills of rifle marksmanship are used by the automatic rifleman with only slight variation. Because of the nature of automatic fire and the decreased maximum effective range, ad*...

Phase I Reflexive Fire Training

Reflexive Fire Target

Reflexive fire training provides the fundamental skills required to conduct short-range marksmanship. It involves the practical application of all four of the fundamentals of SRM. All soldiers must receive a go on the task Conduct Reflexive Firing, before proceeding with training. Reflexive firing should be conducted as refresher training as often as possible to insure that soldier's skills are always at the highest possible level. This is a perishable skill that must be constantly reinforced.

Elements of a Good Shooting Position

There are three elements of a good shooting position that apply when using a loop sling bone support, muscular relaxation, and natural point of aim. The three elements of a shooting position applied with the loop sling do not apply in the same way as when firing with a hasty sling. While some degree of bone support is still achieved with the hasty sling, muscular tension is applied rather than muscular relaxation. Natural point of aim, however, applies to both the loop sling and the hasty sling.

Rifle Marksmanship Fundamentals

Target Rifle Bipod

Proficient automatic riflemen not to award qualification badges. Automatic transition firing consists of a series of practical live fire exercises which require the soldier to apply all of the fundamentals of automatic rifle marksmanship learned in preparatory marksmanship training. When automatic transition firing is correctly organized and conducted the soldier wilt gain valuable experience toward becoming a proficient combat automatic rifleman, regardless of his qualification rating. Properly used, qualification ratings are important in motivating the soldier and providing the commander with an aid in identifying the more proficient automatic riflemen of fata unit. Thto can be a significant consideration in the commander's assignment of personnel as the better marksmen should be assigned evenly throughout all elements of a combat unit. (21 Training concoptt. The moat significant advantage afforded by the automatic transition course of fire is that it requires the automatic rifleman...

Armor Piercing Handgun Ammunition KTW and Its Legacy

In the 1960s, KTW ammunition, a form of armor-piercing handgun ammunition intended for police use, was introduced. It was subsequently banned in some localities because of its potential to perforate bullet-proof vests worn by police. The cartridge was loaded with a light-green Teflon-coated tungsten alloy or steel bullet with a copper half jacket on its base. This jacket, rather than the bullet proper, is gripped by the lands and grooves. Thus, rifling marks will be present only on this jacket and not on the bullet. Because of the KTW controversy, awhole mythologyhasarisenabout armor-piercing handgun ammunition in relationship to bullet proof vests, i.e., soft body armor worn by police. A numberof vapidpublicstate-ments and proposed laws concerning ammunitionallegedlyof this typehas emanated from government officials. Theonlyhandgunammunitioncur-rently manufactured in the United Statesthat will routinelydefeatthesoft body armor worn by police is in the possessionof themilitary....

Wounds Due to Handguns

Colt Cartridge

Handguns are the most commonly used form of firearm in both homicides and suicides in the United States. Handguns are low-velocity, low-energy weapons having muzzle velocities generally below 1400 ft sec. Advertised velocities of revolver cartridges traditionally have not been accurate because they are obtained in test devices that have no cylinder gap. Even in well-made revolvers, this gap will cause a velocity loss of approximately 100 to 200 ft sec, depending on initial velocities and pressure as well as the construction tolerances of the weapon. Advertised velocities for semiautomatic pistols are more accurate as there is no cylinder gap from which gas can escape. The length of the barrel also influences muzzle velocity. The longer the barrel, the greater the velocity. Table 5.1 gives the advertised muzzle velocities of some .22-caliber and .38 Special ammunition compared to the actual velocities determined in revolvers with 2-, 4-, and 6-in. barrels. The velocity of .22-caliber...

Recommended Holster Makers For Handguns With Sure Fire Weapon Lights

Surefire Military Issue Weapons Lights

Handguns equipped with SureFire WeaponLights require special holsters. Several manufacturers offer suitable holsters, the vast majority of which are of the tactical thigh holster genre. The most popular in the SWAT community is the thigh rig made by Safariland. The Safariland holster features a quick-access, thumb-operated safety snap to retain the handgun. The only downside to the Safariland rig is that it is not currently available to fit all models of SureFire handgun WeaponLights. Bianchi International's new Cobra system is a modular style holster that can be configured to fit different handgun shapes with a Velcro adjustable closure. The Bianchi holster is based on the California-based company's highly successful M9 military holster. The main advantage of the Bianchi rig is that it can be configured to fit most handguns equipped with SureFire WeaponLight systems. Several holster companies offer custom made rigs to fit handguns fitted with SureFire WeaponLight. We have used and...

Figure Suppressive fire training program

M16a1 Rifle

Suppressive fire should be well aimed. Figure 7-13 shows a landscape target suitable for suppressive fire training. When this type of target is used, trainers must develop a firing program to include areas of engagement and designated target areas be credited as sustained effective suppressive fire. At 25 meters, this target provides the firer an area to suppress without definite targets to engage.

Carver Method of Gun Pointing

While this style of shotgun aiming is of modern origin, in fast originated with Doctor Carver, yet Gun pointing was the recognized manner of aiming of all our Western bad men and gun fighters whose gun play was entirely too rapid to be dircctcd by any description of gun sights. In combined quickness and accuracy, from foot or horseback, the work of these men has never been equalled, but their system of shooting is now becoming a lost art because it was not found the best adapted to target practice. Perhaps in coursc of time gun pointing will hold sway in short range shooting with every variety of firearm, for the military tendency at present is to encourage rapidity of fire. Gun pointing has been miscalled instinctive aiming, though in reality there is nothing instinctive about it. There can be nothing instinctive in doing hood, that of Gun pointing both eyes open being able to Shooting a pistol in the old Western way consisted simply in extending the hand quickly in the direction of...

Reaction Response Times in Handgun Shootings

Thoracic Gunshot Wounds

Tobin and Fackler measured the minimum time needed for police Officers to fire, on signal, a drawn handgun, pointed at a target.29 The tests were performed with both the trigger finger on the trigger as well as outside the trigger guard (the recommended way by many police agencies to hold a gun). The mean time from signal to firing the handgun was 0.365 seconds with the finger on the trigger and 0.677 seconds with the trigger finger outside the trigger guard. Volunteers were then videotaped as they turned their torsos 180 degrees as rapidly as possible. The mean time to turn the torso 90 degrees was 0.310 seconds while to turn 180 degrees it was 0.676 seconds. Thus, Tobin and Fackler concluded that if an individual was facing a shooter, it was possible for the individual to turn their torso and end up facing away from the shooter in the time from when the shooter decides to fire and the gun discharges.

Advanced Optics Lasers And Iron Sights Phase V of Basic Rifle Marksmanship

Basic rifle marksmanship taught effective engagement of the enemy with the basic rifle or carbine using iron sights to engage targets primarily during the day. Advanced rifle marksmanship added other marksmanship situations that a combat soldier may encounter. This chapter discusses how to enhance marksmanship skills, with proper training, using the Army's newest optics and lasers to ensure the soldier can fight as well at night as he can during the day.

New Forms of Handgun Ammunition

Ray Black Talon Ammunition

Up to the mid 1960s, commercial handgun bullet design had not changed since the early 1900s. Handgun bullets were either full metal-jacketed or all lead. Lead bullets were roundnose or, less commonly, wadcutter or semi-wadcutter. Recovery of a full metal-jacketed bullet meant that the individual had been shot with an automatic pistol an all-lead bullet of medium or large caliber indicated a revolver a small lead bullet a .22. Soon after their introduction, hollow-point handgun bullets became the center of controversy. Many civil libertarian groups protested that they were Dum-Dum bullets, violated the Geneva Convention, and caused severe and more lethal wounds. All these statements are incorrect. The Dum-Dum bullet was in fact a .303 centerfire rifle cartridge loaded with a soft-point style bullet manufactured at the British Arsenal at Dum-Dum, India, in the late nineteenth century. Silvertip Handgun Ammunition. Produced by Winchester, this ammunition is loaded with hollow-point...

Suicides Due to Handguns

Barrel Cylinder Gap

The location of the self-inflicted wound varies depending on the type of the weapon, the sex of the victim, and whether the victim is right- or left-handed. In individuals who shoot themselves with handguns, the most common sites for the entrance wound are the head (81 ), the chest (17 ), and the abdomen (2 ), in that order (Table 14.1). There is some difference by sex (Table 14.1) in that a smaller percentage of women (72 ) shoot themselves in the head than do men (83.5 ). Table 14.1 Sites of Suicidal Handgun Wounds Table 14.1 Sites of Suicidal Handgun Wounds When individuals shoot themselves, they do not necessarily hold the weapon the same way they would if they were firing the weapon at a target. Commonly, they will hold a handgun with the fingers wrapped around the back of the butt, using the thumb to depress the trigger, firing the weapon (Figure 14.2). In gunshot wounds under the chin, they may hold the weapon correctly, but bend their forearm upwards and backwards such that...

Figure NBC fire training program

M16a1 Rifle Characteristics

MOPP EQUIPMENT FIRE TRAINING (4) Trigger Squeeze. Grasping the pistol grip and squeezing the trigger with the index finger is altered when the firer is wearing MOPP gloves. The action of the trigger finger is restricted, and the fit of the glove may require the release of the swing-down trigger guard. Because the trigger feels different, control differs from that used in barehanded firing. This difference cannot be accurately predicted. Dry-fire training using dime-washer exercises is necessary to ensure the firer knows the changes he will encounter during live fire.

Chapter Rifle Marksmanship Fundamentals

Rifle Fundamentals

To be proficient, a combat rifleman must be able to detect targets, determine the ranges to targets, and hit the targets when he fires at them. There are many variables affecting an individual's ability to detect and determine the ranges to combat targets (chap ft). However, the factors affecting a rifleman's ability to fire and hit the target are relatively constant. Essentially, the rifleman must be able to assume a firing position which enables him to hold the rifle in such a manner that he and his rifle form a single, steady unit. He must know how to correctly aline his rifle on the target and he must be able to fire his rifle without disturbing this alinement. The skills needed to accomplish these requirements are known collectively as rifle marksmanship fundamentals. A recoil demonstration and an early-firing exercise should be conducted for soldiers who have little or no previous marksmanship experience. The recoil demonstration will clearly show soldiers that they have nothing...

Chapter Advanced Rifle Marksmanship Phase Iv of Basic Rifle Marksmanship

MOPP Equipment Fire Section IV. Night Fire 7-14. Unassisted Night Fire Section VI. Short-Range Marksmanship 7-22. Conduct of Short-Range Marksmanship Training 7-37 7-25. Phase I, Reflexive Fire (PHASE V of Basic Rifle Marksmanship) APPENDIX C. LASER MARKSMANSHIP TRAINING SYSTEM C-1

Figure Unassisted night fire training program

Rifling Cutter Head

UNASSISTED NIGHT FIRE TRAINING (1) Steady Position. When the firer is firing unassisted, changes in his head position and or stock weld will be necessary, especially when using weapon-target alignment techniques. His head is positioned high so that he is aligning his weapon on the target and looking just over the iron sights. His cheek should remain in contact with the stock. Repeated dry-fire practice, followed by live-fire training, is necessary to learn and refine these modifications and still achieve the steadiest position.

Chapter Advanced Rifle Marksmanship

The purpose of advanced rifle marksmanship (ruining is lo enable selected personnel to obtain a high degr ft of proficiency and expertise that is not normully required of the average rifleman. To be able to obtain a first round hit on target* at varying extended range* the firer must be highly skilled in applying the fundamental* of marksmanship to include aiming, position*, trigger control. sight adjustment. effect* of weather and zeroing. It aboii Id be a requirement that every firer periodically refmtiiliarixe him*elf with the*e fundamental* regardle** of hi* *hooting experience. Kven the experienced firer will develop a deficiency from time to time in the application of fundamental* that i* often ma*ked by perfection of other fundamental*. The fundamentals taught in advanced rifle mark*man*hip differ from those taught the average *o dier cmly in degree. In order for the firer to achieve the high degree of perfection desired in advanced rifle marksmanship, he should be equipped...

Marksmanship Training

The planning of MG training is no different from other marksmanship training. Guidelines are provided to assist the trainers in understanding, preparing, and ensuring that all training is conducted to standard. This section addresses the objectives, the responsibilities of the commanders, and the phases of training. It also introduces the training devices that assist in training, and designates when remedial and sustainment training should be conducted.

Rifle Marksmanship Training

The procedures and techniques for implementing the Army rifle marksmanship training program are based on the concept that all soldiers must understand common filing principles, be proficient marksmen, and be confident in applying their firing skills in combat. This depends on their understanding of the rifle and correct application of marksmanship fundamentals. Proficiency is accomplished through practice that is supervised by qualified instructors trainers and through objective performance assessments by unit leaders. During preliminary training, instructors trainers emphasize initial learning, reviewing, reinforcing, and practicing of the basics. Soldiers must master weapon maintenance, functions checks, and firing fundamentals before progressing to advanced skills and firing exercises under tactical conditions. The skills the soldier must learn are developed in the following four phases Each soldier progresses through these phases to meet the objective of rifle marksmanship...

Figure Quick fire training program

(b) The key to the successful employment of either technique is practice. Both pointed and aimed quick fire must be repeatedly practiced during dry-fire training. Live-fire exercises provide further skill enhancement and illustrate the difference in accuracy between the two techniques. Tactical considerations dictate which technique is most effective in a given situation, and when single shot versus burst fire is used.

Handgun Shot Cartridges

Handgun cartridges loaded with lead shotare availableinvariouscalibers, e.g., .22 Long Rifle, .38 .357. This ammunition, often called birdshot or snakeshot, is used to kill small game usuallyvarmints orsnakesat close range. The rimfire versions of these cartridges have been discussed in Chapter 6. Blount (CCI) manufactures centerfire handgun shot cartridges in

C Three Elements of a Good Shooting Position as they Apply with the Loop Sling There

13 are three elements of a good shooting position that apply when using a loop sling 15 rifle's weight. A weak shooting position will not withstand the repeated recoil of a rifle when 16 firing at the sustained rate or buffeting from wind. To attain a correct shooting position, the 4 (b) When in a shooting position with proper sight alignment, the position of the tip of the 11 (d) For each shooting position, specific adjustments will cause your rifle sights to settle

Section I Preparatory Marksmanship Training

Preparatory marksmanship training for the MK 19 covers the firing positions, the MK 19 fighting position, use of the T& E mechanism, and manipulation exercises. Thorough instruction during the preparatory training and exercises helps ensure efficient use of time and ammunition during range firing.

Section Iv Night Fire Training

All units must be able to fight during limited visibility. All soldiers must know how to employ their weapons during such time. Soldiers must experience the various conditions of night combat from total darkness to the many types of artificial illumination. All units must include basic, unassisted night fire training annually in their unit marksmanship programs. Combat units should conduct tactical night fire training at least quarterly. This tactical training should include MILES, during force-on-force training, as well as live-fire training. The many effects darkness has on night firing are discussed in this section. This section will provide units guidance on training soldiers to be effective in total darkness without using iron sights and using iron sights during limited visibility. (Figure 7-21 shows the current training program for unassisted night fire training.) (See Appendix H for more detailed information on night fighting.)

Section Ii Fieldfire Training Single Timed Targets and Multiple Timed Targets

Field-fire training provides the transition from unstressed slow firing at known-distance or feedback targets to engaging pop-up silhouettes from 50 to 300 meters. Two basic types of field-firing exercises are single-target and multiple-target engagements, which use 75-, 175-, and 300-meter targets. Once the soldier has developed the unstressed firing skills necessary to hit single KD targets, he must learn to quickly detect and engage combat-type targets at various ranges. Pop-up targets are used to add stress and simulate the short exposure times of combat targets. Therefore, the soldier must detect, acquire, and engage the target before the exposure ends. During field-fire training, the firer learns to quickly detect targets, apply SPORTS, and apply the four fundamentals simultaneously.

Preliminary Marksmanship Instruction Phase I of Basic Rifle Marksmanship

An infantryman's basic battlefield tool is his weapon. To effectively employ his weapon, marksmanship must be masteredfrom the basics of rifle marksmanship to the advanced stages of target engagement. This will greatly enhance the infantryman's capability to close with and destroy the enemy. Understanding the operation and functions of any machine is vital to becoming an expert with that machine. The same theory applies to rifle marksmanship. Commanders must keep this in mind when setting up a training program. This chapter covers the mechanical training of the M16- M4-series weapons. With this knowledge, a soldier is able to assess and correct any malfunction to keep the weapon always operating properly.

Figure Rapid semiautomatic fire training program

To maintain the desired rate of fire, the soldier has only a short period to squeeze the trigger (one well-aimed shot every one or two seconds). The firer must cause the rifle to fire in a period of about one-half of a second or less and still not anticipate the precise instant of firing. It is important that initial trigger pressure be applied as soon as a target is identified and while the front sight post is being brought to the desired point of aim. When the front sight post reaches the point of aim, final pressure must be applied to cause the rifle to fire almost at once. This added pressure, or final trigger squeeze, must be applied without disturbing the lay of the rifle. Repeated dry-fire training, using the Weaponeer device, and live-fire practice ensure the soldier can squeeze the trigger and maintain a rapid rate of fire consistently and accurately. (2) Immediate Action. To maintain an increased rate of suppressive fire, immediate action must be applied...

Field Fire Phase III of Basic Rifle Marksmanship

Field firing is part of the continued progression in the development of combat shooting skills. This begins the soldier's critical transition from unstressed firing at single, known-distance targets to targets at various ranges for short exposures. It also requires the soldier to practice and refine previously taught skills.

Advanced Rifle Marksmanship Phase IV of Basic Rifle Marksmanship

The procedures and techniques for implementing the Army rifle marksmanship training program are based on all soldiers understanding common firing principles, being proficient marksmen, and being confident in applying their firing skills in combat. During preliminary marksmanship instruction, instructors-trainers emphasize initial learning by reviewing, reinforcing, and practicing the basics. This chapter concentrates on advanced techniques and procedures the soldier will need to participate in collective training during unit live-fire training exercises. Areas discussed in this chapter include advanced firing positions, combat firing techniques, NBC firing, unassisted night fire, moving target engagement, short-range marksmanship (SRM) training, and squad designated marksman (SDM) training.

Data on hand guns

The role of Class Characteristics of rifling in firearms identification has already been explained and discussed at some length. Because of the paucity of reliable information concerning rifling characteristics as they actually exist in guns, rather than in manufacturers' specifications, and because no reliable information was available for guns of many makes and models it seemed worth while to make a comprehensive series of measurements of all the makes and models of hand guns that could be obtained for study.

Field Fire Training

Field fire training provides the transition from unstressed slow firing at known-distance feedback targets to engaging fleeting combat-type pop-up silhouettes. Two basic types of field firing exercises are single-target and multiple-target engagements, which use 75-, 175-, and 300-meter targets. Once the soldier has developed the unstressed firing skills necessary to hit single KD targets, he must learn to detect and quickly engage combat-type targets at various ranges. Time standards are provided during this instruction to add stress and to simulate the short exposure times of combat targets. The soldier must, therefore, detect, acquire, and engage the target before the exposure ends. During field fire training, the firer learns to quickly detect and apply the fundamentals at the same time. (See Appendix G.)

Rifle Marksmanship

Marine Corps Reference Publication (MCRP) 3-01A, Rifle Marksmanship, provides the doctrine, techniques, and procedures for Marine Corps rifle marksmanship. Every Marine is first and foremost, a rifleman. MCRP 3-01A reflects this ethos and the Marine Corps warfighting philosophy. This publication discusses the individual skills required for effective rifle marksmanship, and standardizes the techniques and procedures throughout the Marine Corps. It constitutes, the doctrinal basis for all entry level and sustainment level rifle marksmanship training. MCRP 3-01A supersedes the discussion of rifle marksmanship in Fleet Marine Force Manual (FMFM) 0-8, Basic Marksmanship and FMFM 0-9, Field Firing for the M16A2 Rifle. (The discussion of pistol marksmanship in FMFM 0-8 remains in effect until until superseded by MCRP 3-01B, Pistol Marksmanship, which is currently under development.) Rifle Marksmanship

Rapidfire Training

Soldiers should be well trained in all aspects of slow semiautomatic firing before attempting any rapid-fire training. Those who display a lack of knowledge of the fundamental skills should not advance to rapid semiautomatic training until these skills are learned. Initial training should focus on the modifications to the fundamentals and other basic combat skills necessary during rapid semiautomatic firing.

Dryfire Training

Correct Sight Picture Handgun

Dry-fire training is designed to teach the gunner the essentials of MG gunnery, including safety. Dry-fire training also includes sighting, aiming, sight setting, laying, manipulating the gun, manipulating the T& E mechanism, and determining the range. Thorough, carefully supervised training of these essentials is necessary to conserve time and ammunition during live fire. Practical exercises should be used to determine gunners' proficiency. Mastery of these skills is a must before the gunner is allowed to move on to the next phase of training. Practice is a must to achieve mastery. b. Range Setting and Laying. Range setting and laying the gun are important elements in marksmanship training. It is this training that prepares the gunner to accurately and rapidly place fire on his target in combat. To properly set ranges, the gunner must be trained in rear sight operation.

The Meter Alternate Course

The 25- 15-meter alternate course provides units a way to test a soldier's rifle marksmanship proficiency. A soldier undergoing rifle qualification should first confirm the zero setting on his rifle before engaging the alternate course. The zero may be confirmed with the 25-meter battlesight zero procedure of six sighter rounds, which are fired in the prone supported position. Sighter rounds do not count for score. Training sustainment ammunition is used for sighter rounds if a zeroing exercise is not conducted the day of record fire.

Sample Evaluation Guide

The following questions are provided as an example of a self-evaluation guide for commanders leaders to help evaluate unit marksmanship training and small-arms readiness. Other areas of interest should be developed locally, based on the unit's missions and state of training. COMMANDER'S LEADER'S RIFLE MARKSMANSHIP EVALUATION GUIDE

Instructortrainer Selection

Institutional and unit instructors trainers are selected and assigned from the most highly qualified soldiers. These soldiers must have an impressive background in rifle marksmanship be proficient in applying these fundamentals know the importance of marksmanship training and have a competent and professional attitude. The commander must ensure that selected instructors trainers can effectively train other soldiers. Local instructor trainer training courses and marksmanship certification programs must be established to ensure that instructor trainer skills are developed. The instructor trainer helps the firer master the fundamentals of rifle marksmanship. He ensures that the firer consistently applies what he has learned. Then, it is a matter of practice, and the firer soon acquires good firing skills. When training the beginner, the instructor trainer could confront problems such as fear, nervousness, forgetfulness, failure to understand, and a lack of coordination or determination....

Role of the Marine Rifleman

To be combat ready, the Marine must be skilled in the techniques and procedures of rifle marksmanship. Although equipped with the best rifle in the world, a unit with poorly trained riflemen cannot be depended upon to accomplish its mission. A poorly trained rifleman can lack

Section Iv Knowndistance Range

The known-distance range is used for testing and marksmanship training. The firing task on a known-distance range is an intermediate step toward the firing task of a combat soldier. Program changes (pop-up targets) and ranges have provided a much better simulation of combat requirements. The soldier is provided information concerning the precise hit-or-miss location of every bullet fired. KD firing is conducted with a single, clearly visible target at a known distance, and the soldier can establish a position that provides a natural point of aim on that single target. While this is good for its intended purpose, overuse often results in KD training being more competition-oriented than combat-oriented.

Assessment Of Marksmanship Status

To conduct an effective marksmanship program, the unit commander must determine the current marksmanship proficiency of all assigned personnel. To check the effectiveness of a unit's marksmanship program, constant evaluation is required. Observing and accurately recording performance reveals the status of rifle and magazine maintenance, the quality of rifle zeros, and the ability of each soldier to hit targets. This also allows the commander to identify soldiers who need special assistance in order to reach required standards, and to recognize soldiers who exceed these standards. Based on this evaluation, marksmanship training programs can be developed and executed.

Chapter Eight Assembling and Testing

Once the interior components are finished to your satisfaction, begin assembling the handgun by placing the appropriate coil spring in position between the sear and frame pin the sear in place. Pin the trigger in place in the frame, then fit the trigger bar-disconnector, pin, and spring in their respective locations.

Modifications For Rapid Fire

To maintain an increased rate of suppressive fire, immediate action must be applied quickly. The firer must identify the problem and correct the stoppage immediately. Repeated dry-fire practice, using blanks or dummy rounds, followed by live-fire training and evaluation ensures that soldiers can rapidly apply immediate action while other soldiers initiate fire. Repeated dry-fire training, using the Weaponeer device, and live-fire practice ensure the soldier can squeeze the trigger and maintain a rapid rate of fire consistently and accurately.

DAcquiring and Maintaining Sight Alignment and Sight Picture

(1) The human eye can focus clearly on only one object at a time. For accurate shooting, it is important to focus on the tip of the front sight post the second the shot is fired. When the shot is fired, focus must be on the tip of the front sight post secondary focus will include the rear sight and the target. The rear sight and the target will appear blurry. To stare or fix the vision on the front sight post for longer than a few seconds can distort the image, making it difficult to detect minute errors in sight alignment.

Figure Using the Back of a Vehicle for Cover

The proper use of cover provides protection from enemy fire. Cover and concealment should provide additional support for the position. The type of cover can dictate which firing position (e.g., standing, kneeling, sitting, prone) will be the most effective. For example, a Marine's height in relation to the height of the cover aids in the selection of a firing position.

Chapter Rifle Firing Positions

A firing position must limit a Marine's exposure to the enemy, yet allow observation of the enemy. Manmade structures and terrain features (e.g., vegetation, earth contours) often dictate the shooting position. The standing position normally provides the best field of view, but it usually allows the most exposure to the enemy. The prone position normally allows the least exposure, but it usually provides a limited field of view.

Interrelated Aspects Of Position Shooting

It should be explained to a new shooter that it is important to place his spotting telescope in a favorable location (Figure 18). This is true of all the shooting positions, but it is most critical when shooting the prone positions. The scope should be placed so that only a slight movement of the head is necessary to bring the eye to the lens. If the shooter must raise or move his body to see through the scope, he may change the established position for his next shot. This shifting can change the natural point of aim or the head position. Unless the change of position is redressed it can move the point of impact. C. REQUIREMENTS OF A POSITION, There are certain satisfactory results that we want from any shooting position that we build. First we decide what we want and then we work on how to achieve the goal.

Make a Sight Adjustment if Required

Generally, major sight adjustments from established sight settings are caused by poor application of the fundamentals, inconsistencies in firing positions, inconsistencies in sight picture at different ranges and different positions, and inconsistent tension on the sling. Every effort should be made to correct shooting errors prior to making a sight adjustment on the rifle.

M Carbine and MA Rifle Bullet Trajectory Comparison

Notes Trajectory

The firers can demonstrate that they understand holding off by using an M15 sighting device. The firer aligns the sights on the silhouette on the proper adjusted aiming point. Once the firer has an understanding of elevation and windage hold-off, he is able to begin the live-fire training exercise (Table 7-11). The firer will be given 20 rounds in which to engage 20 targets at ranges from 100 to 500 meters using elevation and windage hold-off.

Semi Automatic Pistol Design

Semiauto Pistol Drawings

In this volume, I propose to show two different pistol (or handgun) designs which can be manufactured in the home workshop. The single shot pistol design shown herein uses an entirely different approach to our problem. Since it utilizes a falling-block design made from solid steel, it will be strong enough to handle just about any cartridge you care to chamber it for. The barrel may be as long as you care to make it. With good adjustable sights or a suitable telescopic sight, this handgun should be as accurate at longer ranges as any other weapon of this general type. Here again I have tried to keep its design as simple as possible. The hammer must be cocked by hand. It could be made self-cocking relatively easily, but this would demand additional parts and machining operations. Or a hammerless, self-contained breech block could be used, but this would call for extra parts plus a safety lever of some sort. I, personally, have no use for a telescopic sight on a pistol. If you want a...

Figure Grouping procedures

Eotech Zeroing Target

Shot grouping is a form of practice firing with two primary objectives firing tight shot groups and consistently placing those groups in the same location. Shot grouping should be conducted between dry-fire training and zeroing. The initial live-fire training should be a grouping exercise with the purpose of practicing and refining marksmanship fundamentals. Since this is not a zeroing exercise, few sight changes are made. Grouping exercises can be conducted anywhere that provides precise location of bullet hits and misses such as a 25-meter live-fire zeroing range, KD range, Weaponeer, MACS, LOMAH, LMTS, or EST. No sight adjustments should be made to the sights until the firer can shoot six consecutive shots (two shot groups) inside a 4-centimeter circle. Once this is accomplished the soldier is now ready to conduct zeroing procedures. (4) 4- to 5-Centimeter Shot Groups. The targets shown in Figure 5-8 represent unacceptable firing performance. A better firing...

Figure meter boresight target and meter zero offset Ammunition Types And Characteristics

Bullet Drop Chart Meter Zero

(2) If adequate range facilities are not available for sustainment training, SRTA can be used for any firing exercise of 25 meters or less. This includes the 25-meter scaled silhouette, 25-meter alternate qualification course, and quick-fire training. SRTA can also be used for Urban Operations training. (See Appendix A for use of SRTA in training.)

Figure Unit marksmanship sustainment strategy Training Phases

The procedures and techniques for implementing the Army rifle marksmanship training program are based on all soldiers understanding common firing principles, being proficient marksmen, and being confident in applying their firing skills in combat. This depends on understanding the rifle and applying marksmanship fundamentals. Unit leaders accomplish proficiency through supervised practice by qualified instructors trainers and thorough objective performance assessments. During preliminary rifle instruction (PRI), instructors trainers emphasize initial learning by reviewing, reinforcing, and practicing the basics. Soldiers must master weapon maintenance, function checks, and firing fundamentals before progressing to advanced skills and firing exercises under tactical conditions. Soldier skills are developed in five phases

Crossed Ankle Sitting Position with the Hasty Sling

The crossed ankle sitting position is an extremely stable shooting position. This position places most of the body's weight behind the weapon and aids in quick shot recovery. Apply the seven factors to this position (para. 5003). To assume the crossed ankle sitting position with the hasty sling (see figs. 5-33, 5-34, 5-35)

Table A Classification of resources

Several marksmanship training devices are available to aid in sustainment training. They are beneficial when ammunition is limited for training or practice exercises such as field firing on the weaponeer or zeroing and qualifying with SRTA. Some training devices are complex, costly, and in limited supply, while others are relatively simple, cheap, and in large supply. Devices and aids can be used alone or in combinations. Individuals or squads can sustain and practice basic marksmanship skills and fundamentals with devices and or aids.

Training Devices And Exercises

Several marksmanship training devices are available to aid in sustainment training when used with the appropriate training strategies. They are beneficial when ammunition is limited for training or practice exercises. Some training devices are complex, costly, and in limited supply, while others are relatively simple, cheap, and in large supply. Devices and aids can be used alone or in combinations. Individuals or squads can sustain practice basic marksmanship skills and fundamentals with devices aids.

Acquiring and Maintaining Sight Alignment and Sight Picture

Rifle Shooting Stock Weld Picture

The human eye can focus clearly on only one object at a time. For accurate shooting, it is important to focus on the tip of the front sight post. When the shot is fired, focus must be on the tip of the front sight post peripheral vision will include the rear sight and the target. The rear sight and the target will appear blurry. Staring or fixing the vision on the front sight post for longer than a few seconds can distort the image, making it difficult to detect minute errors in sight alignment.

Effects Of Wind And Gravity

Bullet Wind Effect Constants

Marksmanship instructors-trainers should know how the effects of wind and gravity influence the flight of the bullet, and soldiers should know how to compensate for such bullet displacement. This instruction is appropriate for all marksmanship training and concurrent training.

The Four Fundamentals

Basic Rifle Marksmanship Fundamentals

When the soldier approaches the firing line, he should assume a comfortable, steady firing position. The time and supervision each soldier has on the firing line are limited. He must learn how to establish a steady position during integrated act of dry-fire training (Figure 4-16). The firer is the best judge of the quality of his position. If he can hold the front sight post steady through the fall of the hammer, he has a good position. The steady position elements are as follows. neck should be relaxed, allowing his cheek to fall naturally onto the stock. Through dry-fire training, the soldier practices this position until he assumes the same cheek-to-stock weld each time he assumes a given position, which provides consistency in aiming. Proper eye relief is obtained when a soldier establishes a good cheek-to-stock weld. A small change in eye relief normally occurs each time that the firer assumes a different firing position. The soldier should begin by trying to...

Target Engagement Techniques

Repeated dry-fire training, target detection, and proper aiming practice are the most efficient means to ensure the soldier can successfully engage short-range targets (50 meters or closer) unassisted during MILES exercises, and then live-fire training. Soldiers have sometimes been taught to close their eyes during artificial illumination to preserve their night vision. This technique is effective but also renders the soldier (or entire unit) blind for the duration of the illumination. Keeping one eye closed to preserve its night vision results in a drastically altered sense of perception when both eyes are opened, following the illumination burnout. Tactical considerations should be the deciding factor as to which technique to use. Repeated dry-fire training and target detection practice are the keys to successful engagement of targets out to 150 meters or more during live fire under artificial illumination.

Preliminary Marksmanship Instruction

As with all other forms of marksmanship training, PMI must be conducted to establish a firm foundation on which to build. Soldiers must be taught, and must understand, the fundamentals of SRM described in paragraph 7-23. Blank fire drills are conducted to ensure a complete and through understanding of the fundamentals as well as to provide the trainers with valuable feedback as to the level of proficiency of each soldier. It is important during this training to emphasize basic force protection issues such as muzzle awareness and selector switch manipulation. Soldiers must be drilled on these areas to ensure that future training and performance during combat situations is done in the safest manner possible. The risk of fratricide or noncombatant casualties is greatest during SRC. Preliminary marksmanship instruction should include, at a minimum, the following tasks.

Chapter Eleven Single Shot Design

Lay out and cut the slots in the front and rear sides of this tubing as shown in the diagram, using the cutting methods described for the slide and receiver of the semiautomatic handgun. The small slot near the top is for a bar connecting the trigger and sear, and while there must be some up-and-down clearance, the sides should fit this connecting bar closely. The barrel blank is procured or constructed in the same manner described for the other handgun. It can be about any length you want. The only requirement is that the barrel must have a 7 8 inch (.875 inch) shoulder to butt up against the forward end of the receiver. The barrel on the gun shown has an overall length of seven inches, a muzzle diameter of 5 8 inch (.625 inches), and a straight taper expanding to 7 8 inch (.875 inch) 1 2 inch forward of the thread shoulder. This leaves a cylindrical section .500 inch long and .875 inch in diameter. The barrel shank is 1.6 inches long, with the first .800 inch turned smooth to a...

Marksmanship Fundamentals

The soldier must understand the four key fundamentals before he approaches the firing line. He must be able to establish a steady position that allows observation of the target. He must aim the rifle at the target by aligning the sight system, and he must fire the rifle without disturbing this alignment by improper breathing or during trigger squeeze. The skills needed to accomplish these are known as rifle marksmanship fundamentals. These simple procedures aid the firer in achieving target hits under many conditions when expanded with additional techniques and information. Applying these four fundamentals rapidly and consistently is called the integrated act of firing. Steady Position. When the soldier approaches the firing line, he should assume a comfortable, steady firing position in order to hit targets consistently. The time and supervision each soldier has on the firing line are limited (illustrated on the following page in Figure 3-3). Therefore, he must learn how to establish...

Figure A Mobile mounting stand

Est Qualification For

The engagement skills trainer (EST) 2000 supports realistic and comprehensive gated rifle marksmanship instruction, identifies soldiers needs by requiring them to satisfy gate requirements in order to progress, and, when needed, facilitates remedial training prior to qualification. The EST 2000 (Figure A-18) is designed to be used primarily as a Train and evaluate individual marksmanship training for initial entry soldiers (BCT OSUT).

Nbc Dryfire And Livefire Exercises

Repeated dry-fire training and live-fire exercises are the most efficient means to prepare the soldier for successful target engagements at any range while in MOPP4 during MILES exercises and in live-fire training. The soldier must follow these procedures and applications to be combat effective in a NBC environment. a. NBC Dry-Fire Exercises. As with all marksmanship training, the soldier must start at the basics in order to become proficient at NBC fire. Modified fundamentals can be taught anywhere and are done before the soldier does a live-fire exercise. The dry-fire exercises, which are used during NBC training, are the same ones that are used during initial rifle marksmanship (dime-washer exercise, target box, SPORTS, and Weaponeer). The soldier must conduct dry-fire exercises in MOPP4 so he can train at the highest degraded level and adjust his shooting technique to increase his marksmanship ability in a NBC environment. The instructor-trainer can be imaginative in his...

Figure Artificial illumination training program

Nighttime Tracer Fire

To preserve night vision while artificial illumination is being used, the soldier closes his firing eye and scans his sector for enemy targets with his nonfiring eye. This allows the soldier to have night vision in at least one eye after the artificial illumination has burned out to keep scanning his sector for enemy targets. However, keeping one eye closed to preserve its night vision results in a drastically altered sense of perception when both eyes are opened following illumination burnout. Repeated dry-fire training and target detection practice are the keys to successful engagement of targets out to 250 meters or more during live-fire under artificial illumination. Repeated dry-fire training, target detection, and live-fire exercises are the most efficient means to ensure the soldier can successfully engage short-range targets. The soldier must adhere to the following procedures and applications to be effective in combat.

Qualification Training

Although marksmanship is a continuous training requirement, units normally conduct a refresher program before qualification. Soldiers must be well rounded in marksmanship fundamentals and have preparatory marksmanship training before qualification. This applies to qualification for the entire unit or for newly assigned personnel. All trainers must understand that rifle marksmanship is not a series of exercises to be trained in a planned sequence. The unit must prepare for training byD b. Feedback (precise knowledge of bullet strike) must be included in all live-fire training. The feedback is not adequate when bullets from previous firings cannot be identified such as previous shot groups on a zero target that are not triangulated and clearly marked. e. Field-fire training is a transitional phase that stresses focusing on a certain area. Soldiers must detect the target as soon as it comes up and quickly fire with only hit-or-miss feedback this is an important combat skill. Soldiers who...

Figure A Multipurpose arcade combat simulator

The MACS was designed to enhance other training techniques and existing training aids and devices used to train and sustain marksmanship skills. It is not designed to replace live-fire training or to eliminate the need for knowledgeable instructors. The MACS provides additional practice for those units without access to adequate range facilities, or that have other resource constraints. The Weaponeer is an effective rifle marksmanship-training device that simulates the live firing of the M16-series rifle. The system can be used for developing and sustaining marksmanship skills, diagnosing and correcting problems, and assessing basic skills.

Conduct Of Downrange Feedback

During IET basic rifle marksmanship, downrange feedback is conducted with paper targets at 75 meters, 175 meters, and 300 meters. Shot groups are fired progressively at the 75-meter target, then the 175-meter and 300-meter range targets. Half of the bullets are fired from the supported fighting position and the other half from the prone unsupported position. After each group is fired, soldiers move downrange to mark their targets. Based on this feedback, soldiers receive a critique from their instructor trainer coach, and apply any needed sight changes or aiming adjustments. Army training centers conduct modified versions of downrange feedback based on the availability of the KD range or modified field fire range.

Assessment Of Basjc Proficiency Readiness

Training continues in units on the basic skills taught in IET. Additional skills such as area fire are trained and then integrated into collective training exercises, which include platoon and squad live-fire STXs. (A year-round unit marksmanship training program is explained in Appendix A.) The strategy for sustaining the basic marksmanship skills taught in IET is periodic preliminary rifle instruction, followed by instructional and qualification range firing. However, a unit must set up a year-round program to sustain skills. Key elements include training of trainers, refresher training of nonfiring skills, and use of the Weaponeer or other devices for remedial training. A critical step in the Army's overall marksmanship training strategy is to train the trainers and leaders first. Leader courses and unit publications develop officer and NCO proficiencies necessary to plan and conduct marksmanship training and to evaluate the effectiveness of unit marksmanship programs. Training...

Unit Sustainment Training

A unit cannot sustain marksmanship proficiency based only on qualification preceded by preliminary training. Soldier skills and marksmanship fundamentals deteriorate within two months, and mechanical skills weaken even sooner. Dry-fire training can strengthen marksmanship skills and assess their deterioration.

Modifications For Automatic Fire Positions

To maintain automatic fire, immediate action must be applied quickly. The firer must identify the problem and correct it immediately. Repeated dry-fire practice, using blanks or dummy rounds, followed by live-fire training and evaluation ensures that soldiers can rapidly apply immediate action.

Urban Operations Firing Positions

Gun Silencer Diagram For Pistol

Although the same principles of rifle marksmanship apply, the selection and use of firing positions during urban operations (UO) requires some special considerations. Firing from around corners could require the soldier to fire from the opposite shoulder to avoid exposing himself to enemy fire.

Unit Livefire Exercises

NOTE Table 1-1 shows training devices a commander may use to sustain weapons proficiency. (See Appendix A for details on these training devices.) The devices replicate, but are not intended to replace, live-fire exercises or qualifications. Active and Reserve Component units should consult DA Pam 350-38, Standards in Weapons Training, for regulatory guidance on mandatory live-fire training and qualification events. This DA Pam can best be accessed online at for the latest approved version.

Section I Target Detection

The human outline and most types of military equipment are familiar outlines to all soldiers. The outlines of rifles, helmets, and vehicles are all easily identified. The reliability of this indicator depends upon the visibility and the experience of the observer. On a clear day most soldiers can easily identify enemy riflemen or equipment if a distinctive outline is presented. At night or during other periods of poor visibility, seeing outlines is not only more difficult, but inexperienced troops will frequently mistake stumps and rocks for enemy soldiers. This is an additional reason for soldiers to become completely familiar with the terrain during periods of good visibility.

Table A Target ordering numbers continued

Calibre Pen Pistols

The caliber .22 rimfire adapter (RFA) can contribute to a unit's marksmanship program when 5.56-mm ammunition is not available or when ranges that allow firing 5.56-mm ammunition are not available. The RFA can be useful for marksmanship training such as night fire, quick fire, and assault fire. It is not recommended for primary marksmanship training.

Training With Artificial Illumination

The soldier should be able to fire his weapon effectively in total darkness, in bright sunlight, and under all conditions between these two extremes. Provide a variety of night and limited visibility conditions when marksmanship training is scheduled. The battlefield may be illuminated by ground flares, hand held flares, M203 flares, mortar and artillery illumination, aerial flares, searchlights, exploding rounds, burning vehicles, and so forth. The battlefield may be obscured by smoke, fog, and various environmental conditions. The well-trained soldier should have experienced a number of these conditions and be confident that he can effectively employ his weapon when required. (Figure 7-25 shows the current training program for artificial illumination training.)

Squad Designated Marksman Program

The platoon sergeant and squad leaders must take special consideration in selecting the SDM. The SDM must have a solid marksmanship performance, must have a clear understanding of the fundamentals, and must be able to apply these fundamentals consistently during dry-fire and live-fire training.

Section I Training Overview

This section details the effective and proven method of training the soldier in preliminary rifle marksmanship. The following marksmanship training guide contains the current tasks that are trained in basic rifle marksmanship programs, during basic combat training at Army training centers (ATCs), and during infantry one-station unit training (OSUT). It provides a basis for structuring unit sustainment programs. The unit normally performs a diagnostic test of the tasks and only conducts training on specific periods for soldiers who must improve their basic firing skills. Training is usually conducted in a shorter time frame than at IET.

Introduction And Training Strategy

An effective unit marksmanship program reflects the priority, emphasis, and interest of commanders and trainers. This chapter provides a proven rifle marksmanship training strategy as guidance in establishing and conducting an effective training program. The strategy consists of the progressive individual training periods taught during initial entry training (IET). It progresses into advanced skills and concludes with advanced reading material. Refresher training need only be conducted on periods that are deemed necessary. The proficiency attained by a soldier depends on proper training and application of the basic marksmanship fundamentals. During initial marksmanship training, emphasis is on learning the firing fundamentals, which are taught in four phases-preliminary rifle instruction, downrange feedback, field firing, and advanced firing exercises. This prepares soldiers for advanced optic and laser training for combat-type collective exercises and real world deployments.

Figure Field Fire II firing tables

(1) Firing table 1, consisting of 10 targets, helps the firer practice shooting skills and develop a sense of timing and a rhythm required to make the transition from single timed targets to multiple or single timed fleeting combat targets. This builds confidence prior to firing the exercises in firing tables 2 and 3, and identifies soldiers who are having difficulty and need reinforcement.

Figure Field Fire I firing tables

(1) Firing table 1, consisting of 18 targets, helps the firer practice shooting skills and develop a sense of timing and a rhythm required to make the transition from KD to field fire. This builds confidence prior to firing the exercises in firing tables 2 and 3, and identifies soldiers who are having difficulty and need reinforcement.

Duties Of The Instructortrainer

The instructor-trainer helps the firer master the fundamentals of rifle marksmanship. He ensures that the firer consistently applies what he has learned. Then, with practice, the firer soon acquires good firing skills. When training the beginner, the instructor-trainer could confront problems such as fear, nervousness, forgetfulness, failure to understand, and a lack of coordination or determination. An expert firer is often unaware that arrogance and carelessness complicate problems. With all types of firers, the instructor-trainer must ensure that firers are aware of their firing errors, understand the causes, and apply remedies. Sometimes errors are not evident. The instructor-trainer must isolate errors, explain them, and help the firer concentrate on correcting them.

Conduct Of Fieldfire Range

Live-fire training can be organized in several ways. A unit is divided into two or more firing orders based on the number of personnel to be trained. The first order is the firer, the second order is the coach and (if required) the third order is the scorer. At the conclusion of each exercise, positions rotate until all orders have fired. Standard field-fire scenarios have been developed to provide several target exposures. Although they are recommended for initial entry training, local commanders can develop any variety of more challenging target sequences. Ammunition is allocated based on one round for each target.

Chapter Troubleshooting And Destruction

PRELIMINARY RIFLE INSTRUCTION (PHASE I of Basic Rifle Marksmanship) Section I. Introduction to Basic Rifle Marksmanship and Mechanical Training . 4-1 (PHASE II of Basic Rifle Marksmanship) (PHASE III of Basic Rifle Marksmanship) Section II. Field-Fire Training (Single Timed Targets

Basic Program Implementation

Institutional and unit instructor-trainers are selected and assigned from the most highly qualified soldiers. These soldiers must have an impressive background in rifle marksmanship be proficient in applying these fundamentals know the importance of marksmanship training and have a competent and professional attitude. The commander must ensure that selected instructor-trainers can effectively train other soldiers. Local instructor-trainer training courses and marksmanship certification programs must be established to ensure that instructor-trainer skills are developed.

Training

Dry-fire training and live-fire training are necessary to mastering basic rifle marksmanship. The soldier must adhere to the following procedures and applications to be effective in combat. Without extensive dry-fire training, soldiers do not perform to standards during live fire. Valuable range time and ammunition are wasted in a final attempt to teach the basics.

Training Strategy

Training strategies for rifle marksmanship are implemented in TRADOC institutions (IET, NCOES, basic and advanced officer's courses) and in units. The overall training strategy is multifaceted and is inclusive of the specific strategies used in institution and unit programs. Also included are the supporting strategies that use resources such as publications, ranges, ammunition, training aids, devices, simulators, and simulations. These strategies focus on developing critical soldier skills, and on leader skills that are required for success in combat. The training strategy for rifle marksmanship begins in IET and continues in the unit. An example of this overall process is illustrated in Figure 1-1 and provides a concept of the flow of unit sustainment training (Appendix A). IET provides field units with soldiers who have been trained and who have demonstrated proficiency to standard in basic marksmanship tasks. The soldier graduating from these courses has been trained to maintain...

Table of Contents

Introduction to Rifle Marksmanship 5003 Factors Common to All Shooting Positions 5-4 5004 Elements of a Good Shooting CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO RIFLE MARKSMANSHIP To be combat ready, the Marine must be skilled in the techniques and procedures of rifle marksmanship and take proper care of his rifle. Even when equipped with the best rifle in the world, a unit with poorly trained riflemen cannot be depended upon to accomplish their mission. Usually, poorly trained riflemen either fail to fire their weapon or they waste ammunition by firing ineffectively. To send Marines into harm's way without thorough training in the use of their individual weapons carries undue risks for every Marine in the unit. On the other hand, well trained riflemen can deliver accurate fire against the enemy under the most

Training The Trainer

Knowledgeable small-unit leaders are the key to marksmanship training. This manual and other training publications provide the unit instructor with the required information for developing a good train-the-trainer program. The commander should identify unit personnel who have had assignments as marksmanship instructors. These individuals should be used to train other unit cadre by conducting preliminary rifle instruction and live-fire exercises for their soldiers.

Ten Day Rust Process

Prepare the handgun's parts for bluing by polishing and degreasing, as previously described. Repeat the processes for tanks one and two, as outlined under Fast Process. Boil distilled water in tank number three, along with the pint jar half-full of bluing solution. Place the parts to be blued in the boiling water for five minutes. Remove, and use a clean swab to coat the part with solution. Allow it to stand between eight and ten hours before carding off the rust with steel wool or a wire brush. Then boil it in tank three for five minutes, to neutralize any remaining chemicals from the previous coat. Remove the part, and allow it to cool a bit. Swab on another coat of the solution. most respects to many of its commercial counterparts. Good luck and good shooting

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