Info

It is formed by the action of nitrous acid on amino-guanidine, or, more exactly, by the interaction of an aminoguani-dinc salt with sodium nitrite in the absence of free mineral acid. Tetracene is a colorless or pale yellow, fluffy material which is practically insoluble in water, alcohol, ether, benzene, and carbon tetrachloride. It has an apparent density of only 0.45, but yields a pellet of density 1.05 when it is compressed under a pressure of 3000 pounds per square inch....

Introduction

The missile plan detailed in this article is a sythesis of several antitank missile designs used by NATO forces during the last 15 years. The construction data has been broken down into three sections airframe motor assembly guidance unit and payload detonator section. This design is intended as a general guideline only and there are many areas where alternative materials may be substituted. All materials described are available from either model rocket suppliers or firms that sell radio...

Dwl

At 760 mm. Hg, the volatility of chlorine is 3,708 os. l,000 cu. ft t Thi volatility is at 1,180 mm. Hg. At 760 mm. Hg, the volatility of phosgene is 4,420 os. l,000 cu it. Intolerable concentration, mg. per liter or os. per 1,000 cu. ft 10 min. exposure or os. per 1,000 cu. ft., 10 min. exposure

Launcher

Two basic types of launchers are shown. The first unit is a disposable, one shot affair which also serves as a shipping and carrying container. Inside measurements are 13 inches x 13 inches x 24 inches long. The two back flaps are spread at a 90 angle to stabilize the launch box. The front flap is folded down in front of the box to elavate the launcher for firing. The four corners of the box guide the missile as it leaves the launcher. Cardboard, wood or light metal sheets can be used._ The...

Long Term Time Delay For Grenade

Remove primer from fuse mechanism by pushing nail through bottom end of primer hole and tapping with hammer. 6. Insert safety fuse through top of primer hole. Knlarge hole If ncccssary. The fuse should go completely through the hole. 7. Insert fuse Into detonator and tope it securely to modified fuse mechanism. NOTE Be sure that fuse rests firmly against detonator at all times. 8. Screw modified fuse mechanism back into grenade, ready for use.

M

Manganite, 171 Manufacture, ea*e of, 36 Marking systems, 123 Martonite, 135 Masks, gas, Army Service, American, 547-550 care of, 562-564 development, postwar, 543-547 World War, 538-543 diaphragm, American, 550-551 dog. 552 drill, 554-562 horse, 552 pigeon, 552 use of. 553-554 Materials, flammable. 259 raw, 35 spontaneously inflammable, 251 Mmigamte, 175 Melting point, 40 Methylchlorsulfotiate, 151 Methyldichlnrarxirie, 19f Mcthylsulfuryl chloride, 151 Mineral compound , 108 Mixture, Hergcr,...

Marking systems

In order to indicate to troops in the field essential information concerning the type and character of the fillings contained in chemical projectiles, each nation adopted a special system of marking such pro-j< rtiles. As the basic theory of the several marking systems used in the war was quite different, the principal features of each will be noted here. German System. We have said that the German World War classification of combat gases differed in principle from the classifications of the...

Material Required

1 4'* nominal siae steel pipe 4 to 6 inches long with threaded ends. 1 4 Solid pipe plug Two (2) steel pipe couplings Metal strap - roughly 1 8 x 1 4 x 5 Two (2) elastic bands Flat head nail - 6D or 8D (approx . 1 16 diameter) Two (2) wood screws 6 Wood 8 x 5 x 1 Drill 1 4 wood or metal rod. (approx 1. Carefully inspect pipe and fittings. a. Make sure that there are NO cracks or other flaws in the pipe or fittings. b. Check inside diameter of pipe using a 9 mm cartridge as a gauge The bullet...

Materials

Section One - Airframe Motor Section balsa - three pieces 4 x 36 x V'. hardwood dowel - 1 8 x 36'). spiral wound paper tube - two p'ieces 3 7 8 diameter x 16V long available from Estes. motors - 8 0 motors by Estes. ignitors - 4 Estes solar ignitors. fireproof wadding - 1 piece Estes. R C receiver, two servo units and an on board battery for missile. Compatable transmitter for ground direction. These units are available from numerous suppliers of R C gear. Only two channels are needed. The two...

Materials Required

Push nail through plug and cut off flat 1 32 past the plug. 10. Bend 4 metal strap into L shape and drill hole for wood screw. Notch metal strap on the long side 1 2 from bend. 3 4 nominal size water or gas pipe 20 to 30 long threaded on one end. 3 4 steel coupling Solid 3 4 pipe plug Metal strap (1 4 x 1 16 x 4) Twine, heavy (100 yards approximately) 3 wood screws and screwdriver Flat head nail 6D or SO Hand drill Saw or knife File 1. Carefully inspect pipe and fittings. 11. Position metal...

Means Of Projection

During the World War, chemicals were disseminated by every military arm, although the air corps did not use toxic gases. When chemical warfare made its appearance in 1915, there was already a large variety of high-explosive weapons in use. As chemical warfare was bom during the war and there was no prewar development of its mat riel, the first chemical munitions wTere hasty adaptations of high-explosive weapons, although subsequent experience showed that some of these weapons were not suitable...

Metal Plate

Drill t*o holes in the cap of the jar about 2 inches apart. Diameter of holes should be such that screws or bolts will thread tightly into them. If the jar has a metal cap or no cap, a piece of wood or plastic (NOT METAL) can be used as a cover. DRILL Moisten fine Black Powder to form a paste or prepare a sub S stitute as follows a. Dissolve Potassium Nitrate in an equal amount of water b. Pulverize charcoal by spreading thinly on a hard surface and rolling the round stick over it to crush to a...

Military Effort Expended For Gas Casualties

Having determined the battle casualties caused by gas, our next inquiry logically concerns the military effort expended in securing these casualties, as compared to the military effort expended in securing the sum total of battle casualties. Iu connection with this inquiry, it should be borne in mind that the military effort here referred to is only that part of tlie total combat effort which was expended in securing ptrmuncl los*e> (i.e., battle injuries and deaths), and does not concern...

Noh

Fulminate can be prepared from acetaldehyde instead of from alcohol, and from substances which arc convertible into acetaldehyde, such as paraldehyde, metaldehydc, dimethyl- and diethyl-acetal. Methyl alcohol, formaldehyde, propyl alcohol, butvralde-hyde, glycol, and glyoxal do not yield fulminate. Fulminate can, however, be prepared from a compound which contains only one carbon atom. The sodium salt of nitromethane gives with an aqueous solution of mercuric chloride at 0 a white

O

SMG's are designed to be cheap and easy to produce and are geared to a military market. Therefore, the design can be based on practical considerations alone, without the need to make concessions to appearance. Appearance 1s a major factor when designing a commercial gun for commercial sales, and can greatly increase the cost and complicate the manufacturing process. c. Most SMG's fire from-a cocked or open bolt and contain a fixed firing pin. The inertia of the bolt moving forward eliminated...

Oh

With alcoholic ammonia TNA yields trinitro-m-phenylenedi-amine, m.p. 288 . Its nitro group in the 3-position reacts with primary and secondary amines, with sodium acid sulfite, etc., in the same way that the meta nitro groups of and y-trinitro-toluene do. Marqueyrol found that TNA is attacked rapidly by boiling water, about half of it being converted into trinitroaminophenol, the other half being destroyed with the evolution of gases, largely carbon dioxide and nitrogen along with smaller...

Os

Precipitate of the mercuric salt of nitromethane which gradually becomes yellow and which, digested with warm dilute hydrochloric acid, yields mercury fulminate. Sodium fulminate, soluble in water, has a molecular weight which corresponds to the simple monomolecular formula, NaONC. These facts, taken together with the fact that mercury fulminate warmed with concentrated aqueous hydrochloric acid yields hv-droxylamine and formic acid, prove that fulminic acid is the oxime of carbon monoxide....

Pack With Pencil

Next fill with the smoke powder mixture to the end of the casing and tamp down with a dowel the same size as the inside of the engine. (You can first start packing using the pencil, In order to avoid scrunching the fuse.) Fill to the top again and tamp in. We have used either a vise or a hammer in order to Insure that the mix is tightly packed, without a single mishap.Repeat this until there is about I A distance left to the end of the case. Note depending upon a number of variables, which...

Chemical Agents

Classification of Chemical Chemical Physical Physiological Classification according to Persistency ll*i Classification according to Degree of Action ,119 Tactical Military Marking Lacrimatort Aoents '20 Group Comparative Strength of Lacrimators 144 Toxicity of Future of Comparative Toxicities of Lung Injurants . Use of Lung Injurants in World War . . . Future of Lung Injurants

Popular Mechanics

The most important machine in use in the modern-machine or wood-working 'iop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning Jathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some sort. A good and substantial homemade lathe, which is suitable for wood-turning and light metal...

Preface

The three outstanding developments of the World War were the military airplane, the combat tank, and chemical warfare. Each of these new instruments of war made its appearance on the battlefield at about the same time, each exerted an important influence in shaping the character of modern combat, and each is destined to play an even greater role in future warfare. Since the World War, all nations have actively pushed the develo > -ment of these new arms and much has been written concerning...

Principal Gas Attacks In World

Impressive as are the foregoing average results in the late war, many instances can be found where gas was uBcd under favorable conditions and produced still more effective results. This was particularly true of the large-scale gas attacks put over by the chemical troops on l> oth sides These attacks comprised gas clouds released from cylinders or projected on the enemy by gas projectors. Table XVII shows the principal gas attacks during the war, the approximate quantities of gas used, the...

Procedure

Spread potassium chlorate crystals thinly on a hard surface. Roll the round stick over crystals to crush into a very fine powder until it looks like face powder or wheat flour. 2. Place 9 parts powdered potassium chlorate and 1 part petroleum jelly in a wide bowl or similar container. Mix ingredients with hands (knead) until a uniform paste is obtained. Store explosive in a waterproof container until Veady to use. 6 No. 2 POTASSIUM NITRATE Potassium nitrate (saltpeter) can be extracted from...

Q

Every particle of liquid, or solid, in contact with a gas is surrounded by a film of gas closely adhering to it and capable of removal or penetration only by the projection of another solid or liquid particle through it. This film serves as an effective insulator, separating the particle from the gas around it, and breaking down only through mechanical rupture. When such a particle travels through the gas, the film moves with it when the gas moves past the particle, the film is distorted and...

R

Rufltnose hendecanitrate, 244 Railway fusees, 65 Railway torpedoes, 109, 110 Roschig's white blasting powder, 50 Rate of burning, 293 Reactivity, 3 Realgar, 52, W, 69, 83. 87 Red fire, 61, 64, 71, 72 118, 119 Red lances, 69, 70 Red lights, 64, 65, 69, 71, 72 Red smoke, 122, 123 Red stars, 84, 85, 86 Red torches, 67 Reenforcing cap, 231, 414, 420, 432, Residual solvent, 313, 314, 315 Resorcinol, 169 Rhamnose, 243 Rlmmnose tetranitrate. 242 Rhamnose trinitrate, 243 Rhodaminc red, 123 Rice hulls....

Relation Between Quantity And Range

The amount of chemical required to establish an effective concentration on a target is determined by the general relation between a quantity of chemical and its effective range. Let W weight of chemical released from one point, in pounds, D density of chemical released (air 1), V original volume of chemical released from one point, at atmospheric temperature and pressure, in cubic feet, V, volume of chemical after it has traveled a distance S, in cubic feet, S distance traveled from point of...

Relation Op Volumetric Ratios To Weight Ratios

The concentration of a toxic gas in the air is variously stated as (1) grams of gas per cubic meter of air (2) milligrams of gas per liter of air (3) ounces of gas per 1.000 cu. ft. of air and (4) parts of gas per million parts of air. In order to compare concentrations expressed in these different ways, it is necessary and convenient to know the conversion factors, which may he simply stated as follows Grams per cubic meter are numerically exactly the same as milligrams per liter, since a...

Rmr

In which the symbol M is the same as before and in which the R represents an organic radical. The substance cacodyl ((CH,)4.Ast), the formula of which may be written is an example of compounds of the second class. Other toxic compounds of military importance belonging to this class are CH, As H, Lewisite (III) Aa (CH CHCl), 0 0 0 C< Hydrocyanic acid H C N In the third class, the basic materials can combine, in one or several valences, with halogens or with ionizable mineral radicals, as...

Rubber Band

3 16 Stovebolt - 7iM long-file end as shown in detail All you need is t*o pieces of pipe, a coupling, a rubber band, some wire, and a thin metal rod. Assemble everything as In the diagram. The firing pin should be filed on one end. It should look 11ke a straight-slot screwdriver. The firing pin is used to both fire the ,22 and to poke out the fired shelly Hovr to lay at blades for proportional di* riderj, and a quick acting spring wire pivot

S

Nitroglycerin and 50 soluble nitrocellulose, made without volatile solvent, and sandwiched between two thin strips of powder made, without volatile solvent, from 50 soluble nitrocellulose and 50 crystalline dinitrotoluene. The two compositions were rolled to the desired thicknesses separately between warm rolls, as the burning advances, and, other things in the gun being equal, they produce gas at a rate which accelerates more rapidly and, in conscquence, gives a greater velocity to the...

Short Barreled Version

See your rifle's parts list for ordering instructions from the factory-about 12.00 1 - 3 4 Shaft Collar - 3 4IO-IV'OD This is a V' thick collar with a V NC or NF thread set screw.The collar is used to retain pulleys and gears on a 3 4 diameter arbor shaft. Available from hardware stores and tool suppliers. About 50< t. 1 - pc. Metal Screen - 4V'x24. Found at hardware and plumbing stores. Material from an old screen door may also be used. Plastic screen 1s...

Silencers And Stark Arresters

BOY MECHANIC VOL.3 A Croubow Migtxine Gun A new type of bow gun that a boy into the end of the barrel. The notch can make, and which will give him in which the bowstring- catches, should plenty of good sport, ia one of the re- be cut just under the rear end of the peating or magazine variety. To make magazine. The trigger is an L-shaped, the gun, cut a toft pine board, 40 in. pivoted piece, and pushes the cord oft long and 5 in. wide. With a saw and the notch when ready to fire. As oon knife,...

Smokeless Powder

An account of smokeless powder is, in its main outlines, an account of the various means which have been used to regulate the temperature and the rate of the burning of nitrocellulose. After the degree of nitration of the nitrocellulose, other factors i which influence the character of the powder are the state of aggregation of the nitrocellulose, whether colloidcd or in shreds, the size and shape of the powder grains, and the nature of the materials other than nitrocellulose which enter into...

Soapalcohol System

CAUTION Lye solution can burn skin and destroy clothing. If any is spilled, wash away immediately with large quantities of water.I 5. Add lye solution to the gasoline _ . Jf __. . A ' . . , , . . . Common household soap can be used in combination with mix and stir until mixture thickens (about one minute). alcohol tQ geJ Mnm for u9c a8 fUmc uel which wU1 adhcre NOTE The sample to target surfaces. will eventually thicken to a very firm paste. This can be thinned, if desired, by stirring in...

Step

Cut two V' pieces of 13 32 ID tubing and silver solder In place as shown in pattern 12. Be sure to ream out the ends of the tubing to ensure smooth operation of the sliding stock. STEP k Use the hacksaw and file to round off corners of the side plates and cut off excess material. STEP 5 Cut front and rear spacer blocks out of 5 8 plywood, using patterns 3 and 0k. Drill 1 8 holes where indicated. STEP 6 Assemble grip frame, side plates and two spacer blocks with six 1 8 machine screws. If you...

Step Assembly

Take 3 flashbulbs and attach a length of wire, color 0, to one terminal on each bulb. Then take one length each of wire colors A, B & C and attach one of the colored wires to the remaining terminal. Follow the hookup diagram in Fig.5. Insert the bulbs into the explosive of your mine or bomb. 2. Slide the push buttons over the springs and glue the springs to the bent naiIs. 3- Solder the dangling ends of wire from the control panel to the contact points. Rest the power pack on the rubber...

Step Control

Glue the rubber or plastic strip to the other 1-1 2 x k strip of wood. This will be the bottom of the box. When assembling, the plastic or rubber will be facing up. 2. Screw the hinges to one of the 2-1 2 x V pieces of wood and attach the other side of the hinge to the side of one of the 2-1 2 x J-l 2 pieces of wood. 3. Drill a > l6 bole in the bottom of the other 2-1 2 x 1-1 2 piece of wood, which will be the left side of the box, and a 1 8 hole in the top right hand corner of the other 2-1...

Step F

Wrap a piece of tape around the 15 64 drill bit, 1-1 8 from the front. Carefully drill out the barrel to the depth of the tape mark. Use plenty of oil and don't let the hole become out of round. This drilling won't enlarge the barrel, it just removes the lands which cause the bullet to spin. It also removes the burrs caused by drilling the 1 8 holes. The undrllled portion of the barrel will still impart the needed spin, when the bullet reaches the drilled portion, it 1s better to have the...

Step I

Cut grip frame out of 5 8 plywood, using pattern 1. It is a good idea to first make this piece out of balsa-wood. This allows you to make changes in grip shape or angle. When the entire stock is completed and you are comfortable with the final shape, it is duplicated in plywood. Drill four 1 8 holes and 7 16 takedown screw hole as shown. Taper the rear of the hole to accomodate the head of the screw. Drill hole for stock latch. STEP 2 Drill seven holes in brass side plates as shown in pattern...

Step P

The spiral baffle and front barrel assembly is made as follows. It will be contained inside the 4 tube. Stack 12 washers, with the edges aligned, and clamp together in the vise with the top of the center hole exposed. Cut with hacksaw through the stack of washers from the outside edge to the center hole. The cut should be at a right angle to the washers. Remove the stack of washers from the vise, and replace them, this time with one side of the cut in the vise and one side exposed. Use a hammer...

Step U

The remaining piece of brass tubing, V wide, and the remaining IV' washer, are used to hold the nuts for the mount screws that secure the end-cap to the 8 tube. Split the V brass tube and trim until it will fit into the endcap. Solder the seam and solder the tube to the washer.Prior to inserting the mount assembly into the endcap, insert a V spacer of rolled cardboard or paper. The V spacer will hold the mount assembly in position while drilling the mounting holes. The mount assembly is now...

Tactical Requirements

Under the heading of Technical Requirements, we have reviewed the essential qualities which chemical agents must possess in order that they may be manufactured and loaded into projectiles in sufficient quantities to meet the vast requirements of modem war. We now come to a onsideration of those properties which chemical agents must *> ssoss in order to exert the effects required in battle. These we call tactical requirements. As the tactical effects of gases are markedly different from smokes...

Technique

In considering the chemical technique and tactics of the several arms, we shall follow the organization of the Theater of Operations for chemical warfare, as presented in Chap. Ill, Diagram I, and discuss the chemical technique and tactics of each arm in the order of its proximity to the battle front of an army. In connection with the normal chemical-warfare zones of operation, shown in Diagram 1 of Chap. Ill, it should be borne in mind that these tones are not rigidly delimited, nor are they...

The Aftereffects Of Chemical Warfare

Up to this point we have considered the war effects of chemicals but what of the aftereffects Much time and effort, have been expended in the years since the war in thoroughly investigating this subject, not only Iwcause it is important from a medical point of view, but also to settle ihc moot question as to whether ga* really caused serious permanent disabilities, or predisposition toward such diseases as tuberculosis. A large amount of evidence has l> ecn gathered and carefully sifted and...

The Silencers

Of all 201h century 9mall arms developments, the firearm silencer is probably the most mysterious and the leasl understood. Invented in 1908 by Hiram Maxim, the firearm silencer was one of Maxim's early contributions to firing. This attendant clatter Is most pronounced In semi and full automatic weapons. Some noise also escapes through the unlocked breech area of these autos. A bolt action rifle will produce the field of noise pollution control. By little If any mechanical noise when the 1930s,...

This Weapon Can Also Be Made Using The Explosive And Fuse Below

Mix three (3) parts Potassium chlorate and one (I) part granulated sugar. Confine in a container (in this case the claymore mine) and use time fuse to set it off. Time Fuse Boil equal parts of potassium chloratc and granulated sugar in water. Dip cotton string in the solution and let dry. Buring rate is approx. sixty (60) seconds per foot. Test some to rctake sure I This weapon can a I so, be used on the side of a truck or tractor. This was done In Vietnam and was found to be highly effective...

TiCl Hj TiH HC

With the evolution of dense clouds of acrid white smoke. The titanic acid hydrate forms finely divided solid particles in the smoke while the hydrochloric acid is in the gaseous state. Like silicon tetrachloride, complete decomposition of the titanium tetrachloride, according to the above equation, is inhibited by an excess of hydrochloric acid. Therefore, the best smoke is formed when the titanium tetrachloride is present in low concentrations and there is an exeess of moisture in the air...

Toxicity Of Lacrimators

The toxicity of the World War lacrimators has been previously mentioned in Chap. I. The following table shows their relative toxicity on the basis of 10 minutes' exposure 0.35* 1.50 1.00 2.00* 2.30* 2.30 3.20* In the cases of those compounds marked with an asterisk (*), their volatilities at 20 C. (68 F.) exceed their minimum lethal doses, so that fatal concentrations of these compounds may be encountered in the field at ordinary temperatures. Moreover, it must be remembered that, even in the...

U

CAUTION If safety lever should be released for any reason, grenade will explode after regular delay time (4-5 sec.). NOTE If diameter of safety fuse is too large to fit in hole (Step 4), follow procedure and How to Use of Time Delay Grenade, Section VI, No. 9. instead of Steps 3 and 4 above. HOW TO USE 2. Whirl grenade overhead, holding knot at end of rope, until grenade picks up speed (3 or 4 turns). 3. Release when sighted on target. ii 0 No. 9 NOTE It is helpful to practice first with a...

United States Patents

710.660 10 1902 Bennett et al 42 16.3 UX 1.502.676 7 1924 2.297.693 10 1942 2.424.194 7 1947 Sampson et al 42,72 3.039.366 6 1962 linthum el al 42 7 X 3,276.323 10 1966 Primary juim ner Benjamin A. Bore belt Assistant Examiner Stephen C. Bentley Attorney Nolte A Nolte An automatic firearm comprises a frame, a receiver mounted on the frame, a barrel mounted on the receiver, a bolt diiposed in the receiver andteiescopicaily movable relative to the breech end of the barrel against the action of a...

Use Of Lung Injurants In World

As a group, the lung injurants were used to a larger extent than any other type of gas and secured the bulk of the gas fatalities in the war. Minimum Lethal Concentration on 10 Minute ' Exjx - 0.200 0.260 0 500 0.500 0 500 0.500 Phenylcarbylaniine chloride . 0 500. 1 000 2.000 3,000 5 600 Thus it is estimated that, altogether a total of 100,500 tons of these gase* were used in battle during the late war and caused 876,853 casualties, or an average of one casualty per 230 lb. of gas. While the...

Tud

As you knock his hands away get a good Firm grip around his tipper right arm with your lefl hand. This will be easy as your arms and hands are still in motion. you will be amazed at the ease with which you throw the person. and throw him so hard upon his back that he may be stunned by the fall. Your right hand now takes a firm hold on his shoulder right up close to his neck. Up to this point you have been standing face to face You can throw the subject very heavily or you con ease up a little...

Vacuvise

A plastic container and stored in a cool dry place. Another explosive powder which even surpasses photoflash powder is chlorate flashpowder. Chlorate flashpowder is much more powerful than photoflash powder and also much more sensative. The reason for Its increased strength is the use of potassium chlorate (a very powerful unstable oxidizing agent).The equipment needed for making chlorate flashpowder Is the same as for photof I ash powder with one minor exception. A flat metal pan and a hammer...

With

Reprinted Frcna Popular Mechanics 1937 F 0 YOU realize what can be done in the way of accurate measuring with an ordinary, high-grade steel scale The hundredth of an inch divisions were not put on the scale as an ornament or to impress you with the quality of the tool, They are for use, and with a little patience and practice you can split the hundredths and make linear measurements correctly within a few thousandths of an inch. Hair-splitting precision like this is easy. All you need is the...

Y

Probably the product of the 1,6-addition of sodium methylate to the conjugate system which runs through the ring and terminates in the oxygen of the nitro group. Busch and K gel have prepared di- and tri-alcoholates of TNB, and Giua has isolated a compound of the empirical composition TNB NaOH, to which he ascribed a structure similar to that indicated above. All these compounds when dry are dangerous primary explosives. They are soluble in water, and the solutions after acidification contain...

Chemicals In War

Of itself lower than that of the chemically pure compound. The use of the table is shown by the following examples. Liquid HS has, it 15 C., a persistence of 103 liquid CA has a persistence of 427. This means that the first material under otherwise similar conditions (similar average size of drops, similar wind conditions, etc.), takes 103 times as long to disappear from the ground by evaporation as an equal mass of water, and CA is 42Ko3 or about four times, as persistent as HS. Diphosgene and...

Vws

This substance, m.p. 295-300 , results from the direct nitration of oxanilide. It is stable and about as powerful as TNT, and is reported to explode with the production of a temperature which is distinctly lower than that produced by many high explosives. (hexanitrocarbanilide or sym-dipicrylurea) may be prepared by the nitration of carbanilide (sym-diphenylurea) in one, in two, or in three stages. It is of interest because of its explosive properties and because it supplies one way in which...

By Fb

Take a wine bottle with a concave bottom and ftll it with 30t Sulphuric Acid, 2Q Motor Oil, and SOI Gasoline. Seal the top and thoroughly wipe the bottle clean and dry, especially the concave bottom. Step 2 Pack the bottom full of Potassium Chlorate. Cut a circular piece of cardboard so It snugly fits over the bottom and tape it in place to keep the Potassium Chlorate In. Slip a plastic baggie over the bottom and wrap a rubber band around it. This is to keep moisture out. When the bottle Is...

Sulphuric Acid

If battery acid or other dilute acid is used, concentrate it by boiling. Container used hould be of enamelware or oven glass. When dense IMPORTANT Wash outside of jar thoroughly with clear water. If this is not done, the jar may be dangerous to handle during use 1. Place the tube containing the Sugar Chlorate crystals on an incendiary or flammable material taped end down. 3. Fit the tube to the bulb ba and tape in place. Meke sure that the tube doee not cover that portion of...

Substances Used As Smoke Agents

The substances that have been successfully used as smoke agents fall into five main groups, viz., smokes that owe their obscuring power to (I) particles of colloidal carbon suspended in air (II) particles of ph'osphorie acid (III) sulfuric acid (IV) hydrochloric acid and (V) zinc chloride. F.ach of these groups appeared about in the order named and, except for phosphorus (the l> est of all smoke producers), each was an improvement upon its predecessor. The earliest modern method of producing...

Do Not Remove Safety Stick Until Ready To Throw Fire Bottle

The safety stick, when in pUce, prevents ignition of the fire bottle if it should accidentally be broken. the end with the matches passes ' the slot in the can. Pass the flat stick or piece of metal Matches through slots in can to hold spring in place. This acts as a safety device. 8. Punch many closely spaced small holes between the lines marked on the can to form a striking surface for the matches. Be careful not to seriously deform can. Section V No. 4.1 CELLED FLAME FUELS LYE SYSTEMS Lye...

Pipe Pistol For Caliber Ammunition

A .45 caliber pistol can be made from 3 8 in. nominal diameter steel gas or water pipe and fittings. Lethal range is about 15 yards (13-1 2 meters*. Steel pipe. 3 8 in. (1 cm) nominal diameter and 6 in. (15 cm) long with threaded ends. 2 threaded couplings to fit pipe Solid pipe plug to fit pipe coupling Hard wood. 8-1 2 in. x 6-1 2 in. x I in. (21 cm x 16-1 2 cm x 2-1 2 cm) Tape or string Flat head nail, approximately 1 16 in. < 1-1 2 mm) in diameter 2 wood screws, approximately 1 16 in. <...

1

.* . 't - - , -. - t -I . .- . sp ' ft.' A- , - *> . AHEAD LOCK can be broken with one sure swift blow. You may frantically pull and tug and twist to release yourself from someone who has an arm tightly wrapped around your neck or by Jiu-Jitsu you may release yourself easily in less than two seconds. There is no question about the effectiveness of this method the effect on the nerve which is struck is instantaneous and severe. This release is very easy to apply and needs comparatively little...

Oa

World War, 049-055 Casualty, definition 0f, 049 CB, 174 Ce, 174 OG, 154 OlieniiuM agoutis, lioiling point. 39 rlastfifiratinn. 107 American, postwar. 113 World Wnr. 112 Chemical agents, classification, British, postwar, 114 World War, 113 degree of action. 119 French, postwar, 114 World War, 114 Oornum. jntstwar,. IKS World War, 115 military, 121 persistency, lift physical, 111 physiological, 112 tactical, 121 concent ration, 5 intolerable, R irritating, 8 lethal. 8, 1 consolidated list of. 217...

Connect To Explosive

When a vehicle passes over the switch, the two metal plates make contact closing the firing circuit. 3. Wrap a connecting wire around one leg of each U at least 1 4 from the end and solder in place. 4. Place metal ball on block so that it rests in the center hole. 5. Insert the ends of the small MU into two holes in the block. Insert large U into the remaining two hole s. CAUTION Make lure that the metal ball does not touch either MU shaped wire when the switch is standing on its base. If the...

By Fred B

1 -piece of hardwood,about 1VWx3 4 )-piece of hardwood,about 2x lMxl I-strip of tension steel, about 3*l The Bates MFG. Co. of Orange, NJ makes a steel ruler that will do.The stock H is BNR-12. It can be bought in most stores. I-roof ing na iI -nail about 1 long String them 3 8n from the bottom and the other 2 3 V from the bottom. If you are using the ruler there will be no problem. 2. Snip all but V off the roofing nail, and file it to a point. Solder or glue it V' from the tension steel. This...

J

WHILE the chances are that you'll never be attacked by anyone wielding a knife, the Jiu-Jitsu defense against such a person is so easy that you cannot afford to neglect it. When practicing, use a knife of the proper weight and shape, but have the blade covered by some protective sheath so that there is no possibility of anyone This number requires o lot of proctice before you can know thai you have really mastered 1. But when you can apply it as shown in the following pictures you own a real...

CiHiAsOI SOa H [CHtAajO HS

Di phenylarsenious oxide was converted to diphenylchlorarsine by chlorination with hydrochloric acid (CJh)iAs sO + 2HC1 2(C6H*)2AsCl + H,0 Diphenylchlorarsine may also be prepared by a much simpler process, as follows 1. Triphenylarsine is formed by acting on chlorbenzene and arsenic trichloride with sodium. 2. The triphenylarsine is then heated under pressure with more arsenic trichloride and diphenylchlorarsine is thus obtained. While the latter was the laboratory method of making...

Pack With Dowel

Of paper (newspaper or magazine stock Is what we prefer) and tamp them down In on top of the powder charge. Use several pieces to bring up the level to about 1 8 from the end of the casing.This paper serves both as a primary end seal and as a heat-sink to prevent possible damage to the mix by the final wax seal. With that done, seal the end by pouring melted wax over the paper allowing It to pool In the recess. We Just let the wax drip from a candle. This is better than using epoxy to seal the...

How To Use

Add just enough water to completely cover the seeds and place the cap on the jar. 2. Attach connecting wires from ,, -the firing circuit to the two screws 4. Check actual burning rate of fuse by measuring the time it takes for a known length to burn. This it used to determine the length needed for a desired delay time. If 5 in. (12 1 2 cm) burns for 6 seconds, 50 in. (125 cm) of fuse cord will be needed to obtain a one minute (60 second) delay time. WIRES The burnin* f this fuse is...

Info Rdb

In each step several isomers are formed only one of the possibilities in each case is indicated above and the ortho and para compounds both go through similar series of reactions. The product is too sensitive and in the wrong physical state (liquid) for use as a military explosive. In short, for the manufacture of Figure 45. Marina Marqueyrol, Inspecteur-G n ral des Poudres, France. 1919. Author of many researches on aromatic nitro compounds, nitrocellulose, smokeless powder, stabilizers and...

Reactor

Matter of fact, it was not irritant at all, but merely served as a solvent for the arsine. This explanation, however, throws little light upon the subject since ethylcarbazol was itself a solid and was loaded in mixture with solid diphenylchlorarsine as a solid charge in the Blue Cross shell. It is, therefore, not clear as to how it could be used as a solvent. Moreover, it did have a decided irritant effect alone, although much less than any of the other respiratory-irritant substances. The...

Flexible Plate Switch

Switch lor electrically initiated explosives, mines and booby This pressure sensitive switch is used tr*Pft- for initiating emplaced mines and explosives. MATERIAL REQUIRED MATERIEL REQUIRED. > Two meUl ,hect Mousetrap nc aPProxim*tely 10 in* (25 cm) quare Hacksaw or File ne proximately 10 in. x 8 in < 20 cm) - Piece of wood 10 in. square by 1 in. thick Connecting wires Four goft woQd block H1 irux in.x 1 4 ifU Eight flat head nails, 1 in. long Connecting wires Adhesive tape 1. Nail 10 in....

Wax Base Seal

Add a drop of wax to the nozzle fuse Junction or store your completed grenades in a zlplock bag, as the mix Is somewhat hygroscopic and may take on some moisture from the air or moist surroundings. For your first test firing It Is best not to hand-hold the grenade, although this Is possible once you can predict its functioning. Not only may it get quite hot, but It may malfunction dangerously If you prepared the filler incorrectly. Wedge it into the ground and stand upwind to watch the action....

M V

This is another of those Jiu-Jitsu numbers which you should be coreful about in your practice. Hit your partner easily reserve the vicious blows for a rcot enemy. Looking at this number again, note that you pay no attention to the attacker's hands at your throat. Raise your hands above his elbows. Hit hard Hit at about the fifth ribs with the knife edge of your hands.

Step V

Insert the endcap into the 8 silencer tube. Mark the 8 tube at 4 points top, bottom, and the center of both sides. Each point should be V to the rear of the froot edge of the tube. Drill one of the holes and insert a screw. This will prevent the mount assembly from moving when the other 3 holes are drilled. Drill the 3 remaining holes as marked. Remove the screw, take the endcap off, and remove the mount assembly. The V roll of cardboard in the endcap can now be discarded. Four nuts are now...

Common Source

Sodium hydroxide (lye, solid or concentrated solution) Copper or brsss plate about 4 in. < 10 cm) square and 1 16 in. < 2 mm) thick Soap manufacturing Disinfectants Sewer cleaner Aluminum plate or sheet, same site as copper plate One of the following Potassium permanganate, solid NOTE Be sure sodium hydroxide solution is at least a 45 solution by weight. If not, boil off some of the water. If solid sodium hydroxide Is available, dissolve some sodium hydroxide In about twice as muct. water...

World War Development

To accomplish its mission in war, an army must protect itself it must seek to keep itself intact and avoid an excessive drain in casualties upon its resources and fighting power. Hence there is both an individual and a collective demand for protection in war regardless of what means or weapons are employed. In consequence of this, the history of war might well be viewed as an age-long and continuing struggle between weapon development as a means of taking life, 011 the one hand, and protection...

Tape

Drill four 1 16 holes and one 1 8 hole through the wood block as shown. 2. Form two U shaped pieces from 1 16 copper wire to the dimensions shown. J ONE 1 HIGH ONE 1-1 2 HIGH The switch is placed in a hole in the path of expected traffic and covered with a thin layer of dirt or other camouflaging material. The mine or other explosive device connected to the switch can be buried with the switch or emplaced elsewhere as desired.

Summary Op Gases

We have now completed a survey of the 38 compounds which constitute the entire group of World War toxic agents. For convenience of reference, a consolidated list of these compounds is. given below, arranged in groups by physiological classification, in order of their chronological appearance (of the group) in the war, as treated in the foregoing chapters.

Animal Blood Systems

MATERIAL REQUIRED Animal blood can be used to gel gasoline for use as a flanre fuel which will adhere to target surfaces. Small jar with cap Cardboard Adhesive tape How Used Common Source Potassium Chlorate Sugar Motor fuel Gas Station Sulphuric Acid (Battery Acid) Motor vehicles Rubber sheeting (automotive inner tube) white fumes begin to appear, immediately remove the acid from heat and allow to cool to room temperature

Dividers

F' ONE'S drafting kit does not include proportional dividers, an efficient substitute for this father expensive instrument may be easily made by the method illustrated. The dividers will be found very useful for enlarging or reducing a drawing or sketch. The blades may be made of cardboard, brass, aluminum, or even thin wood. If Hovr to lay at blades for proportional di* riderj, and a quick acting spring wire pivot of cardboard, cut the two blades to the shape shown in the upper diagram if of...

Individual Protection Other Than Masks

The gas mask protects only the respiratory organs, the eyes, and face. For protection of the laxly generally against the blistering action of vesicant agents which either in liquid or vapor form will readily pene- irate ordinary cloth, special protective clothing is required. Protective clothing is made of the no called Unwed oil cloth, or cotton fabric treated with vegetable drying oils. The garment is a coverall with elastics at the ankles and wrists to insure tight fit at these places and a

No

During the first World War the Germans used a mixture of trinitroanisol and hexanitrodiphenyl sulfide in bombs. Trinitrophenetol or ethyl picrate, m.p. 78 , is prepared by the same methods as trinitroanisol. The explosive properties of the two substances have been studied by Desparmets and Calinaud, and by Desvergnes, who has reported the results of the earlier workers together with data of his own and discussions of methods of manufacture and of the explosive properties of mixtures with picric...

Nitroamines And Related Substances

The nitroamines are substituted ammonias, substances in which a nitro group is attached directly to a trivalent nitrogen atom. They are prepared in general either by the nitration of a nitrogen base or of one of its salts, or they are prepared by the splitting off of water from the nitrate of the base by the action of concentrated sulfuric acid upon it. At present two nitroamines are of particular interest to the explosives worker, namely, nitro-guanidine and cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine...

Methods Of Projection

Regardless of the technical means employed, there are but three basic methods of placing chemicals on a target area. First, by releasing the chemical from containers installed in one's own front lines, and depending upon the wind to carry it to and over the target area. This may be called the method of release at origin. Second, by releasing from containers projected on the target area by some physical means, such as firing from a gun (chemical shell), dropping from an airplane (chemical bomb),...

W

Water-dried powder, 313 Water-drying, 305, 306, 307, 316 Water fireworks, 56 Water gas, 277 Water glass, 108, 253 Web thickness, 8, 299 Whale oil, 199 Wheel cake, 46 Wheel mill, 45, 46, 51, 290 Wheels, pyrotechnic, 91, 92 Whistling fireworks, 72, 73 Whistling rockets, 72 White fire, 61, 64, 71, 118 White lances, 58, 69 White lights, 64, 68, 71 White powder, Augendre's, 358 Raschig's, 50 White smoke, 123 White stars, 83 Willow tree, 86 Wing-tip flares, 68 Wire dips, 119 Wood cellulose, 259 Wood...

Properties Of Explosives

An explosive is a material, either a pure single substance or a mixture of substances, which is capable of producing an explosion by its own energy. It seems unnecessary to define an explosion, for everyone knows what it is a loud noise and the sudden going away of things from the place where they have been. Sometimes it may only be the air in the neighborhood of the material or the gas from the explosion which goes away. Our simple definition makes mention of the one single attribute which all...

Bicycle Generator Power Source

1 Tie a 4 to 6 foot (1 meter) length of cord to the grenade. Be sure that the rope will not prevent the grenade handle from coming off. A 6 volt, 3 watt bicycle generator will set off one or two blasting caps (connected in series) or an igniter. Note If improvised grenade is used, tie cord around grenade near the end cap. Tape in place if necessary. 2. Tie a large knot in the other end of the cord for use as a handle. coatin& from both cnds of 2 c0 5pcr 3. Carefully remove safety pin from...

Lunginjurant Agents Group Characteristics

The lung injurants were the second group of agents to make their appearance in the World War. They form a well-defined group, having many properties in common* and for that reason they were designated by the Germans under a siugle generic class Green Cross substances. In general, they were all liquids of relatively low boiling points and high vapor pressures. They, therefore, were volatile substances that formed i ion persistent gases upon release from their containers. Their principal...

Cut So Inner Core Is Exposed

Cut end of fuse cord to expose inner core. 1. If watch has a sweep or large second hand, remove it. If delay time of more than one hour is required, also remove the minute hand If hands are painted, carefully scrape paint from contact edge with knife. 2. Drill a hole through the crystal of the watch or pierce the crystal with a heated nail. The hole must 2. Light cigarette in normal fashion. Place a paper be small enough that the match so that the head is over exposed end of fuse cord and screw...

Lzt

Which is as good a stabilizer as diphenylamine itself. Since both of these substances may be detected by simple tests upon an alcoholic extract of a sample of the powder, the fitness of the powder for continued storage and use may be easily demon which is as good a stabilizer as diphenylamine itself. Since both of these substances may be detected by simple tests upon an alcoholic extract of a sample of the powder, the fitness of the powder for continued storage and use may be easily demon...

Leather Washer

ALL that was required to make the high-grade hunting knife shown above was a worn-out 10-in. mill file, 10 cents worth of scrap sole leather from a shoe repair shop, and a piece of scrap brass 154 in. in diameter. Place the file in a forge or bury it in a roaring bed of live coals in a furnace or stove and bring to a white heat. Remove and let cool gradually. This will leave just the right temper. , Now place the file in the vise with 5 in. above the jaws, and break it off with a hammer. Grind...

Black Powder

The discovery that a mixture of potassium nitrate, charcoal, and sulfur is capable of doing useful mechanical work is one of the most important chemical discoveries or inventions of all time. It is to be classed with the discovery or invention of pottery, which occurred before the remote beginning of history, and with that of the fixation of nitrogen by reason of which the ecology of the human race wilKbc different in the future from what it has been throughout the time that is past. Three...

Relative Casualty Value Of Gases

In order to determine the relative casualty value of the principal battle gases, it is necessary to take into consideration the amountB of each that were used in battle during the World War. Table XV shows the amounts of battle gases of each class that were manufactured during the War. Of the 150,000 tons of battle gases manufactured during the war, approximately 125,000 tons were used in battle and 25,000 tons were left on hand after the war in filled shell and in bulk storage, as indicated...

Requirements For Ideal Agents

Since wc have now reviewed the requirements for chemical agent at some length, we may summarize this subject by stating the qualities and characteristics of an ideal chemical agent of each type. Offensive Gas. The ideal combat gas for us on the tactical offensive should meet the following requirements Tactical t. High toxicity. - Multiple effortiveneas. X npersistcncy. 4 hfiocts of m ximum duration. V Immediate effectiveness. I . Insidiousness in action. Volatility (maximum field conrcntra-I...

Aromatic Nitro Compounds

Aromatic nitro compounds are generally stable but are frequently reactive, especially if they contain groups other than nitro groups in the meta position with respect to one another. As a class they constitute the most important of the military high explosives. They are also used as components of smokeless powder, in compound detonators, and in primer compositions. Liquid nitro compounds, and the mixtures which are produced as by-products from the manufacture of pure nitro compounds for...

Use Of Respiratory Irritants In The World

Based upon the total amount used in battle, the respiratory irritants constitute the third largest group of chemical agents used in the war. The Germans loaded no less than 14,000,000 Blue Cross shells, of which only a very small part remained on hand at the time of the Armistice. It is estimated that a total of 6,500 tons of respiratory irritants were used in the war and produced 20,000 casualties, among which the deaths were negligible. On the basis of casualties, therefore, it required 650...

General Data

Type surface to surface antitank missile. Configuration length, 24 diameter, 4 wingspan, 18 ' solid balsa cruciform wings, spiral wound paper tube body and nosecone. Propulsion type 4 solid propellaat single stage motors - burning time - three seconds, maximum combined thrust - 36 lbs - average combined thrust - 8 lbs. Payload high explosive shaped charge approx. lbs. of explosive. Guidance type two channel radio control, visually guided to target. 4 movable trim tabs on wings for steering....

Future Of Smoke Agents

During the World War obscuring smoke proved its tactical value on land and sea and won for itself an assured place as a military weapon. Since the war the development of air force has still further enhanced the value of obscuring smoke, for not only are airplanes a means par excellence for putting down smoke Bcreens on the field of battle, but their power of observation has greatly increased the need for obscuration. So greatly has aircraft increased the facility of observing enemy dispositions...