A

A GREAT MANY instances occur every year in which people are choked, some to death and others painfully but not fatally. There are a number of Jiu-Jitsu defenses or releases from choking, some more complicated than others. This one, involving a single, sharp, accurate blow is easy to accomplish and entirely effective. It has the added advantage, if sharply and correctly administered, of ending the trouble at once as the attacker has little fight left in him. Us this defense when your attacker is...

Bzu

The residual gas, neither NO nor C02, was found to contain about 64 of carbon monoxide, the remainder being nitrous oxide and nitrogen with a trace of hydrocarbons. The nitrocellulose left at the end of the experiment weighed 34.716 grams corresponding to a loss of 1.24 of the weight of the original material. It gave on analysis 209.9 cc. NO per gram corresponding to a denitration per gram of 2.2 cc. The gases from the decomposition of nitrocellulose in vacuum contain nothing which attacks...

About This Book

This book is complete except for irrelevant chapters such ass Relation of Chemical Industry to Chemical Warfare, International Situation, Chemical Technique and Tactics of Cavalry, Military Organization for Chemical Combat, Chemical Techniques and Tactics of Air Corps, etc. Also left out was the extensive bibliography and hundreds of footnotes referring to books long out of print and generally unobtainable. For the most part, their subject matter concerned the historical record of the use of...

Agents

The total number of compounds known to chemical science has been variously estimated at from 300,000 to 500,000. Of these, some 200,000 have la-en studied to the extent that their principal properties are of record (8). As nearly all chemical compounds exert some toxic effects (either local or general) upon the body, it is not possible to estimate with accuracy the total number of toxic substances. However, several thousands of compounds have such pronounced toxic properties as to bring them...

Ale

Undar a magnifying glass it is relatively easy to male* measurements within .01 incb Then a small brass rod was chucked in the lathe and two slots sawed in it sufficiently far apart to make the two pieces. A diamond pointed tool was then adjusted in the lathe tool holder at an angle so that the sides of the point cleared both the lengthwise and crosswise faces. Cuts were taken with great care, using the saw cuts as reference points, and the same scale and magnifying glass were used lor the...

Altimeter Switch

This switch is designed for use with explosives placed on aircraft. It will close an electrical firing circuit when an altitude of approximately 5000 ft (1-1 2 KM) is reached. Thin sheet of flexible plastic or waxed paper Thin metal sheet (cut from tin can) Adhesive Tape Connecting Wires 1. Connect the altimeter switch in an explosive circuit the same as any switch. 2. Place the explosive package on airplane. As the plane rises the air inside the container will expand. This forces the plastic...

Automobile Generator Power Source

An automobile generator can be used as a means of firing one blasting cap or igniter. (Improvised Igniter. Section V, No. 2, may be used.) Automobile generator (6, 12, or 28 volts). (An alternator will not work.) Copper Wire Strong string or wire, about 5 ft. (150 cm) long and 1 16 in. (1-1 2 mm) Small light bulb requiring same voltage ss generator, (for example, bulb from aame vehicle aa generator). 1. Strip about 1 in. (2-1 2 cm) of coating from both ends of 3 copper wires. Scrape ends with...

B

Round headed wood screw in end of rifled slug. Hardened steel or tungsten carbide tool bit in wad. Rifle bullet encased in three piece sabot. Improvised slug made from regular shotshell, Grapeshot load - lead balls and wire. duction and is no longer avallble. An in cepth look at the Accelerator and 50 cal. sabot loads will appear in a future issue. To make a 12 gauge sabot load, first cut a shell as In B. Remove the large wad and drill about 2 3 way through the wad's center. The wad is row cut...

Basic Principles Comparison Of Chemical And Explosive Weapons

An understanding of the true character of chemical warfare can best lie approached by a consideration of the action of combat chemicals as compared to that of explosive weai> ons. Certain important differences between the effects of chemical and of explosive munitions emphasize the peculiarity and novelty of chemical warfare and suggest some of its potentialities. These differences are particularly noticeable in the mechanism of the action of chemical agents and their effects in terms of time...

Bcapm

On the top of the bed pipe, and when the tailstock is set exactly vertical, a corresponding line made on this. This will save a great deal of time anc trouble and possibly some errors. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. 3 and 4 are very easy to make and will answer for a great variety o work.

Bolt Assembly

Converting the Hossberg .22 semi-auto rifle to fulI-automatIc is very easily accomplished. The rear bottom of the bolt must be filed flat (see diagram). This hump activates the sear causing engagement of the striker on recoil. Removal of the hump allows continuous firing for the time the trigger is held to the rear full-automatic fire of the weapon until trigger is released. The Atchisson M-I6 AR-15 .22 Ir CONV. MARK II 30-shot magazine is used for the Mossberg in this conversion. The magazine...

Books And Magazines

Basics of Radio Control Modeling by Marks Winter. 4.50-Kalmbach Publishing Co., 1027 North Seventh St., Milwaukee WI, 53233. 2. Handbook of Model Rocketry by Stlne. 6.95-from Follet Publishing Co., Chicago, Illinois. 3. Armies and Weapons Magazine World wide distribution. Excellent product reviews and features on new military weapons including laser guidance hardware. Many illustrated ads from all of the world's larger weapons manufacturers. Subscription information is available from Sky Books...

By Darvis Mccoy

The walking-stick shotgun described In Issue 1 PMA can easily be turned into a yawara stick that is deadlier than any martial arts weapon ever taught in self-defense schools. The materials needed are the same as described in issue I, except that the point of a nail makes a more efficient firing pin than a bolt. The .1*10 shotgun shell fits the half in. size of the pipe very nicely, while 3 4 Inch lead pipe works well as the outside sleeve. Wrap the 1 2 inch section In duct tape until there is...

By Todd W

Anyone who has read The Poor Han's James Bond knows some thing about dynamite. The section on p.6 of the PMJ8 has some good Information on dynamite, however, the part about storage of this high explosive is rather vague, and also somewhat Incorrect. Contrary to what Is written in the PNJB, gelatin dynamite CAN leak nitroglycerine Just like the sawdust-clay type dynamite. Last year, a friend of mine, who is a road construction contractor and uses dynamite In his work, began a series of...

C B

From Fig. 5> connect wire D to wi re 0 on the control box and then connect wires A, B, & C to wires A, B, & C from the control box. See Fig. 6 for completed assembly. The instructions and diagrams listed here will give you a control box capable of detonating 3 mines or bombs. Using your imagination, you can modify the design and make a switchboard holding a hundred or more buttons. If you decide to build a bigger switchboard, it would be a good i-dea to keep the control buttons in...

C I w sjT

Since the ground distance, or range, L in any given case is a definite percentage of the distance 5 Eq. (3) and table on page 63 , we see from Eq. (15) that the quantity of chemical required to set up an effective concentration on a distant target increases as the cube of the distance to the target and, from Eq. (16), the effective range of a given quantity of chemical varies directly as the cube root of the weight of chemical released and inversely with the cube root of its density and...

Caution

Sulphuric acid will burn skin and destroy clothing. If any is spilled, wash it away with a large quantity of water. Fumes are also dangerous and should not be inhaled. 2. Remove the acid from heat and allow to cool to room temperature. 3. Pour gasoline into the large (1 quart) bottle until it is approximately 2 3 full. 4. Add concentrated sulphuric acid to gasoline slowly until the bottle is filled to within 1 to 2 from top. Place the stopper on the bottle. 5. Wash the outside of the bottle...

Lacrimatory Agents

The first toxic gases employed in the World War were the lacrimators, i.e., sulwtances having a specific action on the eyes and producing a copious flow of tears and temporary blindness. In the concentrations used in battle, neither the eyeball nor the optic nerve was injured and only in rare eases (as when a soldier was so near a shell burst as to have the liquid chemical splashed in his eyes) was any corneal injury experienced. In fact, so transitory was the effect of these early lacriniatory...

The Effectiveness Of Chemical Warfare

Many factors enter into an evaluation of the relative effectiveness of war weapons. Chief among llinw nw (1) the 1 Wil I ige rent's philosophy of battle (2) the tactical objectives sought., i t> t casualties, destruction of material, the occupation of inqiortant strategic positions, denial to the enemy of the use ol vital land or water areas, etc. (3) the military effort required to achieve the objectives sought (4) the degree of preparation and training of the enemy's armed forces and (5),...

CHAPTEtt Ttt Dissemination Of Chemical Agents

To be effective in battle, chemical agents must be properly disseminated over a suitable target area. Dissemination comprises two proches the delivering of the chemicals to the target (accomplished by projection), and the spreading of the chemicals over the target in an effective state (accomplished by dispersion). Dissemination of chemicals, therefore, consists broadly of their projection and dispersion. The various methods and processes of dissemination are considered in this chapter, while...

Chemical Classification

Although a vast amount of effort has been expended during and ince the late war in an attempt to establish some general laws governing the relation between chemical structure and physiological action on the living body, there is, strictly speaking, today no simple classification ol toxic substances in accordance with chemical composition. We have mentioned in Chap. II the tremendous number of chemical compounds among which physiologically active substances may be found. With this vast reservoir...

Chemicals In War

Screening smokes may also be generated from candles, shells, bombs, or airplanes. When a smoke screen is generated from candles, the wind must, be in the proper direction to accomplish the desired result. It must usually blow toward the enemy. Here again, and for the same reasons as stated above, the upper velocity limit should not be exceeded. The lower limit is not so important since, even if the wind did reverse itself, the screening smokes are harmless to personnel. Steadiness of the wind...

Comparative Effectiveness Of Respiratory Irritants

The effectiveness of the respiratory irritants depends primarily upon their minimum effective concentrations, since such concentrations are generally sufficient to incapacitate men for the period during which the irritants are effective. Accordingly, the lower the minimum effective concentration, the greater the effectiveness of the respiratory-irritant agent. On this basis, the foregoing respiratory irritants are arranged below in descending order of their effectiveness.

Comparative Strength Op Lacrimators

The aggressive power of a lacrimator is a function of its specific lacrimatory power, expressed as the minimum concentration required to produce laerimation, and its volatility at ordinary temperature -(68 F.). On this basis, the lacrimators described above are arranged below in the descending order of their aggressive powers. Minimum lacrimatory concentration (threshold of action-*, mg. jht liter Volatility, 20 C. (08* .), mg. per liter

Definitions

We have said that chemical substances used in combat are designated as chemical agents. Of these agents, three distinct groups gases, smokes, and incendiaries constitute what is generally understood as the mat riel of chemical warfare. Gases are chemical agents which produce physiological effects. These agents are used in war to incapacitate military personnel. Physically they are often dispersed as liquids and not infrequently as particulate clouds yet the term gas has attained in military...

Dg

These gases are very volatile, vaporizing entirely at the moment of explosion. They form a cloud, capable of giving deadly effects, but which loses, more or less rapidly, its effectiveness by dilution and dispcreion into the atmosphere. These gases, having moderately high boiling points, are only partially vaporized at the moment of explosion. The cloud formed upon explosion is generally not deadly, but it immediately give penetrative lacrimatory or irritant cffects. The majority of the gas...

E

Effect of groups, orienting, 127, 155 on euse of substitution, 128, 159 on explosive strength, 132, 133 on toxicity, 125 Effect of temperature on orientation, 127 Electric detonator, 214 Electric effect, 99 Electric spreader stars, 87, 88 Electric stars, 83, 85, 86, 99 English crackers, 74, 97, 98, 111 Epsom salt, 353 see also Magnesium sulfate Erosion, 296, 388 , 389, 457, 458 Erythrite, 235, 278 Erythritol tetranitrate, 235, 280 Ester interchange, 171 Ethanolamine, 199, 229, 230 Ether,...

F

Fabric cordeau, 11 Falling weight test, 21 Fat, 198 Fatty acid, 198 Favier explosives, 157, 350, 351, 352, 391 Folding's solution, 240, 241, 243, 244, 280 Fermentation, 199, 233 Ferric chloride, 430 Ferric picrate, 165 Ferrous ammonium sulfate, 384 Ferrous chloride, 280 Ferrous picrate, 165 Ferrous sulfate, 286, 268, 270 Festoon, 82 Finishing press, 304 Fire balls, 55 Fire damp, 346 see also Methane Fire wheel, 58 Fire wick, 97 Firecrackers, 34, 35, 36, 111, 112ff. 299, 322 ff., 387 Floral...

Fast Burning

Blank Powder Hercules Bullseye Hodgdon HP-38 Dupont Unique Dupont P B Hercules Red Dot Hodgdon Trap-100 Winchester 452AA Winchester 473AA Dupont SR7625 Dupont SR4756 Al can AL5 Hodgdon HS-6 Winchester 540 Winchester 571 Hodgdon HS-7 Hercules 2400 Winchester 296 Hodgdon H-110 Hodgdon H-4227 Dupont IMR-4227 Norma N-200 Hodgdon H-4198 Dupont IMR-4198 Dupont IMR-3031 Norma N-201 Norma N-203 Dupont IMR-4064 Hodgdon BL-C(2) Hodgdon H-335 Hodgdon H-4895 Dupont IMR-4895 Hodgdon H-380 Hodgdon H-414...

Fig Trigger

Note The bullet should be slanted downward with a 1 metal tube extending from It, blocked at the end with paper, so that the flash sets the charge off at the bottom middle. Better yet, put the detonator below the charge so the bullet rests at the bottom. To utilize this device, remove the business end from the bullet and put a small wad of paper In the cartridge to keep the powder in. Then insert the cartridge into the explosive, align the firing pin so it will strike the primer, and set the...

Figure B

Cut the two outside frame pieces from V flat stock. Carefully align edges and clamp together for steps 2 and 3. STEP 2 Cut the cocking notch in the frame pieces at A. Increase the angle of the undercut for rugged field use. Decrease angle to near verticle for a target type hair trigger. STEP 3 The front spacer is cut from k stock and is positioned between frame halves until all three bottom and front edges are aligned. (There should now be a V x V channel along the top edge of the frame.) Clamp...

Fikeball Cannon

3 Beer Cans Black Electric Tape Slow Burning Fuse Gas l ine Cut out the tops and bottoms from 2 beer cans leaving clean edges.Then cut out the top of a third beer can and make a fuse hole in the center of the can bottom. Flg.l Tape the three cans with electric tape to form them Into a tube, making sure that the walls are smooth.

Frankford Arsenal

This Manual Includes methods for fabricating explosives, detonators, propellants, shaped charges, small arms, moftars, incendiaries delays, switches, and similar items from indigenous materials. Each item was evaluated both theoretically and experimentally to assure safety and reliability. A large number of items were discarded because of inherent hazards or unreliable performance. Safety warnings are prominently inserted in the procedures where they apply but it is...

Future Of Incendiaries

Modern warfare has left little on the field of battle that is combustible hence suitable targets and opportunities for the use of incendiaries iu the Combat Zone are very limited and will become increasingly so as armies are mechanized. On the other hand, the military airplane has opened up a vastly larger field of application for incendiaries in the areas behind the battle front and in the hinterlands of the belligerents. To an ever-increasing degree the successful waging of modern war depends...

Future Of Respiratory Irritants

The future of the respiratory irritants in somewhat difficult to estimate. The experimental work done by the Allies toward the end of, and since, the World WTar showed conclusively that these compounds are tremendously effective when thermally distilled and disseminated as toxic smokes while all modern masks contain special filters for protecting against these smokes, the protection is only relative and greatly adds to the breathing resistance of the mask. All things considered, it is believed...

Gasproof Shelters

In war, especially in stabilized situations, large areas may be sul> -jected to harassing or lethal concentrations of gas for long periods, possibly for several days at a time. Under such conditions, provision must Ik* made for troops to eat, rest, and sleep without wearing gas masks. Placcs where work can be carried on without the encumbrance of the mask are also necessary, or at least most desirable, for headquarter*, medical dressing stations, telephone and signal stations, observation...

Giant Match

Lay the match on the paper, with the match head being about l V a-bove the striker. Then roll the whole thing into a tube and glue it closed. The tube should be tight enough to hold the match in place, but not tight enough to grip the match. When you pull the string, the match will slide over the striker, ignite, and send a violent jet of flame out of the tube. Your cost is about 3< . This detonator should be inserted in a metal tube and is used in manually detonated mines. If you reverse the...

Group Characteristics

While the vesicant agents, in addition to vesication, exert divers complex physiological effects, their physical, chemical, and toxic properties are such that they form a well-defined group with many characteristics in common, and for this reason they were grouped by the Germans under the general name of Yellow Cross substances. Thus, the vesicants, although very soluble in the substance of animal tissues, have weaker chemical affinities for living matter than the lung-

Hsd

HMTD, 451 Hang fire, 456 Hard lead, 96 Hat snakes, 120 Headache, 208, 215, 225, 227, 233, 284 Heat test, 268, 269, 285 Hellhoffite, 354 Hexaaniylose, 244 Hexachloroethane, 123 Hexamethylenetetramine, 396, 397, 451, 453 451, 452, 453 Hexamin, IS4 sec also Hcxanitrodi- phenylamine Hexamine, 397 sec also Hexamethylenetetramine Hexanitroazobenzcne, 1S9 Hexanitrobiphcnyl, 140, 158, 159 Hexanitrocarhanilide, 18S Hexanitrodiphenyl sulfide, 22, 172, 187 Hexanitrodiphenyl su If one, 22, 187...

HC Mixture Zn CiCl ZnO

Since the war efforts have continued in America to produce a better zinc-smoke producer by improving the B.M. Mixture. Solid hexachlorethane (CiCl*) was substituted for and found to be much superior to carbon tetrachloride. It proved to be an equally good source of chlorine and, being itself a solid, eliminated the necessity for an inert filler such as magnesium carbonate. As an absorbent in place of sodium chlorate and ammonia chloride, zinc oxide was substituted. The new mixture, used in...

Hi

From the foregoing we see that, if the range Lt in Fig. 3 is 100 per cent, the range in Fig. 4 is 4.5 per cent greater, while the range in Fig. 5 is 26 per cent greater. From the above we conclude that with a given quantity of chemical the maximum range is obtained by discharging the whole quantity from one point, while the maximum width of target is obtained by discharging half the quantity from each of two points spaced apart a distance equal to half the target width. If the points of...

Hole Must Be Centered In Plug

Position metal trap on stock to that top will hit the head of the 11. String elastic bands from front coupling to notch on each side of the strap. 5. Push nail through plug until pip Plug head of nail is flush with square end. Cut nail off at other end 1 16 (. 158 cm) away from plug. Round off end of nail with file. SAFETY CHECK - TEST FIRE PISTOL BEFOREHAND FIRING Rounded 1 _ - I. Locate a barrier such as a stone wall or large tree which you can stand behind in case the pistol ruptures...

How To Operate Pistol

A. nil a 9 16 diameter (I. 43 cm) hole through the stock. The center of the hole should be approximately 1 2 (I. 27 cm) from the top. 9. Slide the pipe through this hole and attach front coupling. Scr w . drilled plug into rear coupling. Pull strap back and hold with thumb until ready. NOTE If 9 16 drill is not available cut a V groove in the top of the stock and tape pipe securely in place. Insert 1 4 diameter steel or wooden rod into front of pistol and push shell case out.

How To Use

Shake the sma.ll bottle to mix contents and pour onto the cloth or paper around the large bottle. Bottle can be used wet or after solution has dried. However, when dry, the sugar - Potassium chlorate mixture is very sensitive to spark or flame and should be handled accordingly. 2. Throw or launch the bottle. When the bottle breaks against a hard surface (target) the fuel will ignite.

Hydrochloric Acid

Wien foil is dropped into hydrochloric acid, the result Is a gaseous substance which can effectively clear a room. Occasionally, however, the gas may need to be emitted a short distance, in which case an acid-filled coffee can with foil placed inside, would be of no help. A simple generator to aid in emitting this gas can be easily and Inexpensively constructed. This generator can be used in instances where the smoke may need to be issued through a ventilation system,through a screen or...

Dzq

The name, pentaerythrite, indicates that the substance contains five carbon atoms and (like erythrite) four hydroxy 1 groups. In commercial practice the reaction is carried out at 65-70 . After 2 hours at this temperature, the calcium is precipitated by means of sulfuric acid, the mixture is filtered, and the filtrate is concentrated and crystallized by evaporation in vacuum. Penta- Pentaerythrite Tetranitrate (PETN, penta, nipcryth, penthrit) Four equivalents of formaldehyde in warm aqueous...

Ifv

The same reaction occurs at lower temperatures 0.665 of a given portion of the material decomposes in 3 years at 20 , 2.437o in 1 year at 35 , 0.65 in 10 days at 50 , and 100 during 14 hours heating at 100 . The decomposition is not self-catalyzed. The product, hexanitrosobenzene, m.p. 159 , is stable, not hygroscopic, not a primary explosive, and is comparable to tetryl in its explosive properties. Trinitrotriazidobenzene, if ignited in the open, burns freely with a greenish flame enclosed in...

Igniter From Book Matches

Is a hot igniter made from paper book matches for use with molotov cocktail and other incendiaries. Use With Molotov Cocktail _ _ ___ . i -- Tape the match end tab of the igniter to the neck of the molotov cocktail. Grasp the cover end tab and pull sharply or quickly to ignite. The book match igniter can be used by itself to ignite flammable liquids, fuse cords and similar items requiring hot ignition,_ Paper book matches. Adhesive or friction tape. 1. Remove the staple(s) from match book and...

Ik

It vsill be from Table XIX that, while gas caused 26.75 per cent f all our casualties and 32.63 per cent of nonfatal casualties, only 2.00 > er cent of the gas casualties died, whereas 25.78 per cent of the nongas casualties died. We may say from this that men wounded by gas had over twelve time* the chancc to escape with their Iixcs than men wounded by other weapons. This very low death rate from gas, as compared to other weajxms, was also e. M rieiteed by the other principal armies engaged...

Increasing Use Of Gas During World

One of the most convincing evidences of the effectivcn< ss of chemical warfare was its rapidly increasing use as the World War progress . This is strikingly illustrated in Chart XIX, which shows the amount if gas and gas shell used on l> oth sides during each vear of the war. Owing to the large number of casualties which the Germane scored against the British and French with Yellow Cross (mustard) shell in the summer of 1017, and the great success attained against the Russians by their...

Index

Launcher, rocket 25, grenade 81 Machine pistols 74 Magazine as weapon 20 Measuring 26 Metal, to blacken 8 Mine, claymore 40, contact 78, detonator 84, placing 77 Missle, homemade 48 Mortars 18, 24 Ninja tools 20 Nunchaku 8 Pistol, plastic 37 Powder, explode with electricity 6 Reloading 82 water pipe 47 Silencers 10, 11, 14, 22, 33, 41, 57, 58, 63, end cap 35 Speargun, legal Spearguns 31 Submachineguns 64-, 72 Switches 9 Targets 6, 28 Vice, hand 62 Wire drawing 21 Edward L. Allen's system of...

Info

Stood between the ends of the cordeau thence the velocity of detonation in meters per second. Velocities of detonation have recently been measured by highspeed photography of the explosions through a slit, and by other devices in which the elapsed times are measured by means of a cathode-ray oscillograph. The mark which 'explosive waves, traveling toward each other on the same piece of cordeau, make at the point where they meet is evidently due to the fact that they spread out sideways at the...

Info Fyn

Portions with water, alcohol, glycerin, acetonc, and acetic acid, and not miscible with benzene, chloroform, carbon disulfide, and ether. Nitroglycol is manufactured with the same mixed acid and with the same apparatus as nitroglycerin. Somewhat more heat is produced by the nitration reaction, and, as glycol is less viscous than glycerin, it is feasible to conduct the operation at a lower temperature. The washing is done with cold water and with less agitation by compressed air, and smaller...

Step T

The 3 4 long piece of drain pipe is used to make a spacer for the area between the rear of the 4 tube and the spiral assembly. Split the edge of the 3 4 tube and overlap the edges, reducing the size until it will Various materials can be used as flexible baffles to fill the endcap. These baffles are intended to allow the bullet to pass, but to partially seal off the end of the silencer and help to slow the release of gas. Flexible plastic, nylon, and red or black rubber may all be used. The...

Doityourself Machine Pistols

Building an SMG from scratch is not an easy job for most people, even though excellent plans are available from various sources. Not everyone has the shop, tools or skill required. Converting a semi-auto pistol would seem to be a more practical approach. These conversions still appear to be difficult to most folks, who believe that complex machine work and hard to get parts are needed. All of these objections are true sometimes, for instance, to change an M-I carbine to M-2 (a favorite)...

Introduction

In Unconventional Warfare operations it may be impossible or unwise to use conventional military munitions as tools in the conduct of certain missions. It may be necessary instead to fabricate the required munitions from locally available or unassuming materials. The purpose of this Manual is to increase the potential of Special Forces and guerrilla troops by describing in detail the manufacture of munitions from seemingly innocuous locally available materials. Manufactured, precision devices...

Material Required

1 4'* nominal siae steel pipe 4 to 6 inches long with threaded ends. 1 4 Solid pipe plug Two (2) steel pipe couplings Metal strap - roughly 1 8 x 1 4 x 5 Two (2) elastic bands Flat head nail - 6D or 8D (approx . 1 16 diameter) Two (2) wood screws 6 Wood 8 x 5 x 1 Drill 1 4 wood or metal rod. (approx 1. Carefully inspect pipe and fittings. a. Make sure that there are NO cracks or other flaws in the pipe or fittings. b. Check inside diameter of pipe using a 9 mm cartridge as a gauge The bullet...

Materials

Section One - Airframe Motor Section balsa - three pieces 4 x 36 x V'. hardwood dowel - 1 8 x 36'). spiral wound paper tube - two p'ieces 3 7 8 diameter x 16V long available from Estes. motors - 8 0 motors by Estes. ignitors - 4 Estes solar ignitors. fireproof wadding - 1 piece Estes. R C receiver, two servo units and an on board battery for missile. Compatable transmitter for ground direction. These units are available from numerous suppliers of R C gear. Only two channels are needed. The two...

Materials Required

Push nail through plug and cut off flat 1 32 past the plug. 10. Bend 4 metal strap into L shape and drill hole for wood screw. Notch metal strap on the long side 1 2 from bend. 3 4 nominal size water or gas pipe 20 to 30 long threaded on one end. 3 4 steel coupling Solid 3 4 pipe plug Metal strap (1 4 x 1 16 x 4) Twine, heavy (100 yards approximately) 3 wood screws and screwdriver Flat head nail 6D or SO Hand drill Saw or knife File 1. Carefully inspect pipe and fittings. 11. Position metal...

Means Of Projection

During the World War, chemicals were disseminated by every military arm, although the air corps did not use toxic gases. When chemical warfare made its appearance in 1915, there was already a large variety of high-explosive weapons in use. As chemical warfare was bom during the war and there was no prewar development of its mat riel, the first chemical munitions wTere hasty adaptations of high-explosive weapons, although subsequent experience showed that some of these weapons were not suitable...

Metal Plate

Drill t*o holes in the cap of the jar about 2 inches apart. Diameter of holes should be such that screws or bolts will thread tightly into them. If the jar has a metal cap or no cap, a piece of wood or plastic (NOT METAL) can be used as a cover. DRILL Moisten fine Black Powder to form a paste or prepare a sub S stitute as follows a. Dissolve Potassium Nitrate in an equal amount of water b. Pulverize charcoal by spreading thinly on a hard surface and rolling the round stick over it to crush to a...

Military Effort Expended For Gas Casualties

Having determined the battle casualties caused by gas, our next inquiry logically concerns the military effort expended in securing these casualties, as compared to the military effort expended in securing the sum total of battle casualties. Iu connection with this inquiry, it should be borne in mind that the military effort here referred to is only that part of tlie total combat effort which was expended in securing ptrmuncl los*e> (i.e., battle injuries and deaths), and does not concern...

O

While it appears from the foregoing that many of the World War chemical agents may be classified in accordance with the scheme outlined, it does not follow that all such agents are so classifiable, as there are many known exceptions, and undoubtedly many more exceptions will be found as new chemical agents are discovered. Another chemical classification of combat toxics is indicated by Hederer and Istin as follows 1. Oxydizera, e.g., chlorine, chlorpicrin, or 2. Reducers, e.g., acrolein, ketone...

Pack With Pencil

Next fill with the smoke powder mixture to the end of the casing and tamp down with a dowel the same size as the inside of the engine. (You can first start packing using the pencil, In order to avoid scrunching the fuse.) Fill to the top again and tamp in. We have used either a vise or a hammer in order to Insure that the mix is tightly packed, without a single mishap.Repeat this until there is about I A distance left to the end of the case. Note depending upon a number of variables, which...

Preface

The three outstanding developments of the World War were the military airplane, the combat tank, and chemical warfare. Each of these new instruments of war made its appearance on the battlefield at about the same time, each exerted an important influence in shaping the character of modern combat, and each is destined to play an even greater role in future warfare. Since the World War, all nations have actively pushed the develo > -ment of these new arms and much has been written concerning...

Principal Gas Attacks In World

Impressive as are the foregoing average results in the late war, many instances can be found where gas was uBcd under favorable conditions and produced still more effective results. This was particularly true of the large-scale gas attacks put over by the chemical troops on l> oth sides These attacks comprised gas clouds released from cylinders or projected on the enemy by gas projectors. Table XVII shows the principal gas attacks during the war, the approximate quantities of gas used, the...

Q

Every particle of liquid, or solid, in contact with a gas is surrounded by a film of gas closely adhering to it and capable of removal or penetration only by the projection of another solid or liquid particle through it. This film serves as an effective insulator, separating the particle from the gas around it, and breaking down only through mechanical rupture. When such a particle travels through the gas, the film moves with it when the gas moves past the particle, the film is distorted and...

R

Rufltnose hendecanitrate, 244 Railway fusees, 65 Railway torpedoes, 109, 110 Roschig's white blasting powder, 50 Rate of burning, 293 Reactivity, 3 Realgar, 52, W, 69, 83. 87 Red fire, 61, 64, 71, 72 118, 119 Red lances, 69, 70 Red lights, 64, 65, 69, 71, 72 Red smoke, 122, 123 Red stars, 84, 85, 86 Red torches, 67 Reenforcing cap, 231, 414, 420, 432, Residual solvent, 313, 314, 315 Resorcinol, 169 Rhamnose, 243 Rlmmnose tetranitrate. 242 Rhamnose trinitrate, 243 Rhodaminc red, 123 Rice hulls....

Relation Between Quantity And Range

The amount of chemical required to establish an effective concentration on a target is determined by the general relation between a quantity of chemical and its effective range. Let W weight of chemical released from one point, in pounds, D density of chemical released (air 1), V original volume of chemical released from one point, at atmospheric temperature and pressure, in cubic feet, V, volume of chemical after it has traveled a distance S, in cubic feet, S distance traveled from point of...

Relation Op Volumetric Ratios To Weight Ratios

The concentration of a toxic gas in the air is variously stated as (1) grams of gas per cubic meter of air (2) milligrams of gas per liter of air (3) ounces of gas per 1.000 cu. ft. of air and (4) parts of gas per million parts of air. In order to compare concentrations expressed in these different ways, it is necessary and convenient to know the conversion factors, which may he simply stated as follows Grams per cubic meter are numerically exactly the same as milligrams per liter, since a...

Rmr

In which the symbol M is the same as before and in which the R represents an organic radical. The substance cacodyl ((CH,)4.Ast), the formula of which may be written is an example of compounds of the second class. Other toxic compounds of military importance belonging to this class are CH, As H, Lewisite (III) Aa (CH CHCl), 0 0 0 C< Hydrocyanic acid H C N In the third class, the basic materials can combine, in one or several valences, with halogens or with ionizable mineral radicals, as...

Rubber Band

3 16 Stovebolt - 7iM long-file end as shown in detail All you need is t*o pieces of pipe, a coupling, a rubber band, some wire, and a thin metal rod. Assemble everything as In the diagram. The firing pin should be filed on one end. It should look 11ke a straight-slot screwdriver. The firing pin is used to both fire the ,22 and to poke out the fired shelly Hovr to lay at blades for proportional di* riderj, and a quick acting spring wire pivot

S

Nitroglycerin and 50 soluble nitrocellulose, made without volatile solvent, and sandwiched between two thin strips of powder made, without volatile solvent, from 50 soluble nitrocellulose and 50 crystalline dinitrotoluene. The two compositions were rolled to the desired thicknesses separately between warm rolls, as the burning advances, and, other things in the gun being equal, they produce gas at a rate which accelerates more rapidly and, in conscquence, gives a greater velocity to the...

Short Barreled Version

See your rifle's parts list for ordering instructions from the factory-about 12.00 1 - 3 4 Shaft Collar - 3 4IO-IV'OD This is a V' thick collar with a V NC or NF thread set screw.The collar is used to retain pulleys and gears on a 3 4 diameter arbor shaft. Available from hardware stores and tool suppliers. About 50< t. 1 - pc. Metal Screen - 4V'x24. Found at hardware and plumbing stores. Material from an old screen door may also be used. Plastic screen 1s...

Silencers And Stark Arresters

BOY MECHANIC VOL.3 A Croubow Migtxine Gun A new type of bow gun that a boy into the end of the barrel. The notch can make, and which will give him in which the bowstring- catches, should plenty of good sport, ia one of the re- be cut just under the rear end of the peating or magazine variety. To make magazine. The trigger is an L-shaped, the gun, cut a toft pine board, 40 in. pivoted piece, and pushes the cord oft long and 5 in. wide. With a saw and the notch when ready to fire. As oon knife,...

Smokeless Powder

An account of smokeless powder is, in its main outlines, an account of the various means which have been used to regulate the temperature and the rate of the burning of nitrocellulose. After the degree of nitration of the nitrocellulose, other factors i which influence the character of the powder are the state of aggregation of the nitrocellulose, whether colloidcd or in shreds, the size and shape of the powder grains, and the nature of the materials other than nitrocellulose which enter into...

Step

After final sanding, the stock is wiped down with alcohol and painted with black enamel primer. All small holes should first be filled In with plastic wood putty or body putty. Do not paint the stock tubes or the stock will not be able to sl de freely. It can be blackened with touch-up blue or with one of the formulas on page 11, issue 1. The stock tubes should have a light coat of oil to insure smooth operation. STEP 12 Cut out two grips, using pattern HI. Shape to suit and install on grip...

Step Control

Glue the rubber or plastic strip to the other 1-1 2 x k strip of wood. This will be the bottom of the box. When assembling, the plastic or rubber will be facing up. 2. Screw the hinges to one of the 2-1 2 x V pieces of wood and attach the other side of the hinge to the side of one of the 2-1 2 x J-l 2 pieces of wood. 3. Drill a > l6 bole in the bottom of the other 2-1 2 x 1-1 2 piece of wood, which will be the left side of the box, and a 1 8 hole in the top right hand corner of the other 2-1...

Step I

Cut grip frame out of 5 8 plywood, using pattern 1. It is a good idea to first make this piece out of balsa-wood. This allows you to make changes in grip shape or angle. When the entire stock is completed and you are comfortable with the final shape, it is duplicated in plywood. Drill four 1 8 holes and 7 16 takedown screw hole as shown. Taper the rear of the hole to accomodate the head of the screw. Drill hole for stock latch. STEP 2 Drill seven holes in brass side plates as shown in pattern...

Step P

The spiral baffle and front barrel assembly is made as follows. It will be contained inside the 4 tube. Stack 12 washers, with the edges aligned, and clamp together in the vise with the top of the center hole exposed. Cut with hacksaw through the stack of washers from the outside edge to the center hole. The cut should be at a right angle to the washers. Remove the stack of washers from the vise, and replace them, this time with one side of the cut in the vise and one side exposed. Use a hammer...

Technique

In considering the chemical technique and tactics of the several arms, we shall follow the organization of the Theater of Operations for chemical warfare, as presented in Chap. Ill, Diagram I, and discuss the chemical technique and tactics of each arm in the order of its proximity to the battle front of an army. In connection with the normal chemical-warfare zones of operation, shown in Diagram 1 of Chap. Ill, it should be borne in mind that these tones are not rigidly delimited, nor are they...

The Aftereffects Of Chemical Warfare

Up to this point we have considered the war effects of chemicals but what of the aftereffects Much time and effort, have been expended in the years since the war in thoroughly investigating this subject, not only Iwcause it is important from a medical point of view, but also to settle ihc moot question as to whether ga* really caused serious permanent disabilities, or predisposition toward such diseases as tuberculosis. A large amount of evidence has l> ecn gathered and carefully sifted and...

The Silencers

Of all 201h century 9mall arms developments, the firearm silencer is probably the most mysterious and the leasl understood. Invented in 1908 by Hiram Maxim, the firearm silencer was one of Maxim's early contributions to firing. This attendant clatter Is most pronounced In semi and full automatic weapons. Some noise also escapes through the unlocked breech area of these autos. A bolt action rifle will produce the field of noise pollution control. By little If any mechanical noise when the 1930s,...

This Weapon Can Also Be Made Using The Explosive And Fuse Below

Mix three (3) parts Potassium chlorate and one (I) part granulated sugar. Confine in a container (in this case the claymore mine) and use time fuse to set it off. Time Fuse Boil equal parts of potassium chloratc and granulated sugar in water. Dip cotton string in the solution and let dry. Buring rate is approx. sixty (60) seconds per foot. Test some to rctake sure I This weapon can a I so, be used on the side of a truck or tractor. This was done In Vietnam and was found to be highly effective...

TiCl Hj TiH HC

With the evolution of dense clouds of acrid white smoke. The titanic acid hydrate forms finely divided solid particles in the smoke while the hydrochloric acid is in the gaseous state. Like silicon tetrachloride, complete decomposition of the titanium tetrachloride, according to the above equation, is inhibited by an excess of hydrochloric acid. Therefore, the best smoke is formed when the titanium tetrachloride is present in low concentrations and there is an exeess of moisture in the air...

Toxicity Of Lacrimators

The toxicity of the World War lacrimators has been previously mentioned in Chap. I. The following table shows their relative toxicity on the basis of 10 minutes' exposure 0.35* 1.50 1.00 2.00* 2.30* 2.30 3.20* In the cases of those compounds marked with an asterisk (*), their volatilities at 20 C. (68 F.) exceed their minimum lethal doses, so that fatal concentrations of these compounds may be encountered in the field at ordinary temperatures. Moreover, it must be remembered that, even in the...

U

CAUTION If safety lever should be released for any reason, grenade will explode after regular delay time (4-5 sec.). NOTE If diameter of safety fuse is too large to fit in hole (Step 4), follow procedure and How to Use of Time Delay Grenade, Section VI, No. 9. instead of Steps 3 and 4 above. HOW TO USE 2. Whirl grenade overhead, holding knot at end of rope, until grenade picks up speed (3 or 4 turns). 3. Release when sighted on target. ii 0 No. 9 NOTE It is helpful to practice first with a...

United States Patents

710.660 10 1902 Bennett et al 42 16.3 UX 1.502.676 7 1924 2.297.693 10 1942 2.424.194 7 1947 Sampson et al 42,72 3.039.366 6 1962 linthum el al 42 7 X 3,276.323 10 1966 Primary juim ner Benjamin A. Bore belt Assistant Examiner Stephen C. Bentley Attorney Nolte A Nolte An automatic firearm comprises a frame, a receiver mounted on the frame, a barrel mounted on the receiver, a bolt diiposed in the receiver andteiescopicaily movable relative to the breech end of the barrel against the action of a...

Use Of Lung Injurants In World

As a group, the lung injurants were used to a larger extent than any other type of gas and secured the bulk of the gas fatalities in the war. Minimum Lethal Concentration on 10 Minute ' Exjx - 0.200 0.260 0 500 0.500 0 500 0.500 Phenylcarbylaniine chloride . 0 500. 1 000 2.000 3,000 5 600 Thus it is estimated that, altogether a total of 100,500 tons of these gase* were used in battle during the late war and caused 876,853 casualties, or an average of one casualty per 230 lb. of gas. While the...

Tud

As you knock his hands away get a good Firm grip around his tipper right arm with your lefl hand. This will be easy as your arms and hands are still in motion. you will be amazed at the ease with which you throw the person. and throw him so hard upon his back that he may be stunned by the fall. Your right hand now takes a firm hold on his shoulder right up close to his neck. Up to this point you have been standing face to face You can throw the subject very heavily or you con ease up a little...

Vacuvise

A plastic container and stored in a cool dry place. Another explosive powder which even surpasses photoflash powder is chlorate flashpowder. Chlorate flashpowder is much more powerful than photoflash powder and also much more sensative. The reason for Its increased strength is the use of potassium chlorate (a very powerful unstable oxidizing agent).The equipment needed for making chlorate flashpowder Is the same as for photof I ash powder with one minor exception. A flat metal pan and a hammer...

Vws

This substance, m.p. 295-300 , results from the direct nitration of oxanilide. It is stable and about as powerful as TNT, and is reported to explode with the production of a temperature which is distinctly lower than that produced by many high explosives. (hexanitrocarbanilide or sym-dipicrylurea) may be prepared by the nitration of carbanilide (sym-diphenylurea) in one, in two, or in three stages. It is of interest because of its explosive properties and because it supplies one way in which...

By Fb

Take a wine bottle with a concave bottom and ftll it with 30t Sulphuric Acid, 2Q Motor Oil, and SOI Gasoline. Seal the top and thoroughly wipe the bottle clean and dry, especially the concave bottom. Step 2 Pack the bottom full of Potassium Chlorate. Cut a circular piece of cardboard so It snugly fits over the bottom and tape it in place to keep the Potassium Chlorate In. Slip a plastic baggie over the bottom and wrap a rubber band around it. This is to keep moisture out. When the bottle Is...

Sulphuric Acid

If battery acid or other dilute acid is used, concentrate it by boiling. Container used hould be of enamelware or oven glass. When dense IMPORTANT Wash outside of jar thoroughly with clear water. If this is not done, the jar may be dangerous to handle during use 1. Place the tube containing the Sugar Chlorate crystals on an incendiary or flammable material taped end down. 3. Fit the tube to the bulb ba and tape in place. Meke sure that the tube doee not cover that portion of...

Substances Used As Smoke Agents

The substances that have been successfully used as smoke agents fall into five main groups, viz., smokes that owe their obscuring power to (I) particles of colloidal carbon suspended in air (II) particles of ph'osphorie acid (III) sulfuric acid (IV) hydrochloric acid and (V) zinc chloride. F.ach of these groups appeared about in the order named and, except for phosphorus (the l> est of all smoke producers), each was an improvement upon its predecessor. The earliest modern method of producing...

Do Not Remove Safety Stick Until Ready To Throw Fire Bottle

The safety stick, when in pUce, prevents ignition of the fire bottle if it should accidentally be broken. the end with the matches passes ' the slot in the can. Pass the flat stick or piece of metal Matches through slots in can to hold spring in place. This acts as a safety device. 8. Punch many closely spaced small holes between the lines marked on the can to form a striking surface for the matches. Be careful not to seriously deform can. Section V No. 4.1 CELLED FLAME FUELS LYE SYSTEMS Lye...

Pipe Pistol For Caliber Ammunition

A .45 caliber pistol can be made from 3 8 in. nominal diameter steel gas or water pipe and fittings. Lethal range is about 15 yards (13-1 2 meters*. Steel pipe. 3 8 in. (1 cm) nominal diameter and 6 in. (15 cm) long with threaded ends. 2 threaded couplings to fit pipe Solid pipe plug to fit pipe coupling Hard wood. 8-1 2 in. x 6-1 2 in. x I in. (21 cm x 16-1 2 cm x 2-1 2 cm) Tape or string Flat head nail, approximately 1 16 in. < 1-1 2 mm) in diameter 2 wood screws, approximately 1 16 in. <...

1

.* . 't - - , -. - t -I . .- . sp ' ft.' A- , - *> . AHEAD LOCK can be broken with one sure swift blow. You may frantically pull and tug and twist to release yourself from someone who has an arm tightly wrapped around your neck or by Jiu-Jitsu you may release yourself easily in less than two seconds. There is no question about the effectiveness of this method the effect on the nerve which is struck is instantaneous and severe. This release is very easy to apply and needs comparatively little...

Connect To Explosive

When a vehicle passes over the switch, the two metal plates make contact closing the firing circuit. 3. Wrap a connecting wire around one leg of each U at least 1 4 from the end and solder in place. 4. Place metal ball on block so that it rests in the center hole. 5. Insert the ends of the small MU into two holes in the block. Insert large U into the remaining two hole s. CAUTION Make lure that the metal ball does not touch either MU shaped wire when the switch is standing on its base. If the...

By Fred B

1 -piece of hardwood,about 1VWx3 4 )-piece of hardwood,about 2x lMxl I-strip of tension steel, about 3*l The Bates MFG. Co. of Orange, NJ makes a steel ruler that will do.The stock H is BNR-12. It can be bought in most stores. I-roof ing na iI -nail about 1 long String them 3 8n from the bottom and the other 2 3 V from the bottom. If you are using the ruler there will be no problem. 2. Snip all but V off the roofing nail, and file it to a point. Solder or glue it V' from the tension steel. This...