Bullet Hole In Clothing

Powder Tattooing Gun Shot Wound

Figure 12.4 Intermediate-range gunshot wound of chest from .22 Magnum revolver. Note the absence of powder on the outside of the clothing with powder tattooing of the underlying skin. by another, different conclusions may be reached as to the range from which the individual was shot. In view of these facts, one can see why examination of the clothing is part of the autopsy. This examination should be conducted not only with the naked eye but with the dissecting microscope. The presence of one...

The Forensic Aspects of Ballistics

Rifling Factory

Rifles and handguns have rifled barrels, that is, spiral grooves have been cut the length of the interior or bore of the barrel Figure 2.1 . Rifling consists of these grooves and the metal left between the grooves the lands see Figure 1.13 . The purpose of rifling is to impart a rotational spin to the bullet along its longitudinal axis. This gyroscopic effect stabilizes the bullet's flight through the air, preventing it from tumbling end over end. This spin does not, however, stabilize the...

Bullet Wounds of the Skull

Keyhole Bullet Wound

Tangential wounds of the skull have classically been called gutter wounds.19 In first-degree gutter wounds only the outer table of the skull is grooved by the bullet, with resultant carrying away of small bone fragments. In second-degree wounds pressure waves generated by the bullet fracture the inner table. In third-degree wounds the bullet perforates the skull in the center of the tangential wound Figure 4.40 . The outer table is fragmented, and there are depressed fragments of the internal...

Entrance Versus Exit Wounds Entrance Wounds

Bullet Entry And Exit Wounds

Most entrance wounds, no matter the range, are surrounded by a reddish, reddish-brown zone of abraded skin the abrasion ring Figure 4.16 . This is a rim of flattened, abraded epidermis, surrounding the entrance hole. Fresh entrance wounds have an abrasion ring with a moist, fleshy appearance. As the abrasion ring dries out, however, it assumes the more familiar appearance. Figure 4.16 A The bullet indents the skin, punching a hole through it and abrading the margins of the entrance wound in the...

Centerfire Rifle Wounds

Star Shaped Gunshot Entrance Wound

Wounds from centerfire rifles may be classified as contact, intermediate, or distant. Contact wounds of the head are the most devastating, producing a bursting rupture of the head Figure 7.7 . Large irregular tears in the scalp radiate from the entrance site. Powder soot and searing are typically present at the entrance. Rarely, virtually no soot will be present. In some contact wounds of the head, the entrance may be difficult to locate because of the massive destruction. Large pieces of the...

Gunshot Wounds of the Brain

Gunshot Injuries Mechanism

Gunshot wounds of the brain constitute approximately one-third of all fatal gunshot wounds. Wounds of the brain from centerfire rifles and shotguns are extremely devastating. Such injuries are described in Chapters 7 and 8. This section will deal with gunshot wounds of the brain caused by low-velocity weapons handguns and .22 rimfire rifles. When a bullet strikes the head, it punchesout acircular to oval woundof entrance in the skull, driving fragmentsof boneintothebrain. Thebone chips...

Stippling Powder Tattooing and Pseudo Powder Tattooing

M16 Powder Tattooing

Stippling consists of multiple punctate abrasions of the skin due to the impact of small fragments of foreign material. If this material is gunpowder, the author calls this form of stippling powder tattooing. If the material is not powder, but the punctate abrasions produced appear identical to those due to powder, the phenomena is referred to as pseudo-powder tattooing. Most stippling of a non-gunpowder origin does not resemble powder tattooing and can easily be differentiated from it. The...

Methods of Analyzing Gunshot Residues

Method For Hand Swab

By the mid-1980s, there were three generally accepted methods of analyzing for gunshot residues neutron activation, flameless atomic absorption spectrometry FAAS , and scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry SEM-EDX . All threemethods werebasedonthedetection of metallic elements principally barium, antimony, andlead originatingin primers and deposited on the back of the hand firing the weapon. Although all three compounds were found in the primers of virtually all...

Bullets without Rifling Marks

Rifling Marks

Occasionally a bullet recovered at autopsy will show no rifling on its surface. Lack of rifling indicates that the weapon is a zip-gun, a smooth-bore handgun, or rifle, or a revolver whose barrel has been removed. Zip guns have been previously discussed. Weapons intentionally manufactured with smooth-bores are almost all .22-caliber rifles made for the exclusive use of .22 shot cartridges. Rarely, weapons that are supposed to have rifled barrels, inadvertently, get out of a factory with smooth...

Short Long and Long Rifle Cartridges

Remington Headstamp Identification

The .22 Short, Long, and Long Rifle cartridges can be fired in both handguns and rifles. The term Long Rifle as it is applied to the most powerful of these three cartridges does not indicate that the cartridge is intended exclusively for rifles. Rifles and handguns chambered for the .22 Long Rifle cartridge will fire the Short and Long cartridges as well. In the case of semi-automatic weapons, however, the weak recoil generated by the Short and Long cartridges is generally insufficient to work...

Suicide by Firearms

Gunshot Wound

The most common method of committing suicide in the United States is by shooting. Approximately 65 of men committing suicide use firearms, with the remainder of the deaths almost equally divided between drug overdoses and hanging. Traditionally, the preferred method used by women was an overdose of drugs. Since the mid-1980s, however, use of firearms has become the most popular method of suicide in women.1 In 1970, in the United States, 30 of women shot themselves and 48 took an overdose of...

Gunshot Wounds Pictures

Lead Snow Storm Xray

X-rays are invaluable in the evaluation of gunshot wounds. They should be taken in all gunshot wound cases, especially those in which there appears to be an exit wound. X-rays are useful for a variety of reasons 1. To see whether the bullet or any part of it is still in the body. 3. To locate for retrieval small fragments deposited in the body by a bullet that has exited. 4. To identify the type of ammunition or weapon used prior to autopsy or to make such an identification if it cannot be made...

Intermediate Range Wounds

Acp Bullet Wounds

An intermediate-range gunshot wound is one in which the muzzle of the weapon is held away from the body at the time of discharge yet is sufficiently close so that powder grains expelled from the muzzle along with the bullet produce powder tattooing of the skin Figure 4.7 . These markings are the sine qua non of intermediate-range gunshot wounds. Just as there is a gradual transition from loose-contact to near-contact wounds, there is also a gradual transition from near-contact to intermediate...

Suicides Due to Handguns

Suicide Gunshot Imprint

The location of the self-inflicted wound varies depending on the type of the weapon, the sex of the victim, and whether the victim is right- or left-handed. In individuals who shoot themselves with handguns, the most common sites for the entrance wound are the head 81 , the chest 17 , and the abdomen 2 , in that order Table 14.1 . There is some difference by sex Table 14.1 in that a smaller percentage of women 72 shoot themselves in the head than do men 83.5 . Table 14.1 Sites of Suicidal...

Physical Activity Following Gunshot Wounds

Gunshot The Head With Magnum

An individual may sustain a fatal gunshot wound and yet engage in physical activity.1-2 Experienced forensic pathologists, not uncommonly, encounter cases in which an individual, after incurring a fatal gunshot wound of the heart, is able to walk or run hundreds of yards and engage in strenuous physical activity prior to collapse and death. In one case seen by the author, a young man was shot in the left chest at a range of 3 to 4 ft with a 12-gauge shotgun firing 7 1 2 shot. The pellets...

243 Winchester Wounds To Humans

Lead Snowstorm Xray Rifle

Figure 7.22 A Fired Russian 7.62 x 39 soft-point bullet with plastic wad extruding from base. B Chest x-ray of individual shot six times in chest with this ammunition and showing lead snowstorm. Figure 7.22 A Fired Russian 7.62 x 39 soft-point bullet with plastic wad extruding from base. B Chest x-ray of individual shot six times in chest with this ammunition and showing lead snowstorm. The .223 Remington cartridge was introduced in the Armalite AR-15 rifle the precursor of the M-16 in 1957. It...