Glossary

Action the working mechanism for chambering, cocking, firing, and ejecting in a firearm. Examples include falling block, rolling block, lever, and slide. AFIS (automated fingerprint identification system) a system that electronically compares questioned fingerprints against a database of fingerprints composed mainly of persons who have served in the military or who have been arrested ALS (alternate light source) a source of light that emits only a certain wavelength of light such that certain...

The Crime Labs Role In Shooting Reconstruction

Not all of the reconstruction of a shooting incident is done at the scene. A substantial part is often done off scene at the crime laboratory. For example, trace evidence and gunshot residue are documented in the lab firearms testing is also laboratory work. It is not uncommon for fired bullets recovered at crime scenes and from shooting victims to have tiny bits of material adhering to their surfaces as a result of striking things. This material is generally described as trace evidence....

Early Firearms Examinations In The United States

Civil War firearms examination was used in several notable cases. One such case was the shooting of Confederate general Thomas Stonewall Jackson. In 1863 General Jackson was shot by what was believed to be one of his own men during the Battle of Chancel-lorsville. The bullet struck the general in his right arm necessitating its amputation. Pneumonia set in and ultimately caused the general's death. Following the amputation surgeons recovered the bullet. The bullet was examined...

Arising Legal Challenges

After nearly 100 years of courtroom acceptance both fingerprint identification and firearms identification have become the subjects of challenges as to admissibility. In order to appreciate the legal basis for these challenges, a little legal history is needed with respect to the admis-sibility of scientific evidence in a court proceeding. The first Supreme Court decision of significance on this subject was in 1923 in the case Frye v. United States of America. This case addressed the...

Double Homicide In Arizona

In the late 1990s an East Indian couple purchased a rundown truck stop caf on Interstate 40 between Flagstaff and Kingman, Arizona. They planned to modernize and improve the establishment and hoped to turn it into a successful business. At the time of the purchase the business had three employees a diesel mechanic, a cook, and a waitress who was the cook's longtime girlfriend. It soon became apparent to the new owners that the cook and the waitress were not a good match with their new business....

Ball Powder Goes the Distance

Effect of gravity and air friction on gunpowder Effect of gravity and air friction on gunpowder Ultimate fate of gunpowder particles in flight their cartridges. This pretty well ensures the fact that unburned and partially burned gunpowder particles will exit the barrel of a weapon when fired. Regardless of how much or what type of gunpowder is involved, the force of gravity and the effect of air friction both act to slow and eventually bring the powder particles to a halt. Thus, if a weapon is...

The eyes may have it

As far back as the 1930s, in the context of biometric research, people recognized that the blood vessels at the back of the eye might be unique in pattern and offer a means of individual identification. Retinal scanning technology has been around as an alternative means for personal identification since the mid-1970s. Retinal scanning analyzes the layer of blood vessels at the very back of the eye. These blood vessels form a pattern that is totally random and unique, just like fingerprints....

Conclusion

This chapter has offered the reader a glimpse into the wide-ranging roles of firearms and fingerprint examiners. Examiners in both disciplines must have sound academic backgrounds in the natural sciences and significant experience in order to perform at the highest level. The ability to carry out laboratory analyses and conduct field examinations forms the basis for being able to reconstruct events associated with crimes under investigation. The culmination of these efforts is the ability to...

A

Absence of evidence xvii, 88, 116-117 absence of fingerprints 15, 16, 88 absorbent surfaces. See porous substrates accidental discharge 111-112, 114, 119-120, 136-140 accreditation 20-22 ACE-V (analysis, comparison, evaluation and verification) 150 adhesive tape 90-91, 96, 143 Adobe Photoshop 97 adsorbance, of fingerprint powder 87 AFIS (automated fingerprint identification system) 3-4, 7, 98-105, 121, 141-142 AFTE. See Association of Firearm and American Society of Crime Laboratory Directors...

Whats next

Future developments in the field of fingerprints and firearms are limited only by human imagination. One possibility that may not be too far into the future is hand-carried fingerprint scanners that would allow an investigator to identify an individual and do an instant check against the fingerprint database while the investigator is at the crime scene. With components getting smaller and smaller and the technology continuing to improve, this does not seem too far fetched. The same...

New Application Of Old Techniques

The rate of recovery of identifiable fingerprints on firearms and fired ammunition components has always been small single-digit percentages being the norm. Thanks to a new application of old technology, this has changed drastically for the Boston police department's fingerprint lab. The rate of recovery of identifiable fingerprints on guns and fired cartridge cases has gone from the traditional average of around 5 percent to an astounding 32 percent in just more than a year, according to...

Sir edward henrys system the dawn of modern fingerprint identification

Perhaps one of the most influential people involved with the evolution of fingerprinting is Sir Edward Henry. Born on July 26, 1850, in London, Henry studied English, Latin, physics, and mathematics at St. Edmund's College and University College. In 1873 Henry qualified for the Indian Civil Service and was appointed to the presidency of Fort William in Bengal, India. In October 1873 Henry was appointed assistant magistrate collector for the government of the Northwest Provinces. His duties were...

The Future

The field of forensic science, like other areas of science, is continuously changing with the introduction of new technologies. The application of technology designed for one area to another unrelated area is becoming more the rule than the exception. What is today's high-tech achievement is tomorrow's routine procedure. Technology related to firearms and fingerprints is no different. This final chapter will explore some of the emerging technology associated with these two disciplines and set...

Firearms That Can Talk

For years firearms safety advocates have wished that there were some way for firearms to be able to communicate with their owners such that they would recognize whether the individual who was attempting to fire them was authorized. Certainly combination locks on triggers represent a step in this direction. More sophisticated devices such as fingerprint or retinal scanners are too bulky and expensive in their current configurations, but what if they could be miniaturized The need for instant...

Firearms Testing Sympathetic Firing

May be safely fired by pulling the string from a distance. Revolvers with loose and or misaligned cylinders are common examples of potentially dangerous weapons. Weapons are never loaded with more than one round, for safety purposes. The examination of firearms to determine whether they have been damaged or modified is a direct spin-off of the function and reliability testing. This phase of the examination for semiautomatic weapons, however, often focuses on whether the weapon has been modified...

Calvin goddard and the beginnings of modern firearms examination in the united states

Once people began to realize the significance of Balthazard's paper, the field of firearms identification began to emerge. Probably the most significant individual to put his shoulder to the task was Calvin Goddard, an American physician. Goddard is considered responsible for perfecting the comparison microscope, a mainstay in the comparison of firearms ammunition components. Goddard worked with a team of other American scientists in developing the science of firearms identification Phillip...

Laboratory methods for firearms evidence

There are a number of questions regarding firearms and ammunition components that the firearms examiner can potentially answer. Has the gun been damaged or modified Is there evidence of recent firing on or in the gun Did the gun fire the ammunition components (cartridge case or bullet) that were also submitted with it How far from the target was the gun when it was fired Operability testing begins with a visual inspection of the weapon and hand cycling of the action. For a revolver this means...

Identifying the Use of a Sound Suppressor

Inertia Bullet Puller

Sometimes the backyard gunsmith does not fully accomplish his goal of converting a semiautomatic weapon to fully automatic, resulting in a weapon that will occasionally fire in the fully automatic mode. Actual test-firing is often the only way to confirm this. The firearms examiner can load two or three rounds initially and attempt to get the weapon to fire multiple rounds with one pull of the trigger. If this is unsuccessful, a full magazine may be used. By examining the internal workings of...

Introduction

The goal of physical evidence preservation, collection, and examination is individualization, that is, to associate each piece of evidence with its responsible source. By so doing the forensic scientist may be able to answer the questions as to who, what, when, where, how, and why with regard to a crime. Firearms and latent print evidence are in the uncommon category of physical evidence whose source can be individualized. Thus, a bullet or cartridge case can be identified as having been fired...

Ignorance Is Not Bliss

The old saying that Ignorance is bliss may be true in some instances, but it is certainly not so in a shooting incident. Ignorance of various aspects of physical evidence and their ramifications can lead to false assumptions and distort the truth. Consider the following case, which the author reviewed in the early 1990s. A man was charged with intentionally shooting a 12-year-old girl in the head, killing her, during an altercation with a group of individuals at a housing project. The defendant...

The Reconstruction Of Crimes Using Firearms And Fingerprint Evidence

Shooting incidents can range from fairly simple events, such as when a single weapon is used to fire a single shot, to very complex situations involving multiple weapons used to fire multiple shots. A wide and varied array of mitigating circumstances may further add to the complexity of the incident. Regardless of the complexity, the same basic principles are utilized to reconstruct the events before, during, and after a shooting. A careful, logical approach can often take some of Footwear...

Breakthrough Reading Fingerprints Even After They Are Gone

Researchers at Leicester have just announced the development of a fingerprint visualization technique that allows for reading a fingerprint even after the print itself has been removed. This new method promises the possible solution of even decade-old unsolved cases. Forensic scientists at Leicester University's Forensic Research Center have been working with the Northamptonshire police department in England to develop a new method that enables scientists to visualize fingerprints even after...

The Role Of Fingerprints In Crime Scene Reconstruction

Fingerprints are the oldest and most recognized form of personal identification used in law enforcement. More crimes have been solved through fingerprint identification than by any other means. As previously discussed, however, identifiable fingerprints seldom show up on firearms or ammunition. This can be problematic because juries expect fingerprints to be present whenever firearms are involved in crimes. Television and movies have perpetuated the myth that fingerprints will be found on every...

Identification Des Projectiles De Revolver En Plomb Nu

Of fingerprint examination 34-50 of firearms examination 24-33 hits, to AFIS database 7 homicide, suicide vs. 15, 16, 136-140 human tissue 94-95 IAI. See International Association for Identification IBIS (Integrated Bullet Identification System) 81 identical twins, fingerprints of 83 Identification des Projectiles de Revolver en Plomb Nu (Balthazard) 33 impressed tool mark 54 impression fingerprint. See plastic fingerprint India 41, 42, 48-49 individual characteristics 54, 55 individual...

Juan vuCETICHs FINGERpRINT sYsTEM

Ivan Vucetic was born in Croatia on July 20, 1858. He immigrated to Argentina in 1882, where his name was changed to Juan Vucetich as a method of assimilation. He began working as a supervisor of several sanitation workers for Obras Sanitaria. In 1888 Vucetich began employment with the Central Police Department in Argentina, earning 30 a month. In 1891 Vucetich began the first fingerprint files based on Galton pattern types. He studied Bertillon's and Galton's work, and during his course of...

Homicide or suicide an unusual case that leaves investigators puzzled

Suicide Victim Holding Gun

One of the most frequently encountered questions that investigators must answer is whether homicide or suicide is the cause of a shooting death. Many times there are indicators of both, making the call very difficult. Following is just such a case. It began with a 911 call from a male voice identifying himself as the victim and stating, I've just accidentally shot myself. Upon arrival responding officers found the man lying on the bedroom floor dressed in pants but no shirt and shot in the...

Putting It All Together For The Jury

Firing Pin Impressions

The most difficult and by far the most important job for firearms and fingerprint examiners is the presentation of their findings in court. It is one thing to sit in the comfort of the crime lab and prepare a report or even to be out at the crime scene carrying out tests and making determinations but quite another to give testimony in court. Even the boldest, most self-assured individuals usually experience a world-class case of the butterflies when faced with the prospect of taking the witness...

C

Caliber 27 calipers 59, 59 callus 36 carbon black powder 85-86 cars, fingerprints in 37, 89 cartridge cartridge case 8 Victor Balthazard's work 33 Beltway sniper case 12 Brownsville Riot 32 caseless ammunition 145-146 fingerprints on 2 individualization of xvii in pistols 26 reduced load 74-75 residual print recovery 147-148 sympathetic firing 68-69 tool marks 8, 26, 73 caseless ammunition 145-146 certification 21-22 chain of custody 99 Chancellorsville, Battle of 30 charts. See fingerprint...

Fingerprints and modern technology

Advances in technology have gradually contributed to fingerprint examiners' efficiency in developing, enhancing, recording, and comparing fingerprints. Using fluorescence to develop latent prints, examiners can find more prints, more easily. As discussed in the previous section, lasers and forensic light sources can both produce inherent fluorescence and stimulate it in fluorescing powders and dyes. Taken together, these techniques represent one of the most significant developments in the field...

Staged Crime Scene Is Uncovered By Investigators

Firearms Examiner

In this case the careful inspection of the victim and the crime scene by the firearms examiner and the latent print examiner revealed that the crime scene had been staged. Such observations are the product of training, experience, and individual skills of perception. Training and experience can be had by anyone perceptive skills are another matter. Analogous to athletic ability, either you have it or you do not. Basic innate abilities can be honed and developed, but that can only go so far....

Sir Francis Galtons Fingerprint System

Sir Francis Galton was born on February 16, 1822, in Sparkbroom, England. A Renaissance man, he is considered one of the greatest scientists of the 19th century. Prior to getting involved in criminology, Galton studied finance, meteorology, psychology, and heredity at Birmingham, London, and Cambridge. He left school and traveled to Africa in the hope of studying geography. Galton reviewed Bertillon's anthropometric system, as well as dactylography, and supported fingerprinting as the superior...

Fingerprints and dna

The traditional approach to personal identification has been to examine an object for the presence of identifiable fingerprints, enhancing vague or partial prints as appropriate. With the advent of AFIS the next hurdle for the fingerprint examiner was to ensure that the fingerprints be of AFIS quality. This allows the fingerprints to be entered into an AFIS and searched against the database. If the fingerprints are deemed not to be of appropriate quality, the AFIS search cannot be made. This...

B

Bengal, India, Police Department 48-49 bodies, fingerprint development on 94-95 Boston, Massachusetts, Police Department 148-149 Bow Street Runners 29 Braille system 41 brands, of ammunition 108, 111, 111 Brass Catcher 81 Breslau, University of 40 Brownsville Riot 32 buckshot 80 Buenos Aires, Argentina 47-48 bullet bullet identification Victor Balthazard's work 32-33 Beltway sniper case 12 during Civil War 30 fibers embedded in 116, 116 Henry Goddard's work 29-30 individualization of xvii tool...

The theory of individual identification and the scientific method

The goal of all physical evidence examinations is to achieve individual identification, that is, to show that a fingerprint came from a particular individual or that a bullet was fired in a certain weapon. Being able to accomplish this requires an organized thought process and the execution of a logical series of tests. The scientific method is used in both of these processes. The scientific method involves a series of steps that ultimately lead to a conclusion. The steps associated with the...

Absence of Evidence Is Not Evidence of Absence

One of the most frequently contested subjects in court proceedings is the significance of not finding fingerprints on weapons, particularly firearms. Portrayals on television and in movies often suggest that fingerprints would have to be left on a gun or a knife if the person handled it. And defense attorneys, almost without exception, will use the absence of fingerprints on items to try to show that their client could not have committed the crime in question. Yet, it is a mistake to attach any...

Firearms And Fingerprints At The Crime Scene

Due to the demands of the crime laboratory, not all examiners actually go to the crime scene to collect evidence and carry out testing in the field. Those laboratories where examiners do serve the dual role of laboratory analyst and scene investigator typically limit the on-scene aspect to major cases. Otherwise, there simply would be no way to get all the requested work done back at the lab. Big city police departments, such as the NYPD and the Washington Metropolitan Police Department, have...

Firearms And The Evidence They Provide

Caliber Bore Diameter

A firearm is a weapon that is capable of firing a projectile and using an explosive charge as a propellant. The broadest category of firearms includes two types handguns and long guns. Handguns are designed to Semiautomatic pistol Courtesy of the author Semiautomatic pistol Courtesy of the author be fired while held in the hand, and long guns are designed to be fired from the shoulder. Handguns include revolvers and pistols, examples of which appear in the accompanying photographs. Pistols are...

Reconstructing Shootings Using Firearmsrelated Evidence At The Scene

The reconstruction of a shooting incident is the ultimate challenge for the criminal investigator. This is arguably the most important aspect of the scene investigation. In most large police departments this will be a combined effort involving the firearms examiner, the crime scene investigator, and the lead detective. Typically the firearms examiner possesses expertise regarding firearms and ammunition components that neither the detective nor the crime scene investigator possesses. Likewise,...

The Lowtech Approach To Fingerprints

Carbon Powder Fingerprinting

Latent print residue that is deposited on the surface of nonabsorbent materials generally stays there and is not absorbed into the surface. This is adsorption, rather than absorption. The properties of the residue are different from the surface properties. This constitutes the basis for creating color differences through the selective absorption of powders and dyes. Powders used for developing latent prints are of two general types carbon and powdered iron. Fingerprint powder in the form of...

Further Reading

Quantitative Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis An Introduction to Basic and Advanced Ridgeology. London CRC Press, 1999. This text gives the reader a basic introduction to fingerprint identification principles as well as discussing advanced techniques. Association of Firearm and Tool Mark Examiners Web site. Available online. URL http www.afte.org. Accessed December 27, 2007. At this Web site members of the firearms community and the general public may access...

Firearms Examination Equipment

Equipment For Forensic Toolmark Analysis

The specialized equipment used by firearms examiners includes microscopes, measuring tools, testing tools, and balances. These tools enable the examiner to carry out the various aspects of firearms examination and comparison. The need for proficiency with microscopes emphasizes the importance of examiners having an academic background in science. Other equipment, such as measuring and weighing devices, are also familiar items to anyone who has a science background. The firearms or tool marks...

Fingerprints wHAT they ARE and how they are produced

A fingerprint can be defined as a replica of the friction ridges of the skin cast on a surface. Despite the name fingerprints, these friction ridges are also produced by the palms, the toes, and the soles of the feet. While there are a few exceptions among those who are physically impaired, everyone has the friction ridges that produce fingerprints. Friction ridge patterns are affected by genetics, but even twins with identical genes have different fingerprints. Since a print of one finger has...

The brownsville riot and cartridge case comparisons

Army infantry soldiers allegedly fired 150-200 shots from their army-issue rifles at various targets within the town of Brownsville, Texas. This was all supposed to have taken place within an approximately 10-minute period during the night. The facts were and continue to be very much in question. It was never confirmed that any of the accused soldiers actually fired a shot. What was significant about the incident is that it marked the first shooting episode in the United...

Henry faulds and william herschel and the who was first controversy

As is frequently the case in the history of scientific developments, there were several individuals working independently of one another who played somewhat equal roles as early proponents of fingerprint technology. These situations result in some degree of controversy as to who should receive the credit. The pioneering work of Henry Faulds and William Herschel in fingerprint technology serves as an example of the controversy that often arises as to who was first. Henry Faulds is another...

The Automated Fingerprint Identification System

Afis Flow Diagram

In the early days of fingerprinting law-enforcement agencies began booking fingerprints taken from individuals arrested for crimes so that the records would be readily available. They also began to maintain leftover latent prints so that they might be compared with existing and future additions to the fingerprint files. The first law-enforcement agencies to develop fingerprint collections were large ones, such as the NYPD, LAPD, and FBI. These agencies sponsored rigorous research into how best...

Ridge Characteristics

Ridge Characteristics

An examiner must be able not only to recognize what type of print a particular sample is or what category it fits into but also to identify, or match, at least 12 points. Fingerprint matching techniques can be placed into two categories minutiae based and correlation based. Minutiae-based techniques first find minutiae points and then map their relative placement on the finger. However, there are some difficulties when using this approach. It is difficult to extract the minutiae points...

Chemistry and fingerprints

Fingerprint Ridge Characteristics

A variety of chemical reagents may be used to develop or enhance latent or partially visible prints. It is also possible to use various dyes or powders to make the prints visible to the unaided eye or to set the stage for producing fluorescence under certain wavelengths of light with lasers or forensic light sources. Because the chemical properties of latent fingerprints, if any, are unknown, the forensic fingerprint examiner must select the appropriate development method based on the...

Johannes purkinje and the first attempt at fingerprint classification

Fingerprinting owes its prominence to certain icons whose research and discipline greatly advanced the field. These researchers took great time to study, take personal notes, and ultimately invent this new field but were never rewarded by seeing their work benefit anyone. Each one nonetheless contributed to advance the field. Johannes Evangelista Purkinje, also known as, Jan or John Purkinje, is one of these scientists who advanced the field of fingerprinting. He was born in 1787 in what was...

The Fingerprint Examiner At The Crime Scene

Without a doubt the fingerprint examiner has more than enough to do within the laboratory without having to seek more responsibilities outside the laboratory. Nonetheless, it is extremely desirable for the fingerprint examiner to be at the crime scene. This is because the fingerprint examiner is the only person capable of assessing a fingerprint's potential identification value. If present, the examiner can decide at the scene whether a fingerprint is worthy of enhancement or if on-scene...

Alphonse bertillon and the transition to dactylography

Perhaps one of the most influential people when speaking of criminal identification, is Alphonse Bertillon. He was born in 1853 to a family with strong scientific traditions. His grandfather was a well-known naturalist and mathematician, and he was the son of a distinguished French physician and statistician. Ironically, Bertillon was a very poor student. He was expelled from several schools and dismissed from an apprenticeship. In 1879 he was able to land a menial job filing information cards...

Professor alexandre lacassagne a pioneer in bloodstain analysis

Alexandre Lacassagne 1844-1921 was a professor at the University of Lyons, France. He was the first scientist to study bullet markings and their relationship to specific weapons. In 1889 in France, Professor Lacassagne removed a bullet from a corpse. He noted that the rifling impressions on the bullet were from a weapon with seven lands and seven grooves. A number of possible suspects were rounded up and their weapons turned over to Professor Lacassagne for examination. Ultimately, the...

Professor victor balthazard and bullet comparison In France

The various other aspects of firearms identification were not really recognized for their potential value in solving crimes until the early 20th century. In 1913 Victor Balthazard, a professor at the Sorbonne, in Paris, published what was clearly a monumental paper on firearms identification Identification des Projectiles de Revolver en Plomb Nu in Volume 148 of Comptes Rendus de l'Acad mie des Sciences . In this article Balthazard discussed bullet comparison and also made reference to the fact...

The Contributions of Henry Goddard in London

One of the early pioneers in the field of criminal investigation, Henry Fielding 1707-54 , is credited with developing the Bow Street Runners in England, forerunners of modern detectives. Fielding is also well known as a novelist and playwright. One of the last of the Bow Street Runners, Henry Goddard 1800-83 , is recognized as one of the first individuals to recognize the potential of firearms evidence as an aid in identifying the criminals involved. In 1835 Goddard successfully identified a...

Firearms And Fingerprints In The Crime

Firearms Transfer Thumbprint Card

The roles of firearms and fingerprint examiners in the crime laboratory are numerous and varied. Firearms examiners are frequently called upon to do many things that do not fall under the traditional heading of firearms identification. Examples include serial number restoration with chemical etchants, gunshot residue analysis for barium nitrate, and shooting incident reconstruction. Similarly, fingerprint examiners must be proficient in specialized methods of photography, the application of...

Applying the Scientific Method

Different aspects interior ballistics bullet behavior within the confines of the barrel , exterior ballistics bullet behavior upon exiting the barrel , and terminal ballistics bullet behavior upon impacting a target . Wound ballistics is a specialized area of terminal ballistics relating to the behavior of bullets striking human or animal targets. Tool mark examination, on the other hand, is limited to the determination of whether a tool mark was made by a particular tool. Tools commonly...

How To Become A Firearms Or Fingerprint Examiner

The basic educational requirements for firearms examiners and fingerprint examiners vary from agency to agency. College degrees, once the exception in these two fields, are rapidly becoming the norm. There are, however, still a few agencies that do not require a college degree for their firearms and fingerprint examiners. Most agencies that require college degrees as a part of the minimum qualifications do not have specific degree requirements. Once again, however, there is a trend toward...

Firearms Identification

The field of firearms identification is typically associated with tool mark identification. In reality much of firearms identification entails a specific area of tool mark identification. By definition, a tool mark results from the contact of one surface with another, the harder of which is the tool. Thus, in the case of a firearm and a bullet, the firearm is the tool that produces tool marks on the surface of the bullet as it moves through the barrel upon discharge of the firearm. Likewise,...

To Err Is Human

Permanent, can result in other problems for the AFIS machine as it tries to compare fingerprints. In addition, electronic sensing adds noise that can distort fingerprint images. Anyone who has scanned images and then tried to print them or project them through a multimedia projector has experienced this phenomenon to one degree or another. Interestingly the AFIS was developed to use the same processes that the fingerprint examiner uses in manually comparing fingerprints, but FBI examiners...

Ironclad Alibi

Lab testing can either support a defendant's explanation or rule it out. Lab results that are consistent with an individual's explanation of suspicious circumstances support the idea that he or she was telling the truth. Whether the defendants involved were actually telling the truth about what happened or just make a lucky guess is a different matter. Over the years the author has investigated several cases involving discharge of firearms in which lab results cleared defendants who were...

Latent print examination and comparison

The goal of fingerprint examination is to achieve individual identification, that is, to establish that a fingerprint came from a particular individual. The scientific basis for latent print identification consists of the following two premises 1. The friction ridges formed during fetal development on the palmar surfaces of the hands and the plantar surfaces of the feet persist throughout the life of the individual except when damaged by scarring or disease. 2. No two areas of friction ridges...