First make sure the rifle is unloaded!
Using a cleaning rod, cloth patches and nitro solvent, wipe out the bore until the patches come out clean. Always insert the cleaning rod from the chamber end to prevent wear on the rifling at the muzzle.
Take particular care to thoroughly clean the barrel chamber and the face i.e., the front) of the bolt. Use a bronze bristle bore brush to remove metal fouling and powder residue from the barrel chamber. A sharpened stick or an old toothbrush can be utilized to clean carbon and other debris from crevasses in the bolt face; especially under the extractor hook. Cotton swabs are useful to clean the recesses in the rear the barrel. Wipe out the bolt raceway inside the receiver.
Pass an oily patch through the clean bore to protect it until the rifle is to be used again, lubricate the bolt with a light film of good gun oil. An oily rag wiped over all external metal surfaces of the rifle will prevent rust from handling.
Before using the rifle again, pass a dry patch through the bore to remove all oil and other residue, look through the bore to be sure it is clear of any obstruction before loading the rifle.
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