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caliber 27 calipers 59, 59 callus 36

carbon black powder 85-86 cars, fingerprints in 37, 89 cartridge/cartridge case 8 Victor Balthazard's work 33 Beltway sniper case 12 Brownsville Riot 32 caseless ammunition 145-146 fingerprints on 2 individualization of xvii in pistols 26 reduced load 74-75 residual print recovery 147-148 sympathetic firing 68-69 tool marks 8, 26, 73

caseless ammunition 145-146 certification 21-22 chain of custody 99 Chancellorsville, Battle of 30 charts. See fingerprint chart chemical enhancement 90-97 Civil War (U.S.) 30 class characteristics 30, 54, 83, 84 Classification and Use of Finger Prints

(Henry) 49 clip 26

Coconino County, Arizona, Sheriff's

Office 120 cold hit 82 "community gun" 81 comparison, of fingerprints. See fingerprint comparison comparison microscope 33, 53, 57,

57-59, 58, 76 Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences 33 computer-based screening 81-82 Confederate States of America 30 confessions, fingerprints' role in 118 conservative criteria for identification 55-56

contaminated fingerprint. See visible fingerprint conventional fingerprint comparison method 85 copper-jacketed bullets 73-75 corpses, decomposed 6 correlation-based fingerprinting method 38

court appearances 6, 17, 22, 61. See also expert witness; juries crime laboratories 12, 22, 107-108, 111-117

crime scene 11-13, 98-99, 148-149 crime scene reconstruction. See reconstruction Crips street gang 81

"Criteria for Identification of Tool Marks" (Miller and McLean) 55

cross-examinations 17 crossovers 38

cyanoacrylate ester. See superglue cylinder 26, 68-69, 73 cylinder flare 73, 74 cylinder gap deposits 137-138

Dactiloscopia Comparada (Vucetich) 48

dactylography 38-39, 42, 45

Darwin, Sir Charles 42

database. See AFIS; National Integrated

Bullet Identification Network Daubert standard/challenge 149, 150 Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals 56, 149

decomposed bodies, fingerprints on 6 degree of twist 27 degree programs 20 delta region 38 dermatographics 47

development, of latent prints 34. See also enhancement, of latent prints diagrams, of shootings 61-62 digital calipers 59, 59 digital imaging 5-6, 58, 85, 97, 98 Dimaio, Vincent 78 disk gunpowder 76, 77, 108 DNA 83, 115, 141-143, 147 dots (fingerprint) 38 double-action revolver 26 dowel rod 67 Drugfire system 81 duct tape, latent prints on 90

ear, identification by shape of 144 electronic fingerprint enhancement 97 electronic ignition 146 elemental analysis 129 enhancement, of latent prints 5-6,

85-87, 89-99 entry wound 69, 109-110

equipment 56-105, 101, 102. See also specific instruments and equipment errors, in fingerprint matching 103-105 evidence, absence of. See absence of evidence evidence submission form 3 exclusion 31

exemplar ammunition 60-61 exemplar weapons 33, 60 expert witness 17-19, 22 exterior ballistics 9, 54 eyes (retinal scanning) 143-145

fabric patterns 118-119

Faulds, Henry 40-43, 46

FBI. See Federal Bureau of Investigation

Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) 13,

81, 100, 103-104 fingerprint. See also latent fingerprint absence of 15, 16, 88 composition 34 and confessions 118 for determining suicide vs. homicide 15, 16

and DNA analysis 141-143 and firearms xvii, 2, 12, 88, 117, 119 history 34-50 legal challenges 149-151 and reconstructions 15, 119 types of 34-39 fingerprint card 3, 7, 34-35, 49, 84, 100 fingerprint chart 18, 19 fingerprint classification, history of 40-50 fingerprint collections 100 fingerprint comparison methods 82-85, 100

fingerprint examiners and AFIS matches 100 in court 19 in crime lab 3 at crime scene 11, 98-99 responsibilities of xviii, 2 training for 20-22

fingerprint glass 85 fingerprint match 37-39 fingerprint powder 85-90, 86, 89 fingerprint registration law 48 Finger Prints (Galton) 47, 49 fingerprint scanners 144, 146 fingerprint technicians 6-7 fingerprint visualization 147-148 Fiocchi 22-caliber subsonic ammunition

70-71 firearm

"electronic fingerprint" for 145 and fingerprints xvii, 2, 12, 88, 117, 119 high-tech safety locks for 145 types of 24-28, 25-28 firearms examination automated comparison for 80-82 damaged/modified firearms 69-72 equipment for 56-61 history of 24-33 laboratory methods for 67-80 tool mark examination vs. 10 firearms examiners AFTE certification 21 and computer matches 82 at crime scene 10 and reconstruction 106-107 and reenactments 15 responsibilities of xviii, 1-2 training for 20-22 firearms identification 7-11 legal challenges 149-151 scientific principles 52-56 firearms reference collections 10, 33, 60 firing pin 67, 115 Fisher, John 33

flake gunpowder 76, 77, 77, 108 flattened ball gunpowder 76, 77, 77, 108 Florida tool mark case 150 fluorescence 94, 95, 97 footwear impression 13 Forensic Ammunition Service 60-61 forensic ballistics 9, 52

forensic comparison microscope. See comparison microscope forensic science degree 20 France 32-33, 44-45 Frankfort Arsenal (Kentucky) 32 friction ridge 34, 36-40, 39 friction ridge detail 83. See also arch;

loop; whorl Frye standard/challenge 149, 150 Frye v. United States of America 149 fuming. See superglue fuming function testing (operability testing) 67-69 furrows 40, 41 future issues 141-151

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