The .223 Remington cartridge was introduced in the Armalite AR-15 rifle (the precursor of the M-16) in 1957. It is the standard rifle caliber of the U.S. Army, having been adopted with the M-16A1 rifle in 1964. It is widely used overseas by other countries. The military cartridge was initially loaded with a 55-gr. full metal jacked boat-tail bullet (the M-193 Ball) with a muzzle velocity of approximately 3200 ft/sec. Muzzle energy is 1290 ft-lbs (1798 J). Civilian cartridges are loaded with either soft-point or hollow-point bullets weighing from 40 to 69 gr. These are used for varmint and small game hunting. In 1980, NATO adopted the SS109 cartridge loaded with a 62-gr. bullet. This has become the standard military loading in the United States where it is designated as the M855. The bullet has a mild steel core in front of a lead base core. Muzzle velocity is 3100 ft/s; muzzle energy 1325 ft-lbs (1680 J).
While firearms chambered for this cartridge are currently available in only small quantities in the United States, this cartridge deserves discussion because of its potential for worldwide use. It was introduced in the early 1970s for the AK-74 rifle which replaced the AK-47. The bullet weighs 53 gr. and has a steel jacket and a mild steel core with a short lead filler on top and an air space in the nose. Muzzle velocity is 2950 ft/s. Muzzle energy is 1045 ft-lbs (1383 J).
.243 Winchester (6.16 x 51 mm)
The .243 Winchester round was introduced in 1955. It is the .308 Winchester case, necked down to 6 mm. The round is intended for both varmints and deer hunting. It is loaded commercially with either an 85-gr. or a 100-gr. soft-point or hollow-point bullet. Muzzle velocity is 3320 and 2960 ft/sec; muzzle energy 2,080 and 1945 ft-lbs, respectively.
Introduced in 1925, this is the .30-06 cartridge necked down to 0.270 inches. It is a hunting caliber. It is generally loaded with 100, 130 or 150 gr. bullets with muzzle velocities from 3490 to 2850 ft/s and muzzle energies from 2612 to 2705 ft-lbs.
Introduced in 1962, this cartridge has a belted case. It is a popular hunting round in the United States. Typical bullet weights are 139, 150, 165, and
175 gr. Corresponding velocities are 3150, 3110, 2950, and 2860 ft/sec. Muzzle energies range from 3063 to 3180 ft-lbs.
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Deer hunting is an interesting thing that reminds you of those golden old ages of 19th centuries, where a handsome hunk well equipped with all hunting material rides on horse searching for his target animal either for the purpose of displaying his masculine powers or for enticing and wooing his lady love.