Penna Gunsmith School

2236-G East Street • Pittsburgh 12, Penna.

each side of the built-in Berdan primer anvil. Clean drilling of these holes proved very important. No burrs or jagged edges should be left, since these allow the heat from the combustion to attack, and result in burned-out and enlarged flash holes, which render the case unserviceable.

The drilling operation, although slower and more expensive than punching, was continued when Norma started the production of the Boxer type primer pocket, with one central flash hole of larger diameter. These cases, headstamped Norma Re, for reloadable, are now used in sporting ammunition shipped to every part of the West.

As important as the manufacturing operations in an ammunition factory are the numerous inspections and gauging procedures which every component, as well as the finished cartridge, must pass through before being released for sale.

First, every batch of material is tested on its arrival. Lots for case brass pass through a series of tests to insure that they contain the correct compound of copper and zinc, that the material has the correct purity, strength and hardness to form into perfect cartridge cases.

The special steel material which goes into the bullet jackets undergoes special tests; so does the lead wire from which the bullet cores are swaged. A special branch of the Norma factory turns out the lead wire in various dimensions and to various specifications, to suit special purposes.

Every batch of primers is extensively tested before it goes into the loading machinery. The primer is the heart of the cartridge, and large numbers of Norma cartridges are fired against the world's most dangerous game animals. Carefully determined weights are dropped from various heights onto the firing pin of a special test rig. This shows the sensitivity of the primer, the gas volume produced by its detonation, and the power of the gas impulse created. Needless to say, the primers are also passed through gauges for correct dimensions.

In the basement of one Norma building, there is a heavy steel door, which only a few may pass. A large sign on it says "Danger X-Ray." Inside the room, between heavy blocks of lead, cases rattle through a machine at a rate of several thousand an hour. Control lamps light up and go out, on panels at the sides. Guarding the machine is a steel fence, with the sign: "X-ray, danger zone, keep out". And behind the machine, against the wall, there is a heavy stack of solid lead blocks. The chief operator explains they are there to prevent mysterious death, if some fellow were to lean against the brick wall outside the house while smoking his cigarette, as the X-ray machine automatically inspects fired cases, sifting out those that are no longer suitable for factory reloading.

Yes, Norma does a lot of factory reloading, of the 6.5 x 55 case, colored silver for easy identification. The shooters buy the cartridges, fire them, and return the cases for reloading, getting paid for them as if they were empty beer bottles. Many millions of cases pass the factory each year for reloading. The price of the reloaded, like new, cartridge? Some 4 U.S. cents apiece.

Upon arrival, they are cleaned, inspected, decapped, resized, passed through special gauging machines, primed and reloaded, all by special automatic machines, capable of 60,000 reloads per set in an 8-hour day. Perhaps 20-25% of the cases will be discarded, and have to be replaced by new ones during the process. The end result is a like new cartridge, which can be sold at a reasonable price since the most expensive part of it, the case, is re-used. Factory reloading is a special service carried out for the Swedish shooting clubs only, and applies only to the 6.5 mm Berdan-primed cartridge with full jacketed match bullet used by the domestic shooters for target work. Hunting ammunition is not reloaded at the factor}', only by handloaders as in the U.S.A. and other countries, and none of the factory reloaded ammunition is sent out of Sweden. The export market calls for the American type Boxer primer, which enables the hand-loader to decap the cases with the familiar punch built into the resizing die.

With the large quantities of Swedish 6.5 mm rifles currently being sold abroad, the demand for the 6.5 x 55 cartridge is increasing. The Scandinavian design is enjoying a renaissance, in its present export quality, with the most modern bullet styles and powder developments, non-corrosive, non-mercuric American type primer, and the special reloadable case. This excellent cartridge which started off the first Norma ammu-

the-moment trip to your favorite range. Casea can be looked as a precautionary safety measure. Rugged light-weight construction, beautifully finished in simulated alligator leather outside, lined inside. Available with or without back door. Prices start as low as $29.50. Guaranteed by the West's oldest custom gun house. Write for complete information.

the-moment trip to your favorite range. Casea can be looked as a precautionary safety measure. Rugged light-weight construction, beautifully finished in simulated alligator leather outside, lined inside. Available with or without back door. Prices start as low as $29.50. Guaranteed by the West's oldest custom gun house. Write for complete information.

„_Ma Hunter Presents



7MM Mauser—excellent 7.50 per 100 LAUNCHER—a rare accessory for

• 30-00. Rrade 2—loose per ioo Qarand . . . Ideal for line

$30-06, grade 1—loose, dirty but shoots well 4.5Onerl00 ummmatS J"«« ; „ t i? i H« „Xna 1 rftnkPf«?

(for 30-0& NON-CORROSIVE ammo ad 50c per 100 Extra) SjK&mmi throwing ... I' II mg signal rocuets,

330-40 Krag, grade 2—dirty, but shoots. . 3.50 per 100 etc. Complete with dummy rifle

*3SmmoKrae". ^•adel_ioose, g:ood plinking ^ so ^ ^ grenade and 20 blank cartridges...

*43 Spanish—ideal "for those' oid ro I 11 ng______VM mmmUKfmmm^t Price—

blocks grade 2—loose, sold as is. 3.50 per 100 ^Hv » , $7.50 ea.

»45-70. grade 2—loose, not all sure fire. . 4.00 per 100 _ , .

*7 MM Mauser, boxed but with split nocks. 2.50 per 100 FRENCH CHAUCHAT—Complete and in ex-

*4anyAih!n~ Krad.e. 3."Tnot. i^f®.".1?!* ?? i .50 per 100 cellent condition—$19.95 A few choice ones

• 45 ACP,'grade 1. new box,* excellent. . . . 5.00 per 100 at—$29.95

• 8 MM Mauser, boxed, excellent condition . 5.50 per 100 r tTXv .rtnfl,tift„ ™h(> fir„t «303 British, grade 2 5.50 per ioo M-3 GKLAoti OUi>—new condition, lne nrsx.

1 2'Sft inn time these weapons have been offered for sale,

•9 MM bteyr, loose 4.50 per 100 v , .. . ,u„ i(Q qr T?vtra mao--

7.35 Italian-beautiful Ammo per ioo and it may be the last—»49.9b . . . i^xtra mag-

30 Cal. Carbine—new boxed 5.00 per 100 azines—$2.50

7.62MRURSXAN"New! '& Beautiful ^ Per GERMAN MEDALS—Iron Cross — §2.50 ea.

eifMS^SS™ the. Iron.Cl.irUi.n) 7:18 per Most Others-J^25—complete selection listed

0 MM Luger 5.00 per 100 111 new CATALOGUE.

44-40 Winchester, loose 4.SO per 100 0„ , rjn.Mn Taww

11 MM Manlicher,' In clips 7.50 per 100 Send 50c lor BRAND -Nii,W STO.

CIVIL WAR PISTOL AMMO-In original edition catalogue of hitherto unboxes. 12 MM PIN FIRE—packed 25 to „„ arrirnn the box. shorts $2.00 per box. Longs S2.50 per box. offered rare arms ana ammo ror 577/450 Martini-Henry (made by „ the shooter and collector. KYN0CH) 3.50 per box of 10


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