About This Book

This book is complete except for irrelevant chapters such ass Relation of Chemical Industry to Chemical Warfare, International Situation, Chemical Technique and Tactics of Cavalry, Military Organization for Chemical Combat, Chemical Techniques and Tactics of Air Corps, etc. Also left out was the extensive bibliography and hundreds of footnotes referring to books long out of print and generally unobtainable. For the most part, their subject matter concerned the historical record of the use of...

Ale

Undar a magnifying glass it is relatively easy to male* measurements within .01 incb Then a small brass rod was chucked in the lathe and two slots sawed in it sufficiently far apart to make the two pieces. A diamond pointed tool was then adjusted in the lathe tool holder at an angle so that the sides of the point cleared both the lengthwise and crosswise faces. Cuts were taken with great care, using the saw cuts as reference points, and the same scale and magnifying glass were used lor the...

Automobile Generator Power Source

An automobile generator can be used as a means of firing one blasting cap or igniter. (Improvised Igniter. Section V, No. 2, may be used.) Automobile generator (6, 12, or 28 volts). (An alternator will not work.) Copper Wire Strong string or wire, about 5 ft. (150 cm) long and 1 16 in. (1-1 2 mm) Small light bulb requiring same voltage ss generator, (for example, bulb from aame vehicle aa generator). 1. Strip about 1 in. (2-1 2 cm) of coating from both ends of 3 copper wires. Scrape ends with...

Basic Principles Comparison Of Chemical And Explosive Weapons

An understanding of the true character of chemical warfare can best lie approached by a consideration of the action of combat chemicals as compared to that of explosive weai> ons. Certain important differences between the effects of chemical and of explosive munitions emphasize the peculiarity and novelty of chemical warfare and suggest some of its potentialities. These differences are particularly noticeable in the mechanism of the action of chemical agents and their effects in terms of time...

Books And Magazines

Basics of Radio Control Modeling by Marks Winter. 4.50-Kalmbach Publishing Co., 1027 North Seventh St., Milwaukee WI, 53233. 2. Handbook of Model Rocketry by Stlne. 6.95-from Follet Publishing Co., Chicago, Illinois. 3. Armies and Weapons Magazine World wide distribution. Excellent product reviews and features on new military weapons including laser guidance hardware. Many illustrated ads from all of the world's larger weapons manufacturers. Subscription information is available from Sky Books...

By Darvis Mccoy

The walking-stick shotgun described In Issue 1 PMA can easily be turned into a yawara stick that is deadlier than any martial arts weapon ever taught in self-defense schools. The materials needed are the same as described in issue I, except that the point of a nail makes a more efficient firing pin than a bolt. The .1*10 shotgun shell fits the half in. size of the pipe very nicely, while 3 4 Inch lead pipe works well as the outside sleeve. Wrap the 1 2 inch section In duct tape until there is...

By Todd W

Anyone who has read The Poor Han's James Bond knows some thing about dynamite. The section on p.6 of the PMJ8 has some good Information on dynamite, however, the part about storage of this high explosive is rather vague, and also somewhat Incorrect. Contrary to what Is written in the PNJB, gelatin dynamite CAN leak nitroglycerine Just like the sawdust-clay type dynamite. Last year, a friend of mine, who is a road construction contractor and uses dynamite In his work, began a series of...

Lacrimatory Agents

The first toxic gases employed in the World War were the lacrimators, i.e., sulwtances having a specific action on the eyes and producing a copious flow of tears and temporary blindness. In the concentrations used in battle, neither the eyeball nor the optic nerve was injured and only in rare eases (as when a soldier was so near a shell burst as to have the liquid chemical splashed in his eyes) was any corneal injury experienced. In fact, so transitory was the effect of these early lacriniatory...

The Effectiveness Of Chemical Warfare

Many factors enter into an evaluation of the relative effectiveness of war weapons. Chief among llinw nw (1) the 1 Wil I ige rent's philosophy of battle (2) the tactical objectives sought., i t> t casualties, destruction of material, the occupation of inqiortant strategic positions, denial to the enemy of the use ol vital land or water areas, etc. (3) the military effort required to achieve the objectives sought (4) the degree of preparation and training of the enemy's armed forces and (5),...

Chemicals In War

Screening smokes may also be generated from candles, shells, bombs, or airplanes. When a smoke screen is generated from candles, the wind must, be in the proper direction to accomplish the desired result. It must usually blow toward the enemy. Here again, and for the same reasons as stated above, the upper velocity limit should not be exceeded. The lower limit is not so important since, even if the wind did reverse itself, the screening smokes are harmless to personnel. Steadiness of the wind...

Fast Burning

Blank Powder Hercules Bullseye Hodgdon HP-38 Dupont Unique Dupont P B Hercules Red Dot Hodgdon Trap-100 Winchester 452AA Winchester 473AA Dupont SR7625 Dupont SR4756 Al can AL5 Hodgdon HS-6 Winchester 540 Winchester 571 Hodgdon HS-7 Hercules 2400 Winchester 296 Hodgdon H-110 Hodgdon H-4227 Dupont IMR-4227 Norma N-200 Hodgdon H-4198 Dupont IMR-4198 Dupont IMR-3031 Norma N-201 Norma N-203 Dupont IMR-4064 Hodgdon BL-C(2) Hodgdon H-335 Hodgdon H-4895 Dupont IMR-4895 Hodgdon H-380 Hodgdon H-414...

Future Of Incendiaries

Modern warfare has left little on the field of battle that is combustible hence suitable targets and opportunities for the use of incendiaries iu the Combat Zone are very limited and will become increasingly so as armies are mechanized. On the other hand, the military airplane has opened up a vastly larger field of application for incendiaries in the areas behind the battle front and in the hinterlands of the belligerents. To an ever-increasing degree the successful waging of modern war depends...

Igniter From Book Matches

Is a hot igniter made from paper book matches for use with molotov cocktail and other incendiaries. Use With Molotov Cocktail _ _ ___ . i -- Tape the match end tab of the igniter to the neck of the molotov cocktail. Grasp the cover end tab and pull sharply or quickly to ignite. The book match igniter can be used by itself to ignite flammable liquids, fuse cords and similar items requiring hot ignition,_ Paper book matches. Adhesive or friction tape. 1. Remove the staple(s) from match book and...

Index

Launcher, rocket 25, grenade 81 Machine pistols 74 Magazine as weapon 20 Measuring 26 Metal, to blacken 8 Mine, claymore 40, contact 78, detonator 84, placing 77 Missle, homemade 48 Mortars 18, 24 Ninja tools 20 Nunchaku 8 Pistol, plastic 37 Powder, explode with electricity 6 Reloading 82 water pipe 47 Silencers 10, 11, 14, 22, 33, 41, 57, 58, 63, end cap 35 Speargun, legal Spearguns 31 Submachineguns 64-, 72 Switches 9 Targets 6, 28 Vice, hand 62 Wire drawing 21 Edward L. Allen's system of...

Info

Guns apparently first came into use shortly after the death of Roger Bacon. A manuscript in the Asiatic Museum at Leningrad, probably compiled about 1320 by Shems ed Din Mohammed, shows tubes for shooting arrows and balls by means of powder. In the library of Christ Church, Oxford, there is a manuscript entitled De officiis regum, written by Walter de Millemete in 1325, in which a drawing pictures a man applying a light to the touch-hole of a bottle-shaped gun for firing a dart. On February 11,...

Step T

The 3 4 long piece of drain pipe is used to make a spacer for the area between the rear of the 4 tube and the spiral assembly. Split the edge of the 3 4 tube and overlap the edges, reducing the size until it will Various materials can be used as flexible baffles to fill the endcap. These baffles are intended to allow the bullet to pass, but to partially seal off the end of the silencer and help to slow the release of gas. Flexible plastic, nylon, and red or black rubber may all be used. The...

Doityourself Machine Pistols

Building an SMG from scratch is not an easy job for most people, even though excellent plans are available from various sources. Not everyone has the shop, tools or skill required. Converting a semi-auto pistol would seem to be a more practical approach. These conversions still appear to be difficult to most folks, who believe that complex machine work and hard to get parts are needed. All of these objections are true sometimes, for instance, to change an M-I carbine to M-2 (a favorite)...

Means Of Projection

During the World War, chemicals were disseminated by every military arm, although the air corps did not use toxic gases. When chemical warfare made its appearance in 1915, there was already a large variety of high-explosive weapons in use. As chemical warfare was bom during the war and there was no prewar development of its mat riel, the first chemical munitions wTere hasty adaptations of high-explosive weapons, although subsequent experience showed that some of these weapons were not suitable...

Military Effort Expended For Gas Casualties

Having determined the battle casualties caused by gas, our next inquiry logically concerns the military effort expended in securing these casualties, as compared to the military effort expended in securing the sum total of battle casualties. Iu connection with this inquiry, it should be borne in mind that the military effort here referred to is only that part of tlie total combat effort which was expended in securing ptrmuncl los*e> (i.e., battle injuries and deaths), and does not concern...

Pack With Pencil

Next fill with the smoke powder mixture to the end of the casing and tamp down with a dowel the same size as the inside of the engine. (You can first start packing using the pencil, In order to avoid scrunching the fuse.) Fill to the top again and tamp in. We have used either a vise or a hammer in order to Insure that the mix is tightly packed, without a single mishap.Repeat this until there is about I A distance left to the end of the case. Note depending upon a number of variables, which...

S

Nitroglycerin and 50 soluble nitrocellulose, made without volatile solvent, and sandwiched between two thin strips of powder made, without volatile solvent, from 50 soluble nitrocellulose and 50 crystalline dinitrotoluene. The two compositions were rolled to the desired thicknesses separately between warm rolls, as the burning advances, and, other things in the gun being equal, they produce gas at a rate which accelerates more rapidly and, in conscquence, gives a greater velocity to the...

Short Barreled Version

See your rifle's parts list for ordering instructions from the factory-about 12.00 1 - 3 4 Shaft Collar - 3 4IO-IV'OD This is a V' thick collar with a V NC or NF thread set screw.The collar is used to retain pulleys and gears on a 3 4 diameter arbor shaft. Available from hardware stores and tool suppliers. About 50< t. 1 - pc. Metal Screen - 4V'x24. Found at hardware and plumbing stores. Material from an old screen door may also be used. Plastic screen 1s...

Silencers And Stark Arresters

BOY MECHANIC VOL.3 A Croubow Migtxine Gun A new type of bow gun that a boy into the end of the barrel. The notch can make, and which will give him in which the bowstring- catches, should plenty of good sport, ia one of the re- be cut just under the rear end of the peating or magazine variety. To make magazine. The trigger is an L-shaped, the gun, cut a toft pine board, 40 in. pivoted piece, and pushes the cord oft long and 5 in. wide. With a saw and the notch when ready to fire. As oon knife,...

Smokeless Powder

An account of smokeless powder is, in its main outlines, an account of the various means which have been used to regulate the temperature and the rate of the burning of nitrocellulose. After the degree of nitration of the nitrocellulose, other factors i which influence the character of the powder are the state of aggregation of the nitrocellulose, whether colloidcd or in shreds, the size and shape of the powder grains, and the nature of the materials other than nitrocellulose which enter into...

Step I

Cut grip frame out of 5 8 plywood, using pattern 1. It is a good idea to first make this piece out of balsa-wood. This allows you to make changes in grip shape or angle. When the entire stock is completed and you are comfortable with the final shape, it is duplicated in plywood. Drill four 1 8 holes and 7 16 takedown screw hole as shown. Taper the rear of the hole to accomodate the head of the screw. Drill hole for stock latch. STEP 2 Drill seven holes in brass side plates as shown in pattern...

Technique

In considering the chemical technique and tactics of the several arms, we shall follow the organization of the Theater of Operations for chemical warfare, as presented in Chap. Ill, Diagram I, and discuss the chemical technique and tactics of each arm in the order of its proximity to the battle front of an army. In connection with the normal chemical-warfare zones of operation, shown in Diagram 1 of Chap. Ill, it should be borne in mind that these tones are not rigidly delimited, nor are they...

The Silencers

Of all 201h century 9mall arms developments, the firearm silencer is probably the most mysterious and the leasl understood. Invented in 1908 by Hiram Maxim, the firearm silencer was one of Maxim's early contributions to firing. This attendant clatter Is most pronounced In semi and full automatic weapons. Some noise also escapes through the unlocked breech area of these autos. A bolt action rifle will produce the field of noise pollution control. By little If any mechanical noise when the 1930s,...

Toxicity Of Lacrimators

The toxicity of the World War lacrimators has been previously mentioned in Chap. I. The following table shows their relative toxicity on the basis of 10 minutes' exposure 0.35* 1.50 1.00 2.00* 2.30* 2.30 3.20* In the cases of those compounds marked with an asterisk (*), their volatilities at 20 C. (68 F.) exceed their minimum lethal doses, so that fatal concentrations of these compounds may be encountered in the field at ordinary temperatures. Moreover, it must be remembered that, even in the...

United States Patents

710.660 10 1902 Bennett et al 42 16.3 UX 1.502.676 7 1924 2.297.693 10 1942 2.424.194 7 1947 Sampson et al 42,72 3.039.366 6 1962 linthum el al 42 7 X 3,276.323 10 1966 Primary juim ner Benjamin A. Bore belt Assistant Examiner Stephen C. Bentley Attorney Nolte A Nolte An automatic firearm comprises a frame, a receiver mounted on the frame, a barrel mounted on the receiver, a bolt diiposed in the receiver andteiescopicaily movable relative to the breech end of the barrel against the action of a...

Vacuvise

A plastic container and stored in a cool dry place. Another explosive powder which even surpasses photoflash powder is chlorate flashpowder. Chlorate flashpowder is much more powerful than photoflash powder and also much more sensative. The reason for Its increased strength is the use of potassium chlorate (a very powerful unstable oxidizing agent).The equipment needed for making chlorate flashpowder Is the same as for photof I ash powder with one minor exception. A flat metal pan and a hammer...

Do Not Remove Safety Stick Until Ready To Throw Fire Bottle

The safety stick, when in pUce, prevents ignition of the fire bottle if it should accidentally be broken. the end with the matches passes ' the slot in the can. Pass the flat stick or piece of metal Matches through slots in can to hold spring in place. This acts as a safety device. 8. Punch many closely spaced small holes between the lines marked on the can to form a striking surface for the matches. Be careful not to seriously deform can. Section V No. 4.1 CELLED FLAME FUELS LYE SYSTEMS Lye...

Pipe Pistol For Caliber Ammunition

A .45 caliber pistol can be made from 3 8 in. nominal diameter steel gas or water pipe and fittings. Lethal range is about 15 yards (13-1 2 meters*. Steel pipe. 3 8 in. (1 cm) nominal diameter and 6 in. (15 cm) long with threaded ends. 2 threaded couplings to fit pipe Solid pipe plug to fit pipe coupling Hard wood. 8-1 2 in. x 6-1 2 in. x I in. (21 cm x 16-1 2 cm x 2-1 2 cm) Tape or string Flat head nail, approximately 1 16 in. < 1-1 2 mm) in diameter 2 wood screws, approximately 1 16 in. <...

Connect To Explosive

When a vehicle passes over the switch, the two metal plates make contact closing the firing circuit. 3. Wrap a connecting wire around one leg of each U at least 1 4 from the end and solder in place. 4. Place metal ball on block so that it rests in the center hole. 5. Insert the ends of the small MU into two holes in the block. Insert large U into the remaining two hole s. CAUTION Make lure that the metal ball does not touch either MU shaped wire when the switch is standing on its base. If the...

By Fred B

1 -piece of hardwood,about 1VWx3 4 )-piece of hardwood,about 2x lMxl I-strip of tension steel, about 3*l The Bates MFG. Co. of Orange, NJ makes a steel ruler that will do.The stock H is BNR-12. It can be bought in most stores. I-roof ing na iI -nail about 1 long String them 3 8n from the bottom and the other 2 3 V from the bottom. If you are using the ruler there will be no problem. 2. Snip all but V off the roofing nail, and file it to a point. Solder or glue it V' from the tension steel. This...

Pack With Dowel

Of paper (newspaper or magazine stock Is what we prefer) and tamp them down In on top of the powder charge. Use several pieces to bring up the level to about 1 8 from the end of the casing.This paper serves both as a primary end seal and as a heat-sink to prevent possible damage to the mix by the final wax seal. With that done, seal the end by pouring melted wax over the paper allowing It to pool In the recess. We Just let the wax drip from a candle. This is better than using epoxy to seal the...

Wax Base Seal

Add a drop of wax to the nozzle fuse Junction or store your completed grenades in a zlplock bag, as the mix Is somewhat hygroscopic and may take on some moisture from the air or moist surroundings. For your first test firing It Is best not to hand-hold the grenade, although this Is possible once you can predict its functioning. Not only may it get quite hot, but It may malfunction dangerously If you prepared the filler incorrectly. Wedge it into the ground and stand upwind to watch the action....

World War Development

To accomplish its mission in war, an army must protect itself it must seek to keep itself intact and avoid an excessive drain in casualties upon its resources and fighting power. Hence there is both an individual and a collective demand for protection in war regardless of what means or weapons are employed. In consequence of this, the history of war might well be viewed as an age-long and continuing struggle between weapon development as a means of taking life, 011 the one hand, and protection...

Summary Op Gases

We have now completed a survey of the 38 compounds which constitute the entire group of World War toxic agents. For convenience of reference, a consolidated list of these compounds is. given below, arranged in groups by physiological classification, in order of their chronological appearance (of the group) in the war, as treated in the foregoing chapters.

No

During the first World War the Germans used a mixture of trinitroanisol and hexanitrodiphenyl sulfide in bombs. Trinitrophenetol or ethyl picrate, m.p. 78 , is prepared by the same methods as trinitroanisol. The explosive properties of the two substances have been studied by Desparmets and Calinaud, and by Desvergnes, who has reported the results of the earlier workers together with data of his own and discussions of methods of manufacture and of the explosive properties of mixtures with picric...

Nitroamines And Related Substances

The nitroamines are substituted ammonias, substances in which a nitro group is attached directly to a trivalent nitrogen atom. They are prepared in general either by the nitration of a nitrogen base or of one of its salts, or they are prepared by the splitting off of water from the nitrate of the base by the action of concentrated sulfuric acid upon it. At present two nitroamines are of particular interest to the explosives worker, namely, nitro-guanidine and cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine...

Popular Mechanics

A 1-in. hole was bored.in the center of a 2-in. square block. Two finishing- in, as shown in the' sketch. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil'. After everything was ready the . powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. The distance between the nail points which must be bright and clean should be just enough to give a good, fat spark.

Bicycle Generator Power Source

1 Tie a 4 to 6 foot (1 meter) length of cord to the grenade. Be sure that the rope will not prevent the grenade handle from coming off. A 6 volt, 3 watt bicycle generator will set off one or two blasting caps (connected in series) or an igniter. Note If improvised grenade is used, tie cord around grenade near the end cap. Tape in place if necessary. 2. Tie a large knot in the other end of the cord for use as a handle. coatin& from both cnds of 2 c0 5pcr 3. Carefully remove safety pin from...

Lunginjurant Agents Group Characteristics

The lung injurants were the second group of agents to make their appearance in the World War. They form a well-defined group, having many properties in common* and for that reason they were designated by the Germans under a siugle generic class Green Cross substances. In general, they were all liquids of relatively low boiling points and high vapor pressures. They, therefore, were volatile substances that formed i ion persistent gases upon release from their containers. Their principal...

Cut So Inner Core Is Exposed

Cut end of fuse cord to expose inner core. 1. If watch has a sweep or large second hand, remove it. If delay time of more than one hour is required, also remove the minute hand If hands are painted, carefully scrape paint from contact edge with knife. 2. Drill a hole through the crystal of the watch or pierce the crystal with a heated nail. The hole must 2. Light cigarette in normal fashion. Place a paper be small enough that the match so that the head is over exposed end of fuse cord and screw...

Lzt

Which is as good a stabilizer as diphenylamine itself. Since both of these substances may be detected by simple tests upon an alcoholic extract of a sample of the powder, the fitness of the powder for continued storage and use may be easily demon which is as good a stabilizer as diphenylamine itself. Since both of these substances may be detected by simple tests upon an alcoholic extract of a sample of the powder, the fitness of the powder for continued storage and use may be easily demon...

Leather Washer

ALL that was required to make the high-grade hunting knife shown above was a worn-out 10-in. mill file, 10 cents worth of scrap sole leather from a shoe repair shop, and a piece of scrap brass 154 in. in diameter. Place the file in a forge or bury it in a roaring bed of live coals in a furnace or stove and bring to a white heat. Remove and let cool gradually. This will leave just the right temper. , Now place the file in the vise with 5 in. above the jaws, and break it off with a hammer. Grind...

Black Powder

The discovery that a mixture of potassium nitrate, charcoal, and sulfur is capable of doing useful mechanical work is one of the most important chemical discoveries or inventions of all time. It is to be classed with the discovery or invention of pottery, which occurred before the remote beginning of history, and with that of the fixation of nitrogen by reason of which the ecology of the human race wilKbc different in the future from what it has been throughout the time that is past. Three...

Relative Casualty Value Of Gases

In order to determine the relative casualty value of the principal battle gases, it is necessary to take into consideration the amountB of each that were used in battle during the World War. Table XV shows the amounts of battle gases of each class that were manufactured during the War. Of the 150,000 tons of battle gases manufactured during the war, approximately 125,000 tons were used in battle and 25,000 tons were left on hand after the war in filled shell and in bulk storage, as indicated...

Procedure

Natural form Myrica berries General store Department store Drug store 1. Obtaining wax from Natural Sources Plants and berries, are potential sources of natural waxes. Place the plants and or berries in boiling water. The natural waxes will melt. Let the water cool. The natural waxes will form a solid layer on the water surface. Skim off the solid wax and let it dry. With natural waxes which have suspended matter when melted, screen the wax through a cloth,

Aromatic Nitro Compounds

Aromatic nitro compounds are generally stable but are frequently reactive, especially if they contain groups other than nitro groups in the meta position with respect to one another. As a class they constitute the most important of the military high explosives. They are also used as components of smokeless powder, in compound detonators, and in primer compositions. Liquid nitro compounds, and the mixtures which are produced as by-products from the manufacture of pure nitro compounds for...

Future Of Smoke Agents

During the World War obscuring smoke proved its tactical value on land and sea and won for itself an assured place as a military weapon. Since the war the development of air force has still further enhanced the value of obscuring smoke, for not only are airplanes a means par excellence for putting down smoke Bcreens on the field of battle, but their power of observation has greatly increased the need for obscuration. So greatly has aircraft increased the facility of observing enemy dispositions...

Plastic Bombs

Hand grenades and antipersonel mines can be easily and cheaply constructed from polyester casting res in, auto body putty, ABS and PVC pipe, plexiglass, vacumn formed styrene sheet etc. These plastic devices won't produce shrapnel fragments or concussions equal to the power of conventional bombs, but they do have two unique and noteworthy features they are both non metallic and x-ray Li.apparent. The first feature allows these devices to be carried through airports, government buildings and...

By The Kentucky Rifleman

A stronger recoil spring to insure reliabi1i ty. All that is left is to install the new shoulder stock, give the whole thing a good safety test and you're in business The Sauer M-38 is even easier to alter than the Colt. Start by stripy-ping the gun. The Sauer is stripped by pulling down the latch in the trigger guard, then pulling the slide all the way back and up, then letting it go forward off the frame. Then remove the grips. To start the conversion, remove the trigger bar (see drawing) by...

Physical Classification

The physical classification is very simple and is based upon physical state or form of the substance under ordinary conditiona, i.e., temperature 68 F. (20 C.) and atmospheric pressure (760 mm. Hg). Thus, an agent is a true gas, if its boiling point is below ordinary atmospheric temperature, as is the case with chlorine (b.p. 28 F.). This classification as a true gas is not to be confused with the broad generic term gas, used to refer generally to toxic chemical agents, but means that the...

Explosive

If an exploaive charge other than a atandard TNT block ia uaed, make a hole in the center of the charge for inaerting the blaating cap. TNT can be drilled with relative safety. With plaatic explosives, a hole can be made by preaaing a round atick into the center of the charge. The hole ahould be deep enough that the blaating cap ia totally within the exploaive. 2. Tape, tie or glue one or two rows of closely packed naila to sides of explosive block. Nails should completely cover the four...

Pyrotechnics

The early history of pyrotechnics and the early history of black powder are the same narrative. Incendiary compositions containing saltpeter, and generally sulfur, mixed with combustible materials were used both for amusement and for purposes of war. They developed on the one hand into black powder, first used in crackers for making a noise and later in guns for throwing a projectile, and on the other into pyrotechnic devices. The available evidence indicates that fireworks probably developed...

Group II White Phosphorus WP

One of the earliest and by far the most efficient material used in the war for generating artificial smoke was phosphorus. This element exists in two allotropic forms white phosphorus and red phosphorus. White phosphorus, the normal and common form, was discovered in 1669 by the German chemist, Brand, who noted that it is spontaneously inflammable at ordinary temperatures and burns with a dense white smoke. While both white and red phosphorus were used in the war, white phosphorus was by far...

Dissemination By Projectiles

While the theoretical economy of releasing chemicals on the target area is very large, as indicated above, the practical advantage is not nearly so great, for several deterrant factors enter into the projection and dispersion of chemicals from projectiles. In the first place, projectiles are not very efficient as carriers of chemicals, for their walls must be made thick enough to withstand the shock of discharge, and this greatly limits their chemical capacity. The efficiency of a chemical...

Pulls Instead Of Pushes

SING wh t I lerm a double-action bow and a front-wheel-drive arrow of entirely design, Orville Littleton and I have obtained almost incredible results in a series of flight-shot experiments. Here are the figures BEST TYPE YEW FLIGHT BOW 10-lb. bow. 2S-in. Port Orford cedar arrow GO yd. 30-lb. bow, 28-in. Port OrfoM cedar arrow 209 yd. 65-lb. bow. 28-ln. Port Orford cedar arrow 304 yd. BOW AND ARROW OF NEW DESIGN 10-lb. bow, spring type, front-diSve arrow 160 yd. 30-lb. bow, spring type,...

Bargain Bugging

When it is necessary to record your conversation with another person or his conversation with a third party after your departure, a bug can be hidden In your pocket and may be left at the scene. The bug transmits to a receiver tape recorder setup In your nerarby parked car or carried by your associate who places himself as close to the scene of conversation as possible outside an office, in an adjoining room, etc. walkie talkies. Adequate ones are available for about 25 from any radio and...

Comparison Op The Vesicants

Considering the factors (1) rapidity of action (2) extension of rube-faction, swelling, and edema and (3) time of healing of lesions, the World War vesicants and those compounds having subsidiary vesicant action may be arranged in descending order of their skin-irritant efficiency as follows On the basis of relative toxicity, the above agents would rank as Minimum Lethal Dose (10 Minutes' Exposure) 0.120 0.150 0.200 0.200 0.500 0.560

Physiological Classification

This classification arranges chemical agenfs according to the effects they produce upon the living body. Both during and since the late war, the physiological classification systems of the principal countries has differed considerably in order to compare these systems, we shall review briefly the salient points of each. American Classification (World War) In this system, the toxic substanccsare classified according to the predominant effects which they exert, with the understanding, however,...

Projectors

RANCE PROJECTOR - RIFLE TTPE (CO, powered) 1. Specially designed pneumatic rifle that fires patented Cap-Chnr syringe. The 2 small CO, cylinders inserted into the rifle will discharge the rifle approximately 10 times. Can be successfully used at distances up to about 35 yard*, but most effective at 25 to 30 yard range. The lower velocity of this unit minimizes danger of injury to animals resulting from the physical impact of the syringe. Bolt Action. Specially designed barrel. Sh. wt. 8Yi...

Capchur Sol Immobilizing Drug

Cap-Chur Sot is the most rapid actms immobilizer available. Total immobilization usually occurs in from 2 to 10 minutes. Dizziness and lack of visual coordination may occur in as short a time as 30 seconds so that the animal will normally not move far after injection. Best results are usually obtained by mak-ins ihe injection in the muscular area of the hindquarters on larger animals. The dosases prescribed are for intramuscular or intraperitoneal Injection. Cap-Chur Sol contains nicotine...

Cross Strips

Tween the rollers of. a wringer, by flattening them with a lawn roller, or in anv other convenient way. If the target 4S to be no larger than 2 ft. in diameter, it is now necessary only to roll the strip* as tightly as possible under your knee and bind with wire aa described a little later on, It will improve the target to brush the pasteboard heavily with a solution of sodium silicate (water glass). If a standard 4-ft. target is to be made, prepare a frame as shown in the drawing. Bore the...

Iiv

Davis Pamks 191-458 CorvuHJHTKD as Volume II, 19-4 1 I Properties of Classification of A Complete Round of Propagation of Detonating Velocity of Munroe Sensitivity Tests of Explosive Power and Brisance 23 II Black Berthold Boerhaave on Black Greek Marcus Roger Development of Black Burning of Black Uses of Black Blasting Other Related Propellent III Development of Pyrotechnic Mixtures 53 Colored Railway Scratch Marine Parade Aluminum and Magnesium Picrate Picrate Non-Picrate Roman...

Fertilizer Explosive

An explosive munition can lie made from fertilizer grade ammonium nitrate and either fuel oil or a mixture of equal parts of motor oil and gasoline. When properly prciwrcd, this explosive munition can be detonated with a blasting cup. 4. Place the aluminum metal on top of the explosive. 5. Just before use, insert the blasting cap into the cavity made by the rod. The initiator is now ready for use. Cardboard Disk Insert For Handling Purposes NOTE If it is desired to carry the initiator some...

The Handy No Impact Required Firebomb

1 came up with this devilish little device one day while pondering the best way to torch piles of hay. It uses a minimum amount of fuel, is silent (no bottles breaking), and cheap to build. Take an empty soft drink can and remove the top. Stuff with some sort of absorbant material. Pour in a few ounces of gas and pour out excess. To use, all you have to do is light the top and throw on a flammable substance. A little sand in the bottom of the can helps it throw farther. Finally, their use is as...

Push Dagger Full Size Pattern

Sewn to the inside of your boot or the scabbard supplied with the knife can be shortened to fit the new blade length. The push dagger, like the derringer, was a popular b ckup or hideout weapon for the American traveler in the 18008. Rlverboat gamblers would often produce a push dagger to settle a gambling argument, and many gentlemen carried a dagger as a discrete means of protection for encounters with the local riff-raff. Many of these early push daggers were works of art. One of the more...

Coke Bottle Shaped Charge

This shaped charge will penetrate 3 in. (7-1 2 cm) of armor. (It will disable a vehicle if placed on the engine or engine compartment). Glass Coke bottle. 6-1 2 oz. size Plastic or castable explosive, about 1 lb. (454 gm) Metal cylinder, open at both ends, about 6 in. (IS cm) long and 2 in. (5 cm) inside diameter. Cylinder should be heavy walled for best results. Non-metal rod about 1 4 in. (6 mm) in diameter and 8 in. (20 cm) or more in length. 2 tin cans if castable explosive is used (See...

A D C Ranford

Here's a neat little device that can launch a 2 lb. pipe bomb 100 yards or more, depending upon the thrower. Use a pipe bomb with a 10-15 second fuse and tie a string 2-3 feet long around one end, as shown in Fig.I. Using this method of launching, you shouldn't find it too difficult to throw accurately at surprisingly long distances. The grenade that wouldn't reach a nearby hill can now be thrown over1 the next one as well. There are several times when you'll need a grenade to reach something...

Edward L Allen

Nerve Centers And Pressure Points

Edward Allen began teaching Jiu-Jitsu twenty years ago he has taught thousands of law enforcement officers and law abiding citizens. He gives private lessons to single pupils and class lessons to hundreds. He teaches business men interested in Jiu-Jitsu as a means of keeping order in their establishments and officers eager to have this additional weapon at their commond. Housewives making certain that they can repel possible intruders in their homes and soldiers preparing for foreign...

Use Of Vesicants In The World

The vesicants rank second in the extent of use in the war, being exceeded in tonnage by the lung injurants only. Altogether, about 12,000 tons of vesicants were used in battle, and of this quantity it is estimated that mustard was fully 95 per cent. No separate records are available as to the exact quantities of the minor vesicants that were used, or as to the casualties produced by them. Mustard gas so nearly completely dominated the vesicant field that all such casualties are generally...

Info Tfx

Readily soluble in acetone, acetic acid, and in methyl and ethyl alcohol, and is relatively stable. It reduces Fehling's solution on warming. l-Rhamnose trinitrate, CoHo02 ON02 3, results from the action of mixed acid on i-rhamnosc. It is a white amorphous material, melting below 100 , readily soluble in alcohol and in soluble in water. It explodes feebly under a hammer blow. a-Methylglucoside tetranitrate,89 C7Hi002 0N02 4, crystallizes from alcohol in quadrilateral plates which melt at 49-50...

Mannose Pentanitrate

Nitroglucose d-Glucose pentanitrate , CJEirOfONOub d-Glucosc pentanitrate 00 is a colorless viscous syrup, insoluble in water and in ligroin, readily soluble in alcohol. It becomes hard at 0 . It is unstable above 50 , and if heated slowly to a higher temperature decomposes rapidly at about 135 . It reduces Fehling's solution on warming. Ghicosan trinitrate, CUH7O2 0N02 3, is produced by the nitration of cr-glucosan and by the action for several days of mixed acid on d-glucose. It is readily...

Bolas

For centuries, the Indians of South America have used a weapon called the bola, or bolsadero, for hunting and warfare. It was used widely in tribal disputes, and was very effective a-gainst the Spanish cavalry. Today the gauchos who inhabit the pampas use them to snare the feet of livestock on the run, but their value as a weapon has not diminished. The bola of old was made by wrapping a stone in a leather pouch, tying a leather thong about three feet long to the pouch, then tying three of...

Nitric Acid

Nitric acid is used in the preparation of many explosives, incendiary mixtures, and acid Delay timers. It may be prepared by distilling a mixture of potassium nitrate and concentrated sulfuric acid. MATERIAL REQUIRED SOURCES Improvised Section I. No. 2 Motor vehicle batteries Industrial plants Potassium nitrate 2 parts by volume by volume 2 bottles or ceramic jugs narrow necks are preferable Pot or frying pan Heat source wood, coal, or charcoal etc. but not cellophane Paper or rags IMPORTANT If...

Shotgun Shell

Set guns are a dandy way to protect yourself and your property. Correctly rigged, they can kill or malm an intruder , and, If you are around, announce the Intruder's tresspasses. If push ever comes to shove In our uncertain future, set guns will provide c eap, they can be improvised reliable, and effective insurance for a broad variety of security problems. For the present, they must be used with the greatest discretion. The authorities and their minions frown upon the use of firearms In...

Gil

266, 320, 321, 327 Cadmium azide. 183, 411, 412 Cadmium fulminate, 183, 411, 412 Cadmium picrate, 164 Calcium azide, 411 Calcium carbide, 377 Calcium carbonate, 66, 86, 105, 106, 122, 124, 185, 189, 276, 308, 333, 339, 311. 345, 454 Calcium chloride muriate , 60, 133, 377 Calcium cyanamide, 377 Calcium fluoride, 71 Calcium hydroxide, 278 Calcium nitrate, 200, 201, 229 Calcium picrate, 63, 164 Calcium silicide, 458 Calcium sulfate, 353 Calomel. 64, 65, 67, 70, 72, 85, 86 Calx, 38 Camphor, 40,...

American Jiujitsu

For 20 years I have studied and taught Jiu-Jitsu. My students have been city and state policemen, business men, soldiers, housewives, college students, penitentiary guards, private and industrial policemen, Y.M.C.A. classes and householders. Sixteen year old boys and girls and sixty-five year old men and women two hundred and fifty pounders and ninety pound lightweights have gained poise and confidence by acquiring the knowledge and skill of Jiu-Jitsu. Whether the art originated, as some...

Co M B At Pisto L T A R G Et

Pictured Is a diagram of an excellent target to use when practicing defensive shooting with a pistol. A wide black felt tip pen is used to lay out several targets on 18 inch X 30 inch pieces of corrugated cardboard, following the measurements given in the drawing. These targets are hung from a piece ot clothesline about 25 yards from the shooter. The silhouettes may be used singularly, in groups of two or three, or even more if you anticipate a gun fight with a band of desparados. Any hit in...

By Billy L Nielsen

Billy Fitchett

In the event of an extreme emergency or catastrophe, the urge to survive will be the one most uppermost instinct in all men. As we prepare for an eventual crisis, we begin stocking up on food, water, defense firearms and ammunition.Having made the above provisions, we next must consider keeping and protecting these precious supplies, as well as keeping alive. Booby traps will not only help protect one against unwelcome intruders, but can also serve as an alarm system. It should be stressed that...

Archer Rolls Targets From Pasteboard

Targcta no larger than 2 ft. in diameter can bi rolled under one's knee Targcta no larger than 2 ft. in diameter can bi rolled under one's knee Bigger target Ilka that at tha lait ara atarlad in the tame my but finished on 4 wooden frame ci the type ihown below Snww target backs used for archery re expensive, wear out quickly, cannot be repaired when the ccnters have been shot away, and cannot easily be made at home even in the few localities where luitable rye straw is to be obtained. An...

Water Or Moisture Away From The Mold

Short Cartridge Dimensions

Lead from the last house that was torn down here. Stand the bullets you have cast in a shallow pan and pour melted bullet lube on them. When the lube cools and hardens cut the bullets out of the lube by pressing a fired cartridge case down over the bullet. Punch the fired primer out first and use a stiff piece of wire to shove the bullet out of the case. The bullet shoots fair as is but for better accuracy, get a Lee Lube and Size kit. The lubed and sized bullets shoots very accurately with a...

Pipe Bomb

A simple rrortar can be made from a shotgun of any gauge. It can deliver almost any type of bomb, Including incendiaries , pipe bombs, nolatov cocktails even the C02 bomb detailed In issue I. First, a regular shotgun shell is converted for use in the mortar. The shell is opened and the pellets are removed the wadding is pulled out and replaced by a wad of cotton. Next, obtain a piece of round wood Stick or dowel. When the stick is loaded in the gun, it should be long dough to protrude from the...

Fred Bilello

Using scotch tBpe, make a tube out of a paper grocery bag about 2 long by I wide. Cut a 1 circle of paper and tape it to one end. 2. Pick and scrape the explosive off of about a thousand stick matches. Add a little water to them and crush them up in a glass ashtray. 3. Pack the tube ful 1 for about k. Take a 1 wood dowel and insert It into the center of the tube. Then pack the rest of the erosive Some of it will probably stick to the charge. Set it in a warm, dry area and let it dry...

Improvised 40mm Grenade Launcher

Improvised Grenade Pipe

Slowly push rod into barrel until it rests against the cartridge case and grenade is in can. If the grenade is not in the can. remove rod and cut to proper size. Push rod back into barrel. 4. With can holding safety lever of grenade in place, carefully remove safety pin. CAUTION Be sure that the sides of the can restrain the grenade safety lever. If the safety lever should be released for any reasonr grenade will explode after regular grenade delay time. 5. To fire grenade launcher rest gun...

D

Col led bare wi re resting on rubber col led bare wi re resting on rubber Obtain a 12 volt lamp bulb with a flange on it head or tail light bulb . Carefully break the glass off of the bulb. Solder wire leads to the rear and the side of the bulb. You can check the filament by very quickly attaching the wire leads to a 12 volt battery. Glue the bulb into the rear of the claymore casing with the flange inside the case and the wire leads out the back. Make a paper cylinder that is large enough and...

Target

NAIL GRENADE Effective fragmentation grenades can be made from a block of TNT or other blasting explosive and nails WINE BOTTLE CONE CHARGE This cone charge will penetrate 3 to 4 inchca of armor. Placed on an engine or engine compartment it will disable a tank or other vehicle. Glaas wine bottle with false bottom cone shaped Plaatic or caatable exploaive Blasting cap Gasoline or Kerosene small amount String I. Soak a piece of string in gasoline or kerosene. Double wrap this string around the...

Awc Series Sound Suppressed Ruger Pistols

Description The unit consists of a standard Ruger model RST- i pistol in cal .22LR with an integral sound suppressor. The barrel of the pistol has been modified for use with the sound suppressor by hawing been drilled Co port hot gasses into the rear suppression chamber see drawing . By bleeding the gasses within two inches of the chamber, velocity is slightly reduced, keeping the bullet subsonic. The rear chamber Is packed with dense shredded copper, which cools the hot gasses quickly reducing...

Grenade Launchers

A variety of grenade launchers can be fabricated from metal pipes and fittings. Ranges up to 600 meters 660 yards can be obtained depending on length of tube, charge, number of grenades, and angle of firing. Metal pipe, threaded on one end and approximately 2-1 2 in. 6-1 4 cm in diameter and 14 in. to 4 ft. 35 cm to 119 cm long depending on range desired and number of grenades used. End cap to fit pipe Black powder, 15 to 50 gm, approximately 1-1 4 to 4-1 4 tablespoons Section I, No. 3 Safety...

Initiator For Dust Explosions

Initiator Homemade

An initiator which will initiate common material to produce dust explosions can be rapidly and easily constructed. This type of charge is ideal for the destruction of enclosed areas such as rooms or buildings. A flat can, 3 in. 8 cm diameter and 1-1 2 in. 3-3 4 cm high. A 6-1 2 ounce Tuna can serves the purpose quite well. Blasting cap Explosive Aluminum may be wire, cut sheet, flattened can or powder Wooden rod - 1 4 in. 6 mm diameter Flour, gasoline and powder or chipped aluminum NOTE Plastic...

By Robert Maybeth

The crossbow Is one weapon no arms buff should overlook. It is silent, powerful, and more accurate than the long bow, given equal time to practice with both weapons. And best of all, many city penal codes completety ignore any mention of the crossbow. A simple crossbow is detailed on p. 31 of the Survivor. It's a good design, but like most other crossbove it can only be used to shoot arrows or bolts. A crossbow with an enclosed 'barrel' is better because one,steel balls and other round ammo can...

Metal Ball Switch

This switch will close an electric circuit when it is tipped in any direction. It can be used alone for booby traps or in combination with another switch or timer as an anti-disturbance diameter see Note Solid coppcr wire 1 16 1 4 cm diameter Wood block 1M 2 1 2 cm square by 1 4M thick Hand drill Connecting wires Soldering iron amp t solder NOTE If other than a 1 2 diameter ball is used, other dimensions must be changed so that the ball will rest in the center hole of the block without touching...

Completed Crossbow

Must be able to move freely within the metal bands. The bow is put together as follows one band is attached to the left side of the bow then the bow is slid into its slot in the stock and the other band is put on the right side.Lastly, the wedges are spread with glue and driven into the appropriate slot to hold the bow in place. The diagram for the trigger assembly should be self explanatory. The trigger is cut from 1 8 thick steel or brass, and holes are drilled in the trigger and stock for...

Dried Seed Timer

A time delay device for electrical firing circuits can be made using the principle of expansion of dried seeds. Dried peas, beans or other dehydrated seeds Expansion of the seeds will raise the metal disc until it contacts the screws and closes the circuit. Two screws or bolts J ft U TIM1 1. Determine the rate of rise of the ciriea seeds selected. This is necessary to determine delay time of the timer. a. Place a sample of the dried seeds in the jar and cover with water.

Sharp Knuckles

They may not bel i ve that your fingernails grow so fast you have to clip ov m mjMn thcm 1,1 d,yf ou'rft uite bfc fron BY f1 OHHO concealed weapons hassles. An Inexpensive, convenient, and legal pocket weapon has long been known In the guise of the ordinary household scissors. However the new folding type In stainless steel wor t rust if gotten wet, are compact, handy, fit any budget at under 3, and they are available from most any camping, hardware, or dlscount store. Host importantly, the...

Shark Dart

A different type of speargun can be made cheaply using an old tree lamp the kind of lamp fixture which encases a spring and extends from floor to celling. Three feet from the end Is marked off and then cut using a hacksaw, though careful not to damage the spring inside. The long spring is removed and some form of pouch is made on the end of it. A knob from an old radio or television works fine as a pouch when it is attached upside down on the end of the spring. A wooden plug to match the...

Mm Mortar Projectile Launcher

A device to launch 60 mm mortar rounds using a metal pipe 2-1 2 in. 6 cm in diameter and 4 ft. lt 120 cm long as the launching tube. Mortar, projectile 60 mm and charge increments Metal pipe 2-1 2 in. 6 cm in diameter and 4 ft. 120 cm long, threaded on one end Threaded end cap to fit pipe Bolt, 1 8 in. 3 mm gt in diameter and at least 1 in. 2-1 2 cm long 1. Drill hole 1 8 in. 3 mm in diameter through center of end . 2. Round off end of bolt with file. 3. Place bolt through hole in end cap....

1 2 4-butanetrioltrinitrate Heat Sensitivity

TNA, 173, 417 see also Tetranitro-aniline TNB, 134 see also Trinitrobenzene TNT, 141 see also Trinitrotoluene TNT oil, 145 TNX, 153 see also Trinitroxylene T4, 396 see also Cyclonite Table fireworks, 93 Tagus, stone of, 37 Tartar, 34 Temperature of explosion, 24, 43, 50, 182, 210, 347, 348, 350, 351, 353, 364 , 365, 366, 394, 405, 411, 424, 435, 436, 441, 442 Temperature of ignition, 21, 22, 165, 206, 446 Temperature of inflammation of carbon monoxidc-air mixtures, 325 Tetraamylose, 244...