The various other aspects of firearms identification were not really recognized for their potential value in solving crimes until the early 20th century. In 1913 Victor Balthazard, a professor at the Sorbonne, in Paris, published what was clearly a monumental paper on firearms identification ("Identification des Projectiles de Revolver en Plomb Nu" in Volume 148 of Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences). In this article Balthazard discussed bullet comparison and also made reference to the fact that marks left on cartridge cases by firing pins, breech faces, ejectors, extractors, chambers, and magazines were all of potential value in identifying the responsible firearm.
Balthazard devised a method of photographing the lands and grooves of the bullets and enlarging the photographs so that the microscopic markings left by the gun barrel could be compared. Balthazard's paper remained virtually unnoticed due to the world's focus on the approach of World War I.
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