Extraction And Ejection

After a cartridge has been fired the empty case must obviously be removed from the chamber before the weapon can be reloaded with another round. In the majority of modern firearms the mere fact of opening the breech after firing automatically ejects the fired case; but in others the fired case is only partially unseated from its position in the chamber, and has to be removed by hand. This is the difference between ejection and extraction.

And since the effects of both extraction and ejection on fired cases can have a most important bearing on the work of identification of an individual weapon, a thorough understanding is essential of the broad principles involved in bringing these ends about.

These principles are really very simple.

In all "break-down" action guns and rifles, that is in all such weapons which open in the manner of 'an ordinary shotgun, extraction is effected by a portion of the breech end of the barrel being made separate from the rest of the barrel. On the arm being opened this portion is actuated by a cam and moves to the rear. And since the head of the cartridge case is fitted with a rim, the moving limb of the barrel withdraws the cartridge with it. This movable limb is called the extractor.

Ejection of the fired case is brought about by a special lock mechanism which only comes into action when the hammer falls. This lock actuates the extractor and flicks it backwards at the moment when the arm is opened, and so ejects the fired case.

The extractors of an ordinary game gun can be seen in Plate H.

A similar extractor is used in all rifles with "falling block" or Martini actions, but in their case the extractor is actuated by the lever which opens the breech, and ejection is brought about either by the force with which this lever is jerked down, or else by a spring which is only freed from compression by the fall of the hammer.

In revolvers there is usually a common extractor for all the chambers in the cylinder, that portion belonging to each chamber being similar in general design to the extractor of an ordinary shotgun.

But in many of the earlier models of revolvers which are still in existence, as well as in some of the modern cheaper models, extraction is effected by rotating the cylinder so that each chamber is moved clear of the barrel in turn, when the fired case is pushed out from the front.

In all bolt-action rifles and shotguns extraction is

Shotgun Bolt Forward

(A) A Colt -38 Self-loading Pistol with the slide and breech mechanism removed

The arrow indicates the ejector block

(B) The Forward Half of the Bolt of a «303 Sporting Rifle

Tbc arrow indicate* the extrartor

(A) A Colt -38 Self-loading Pistol with the slide and breech mechanism removed

The arrow indicates the ejector block

(B) The Forward Half of the Bolt of a «303 Sporting Rifle

Tbc arrow indicate* the extrartor effected simply by pulling the cartridge straight out. There is a small claw fitted on the circumference of the front end of the bolt, and this claw slips round the rim of the cartridge case. As the bolt is withdrawn it pulls the cartridge out with it.

Just before the bolt reaches the extreme end of its backward travel the front end passes over the metal support for the rear end of the magazine. The bottom part of the base of the cartridge butts up against this metal stop and the cartridge case is consequently pushed clear of the extractor claw. If the bolt is opened sharply this sudden butting of the cartridge base against the fixed metal stop is sufficient to fling the case clear of the rifle, and so bring about ejection.

In self-loading pistols the bolt is replaced by a sliding breech-block which is forced to slide backwards by the discharge in just the same manner as the bolt of a rifle is pulled back by hand.

The breech block is fitted with an extractor similar to that on a bolt-action rifle, and ejection is brought about by a small fixed metal block on the body of the pistol, the breech block being recessed so as to slide over it. This small metal block is called the Ejector.

In some makes of self-loading pistols there is no special ejector, and an existing part of the body is used to serve instead. Such parts of the body are the top edge of the magazine, or even the firing pin; while in some makes the top cartridge in the magazine acts as the ejector.

The extractor of a Lee Enfield sporting rifle and the ejector in a self-loading pistol are also shown in Plate V.

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Responses

  • TIZIANA
    What is the differencr between extraction and ejection?
    4 years ago
  • Mathilda Yli-Hannuksela
    What are the differences between extraction and ejection?
    3 years ago
  • Tomas
    What is an extractor ballistics?
    3 years ago

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