Vws

This substance, m.p. 295-300 , results from the direct nitration of oxanilide. It is stable and about as powerful as TNT, and is reported to explode with the production of a temperature which is distinctly lower than that produced by many high explosives. (hexanitrocarbanilide or sym-dipicrylurea) may be prepared by the nitration of carbanilide (sym-diphenylurea) in one, in two, or in three stages. It is of interest because of its explosive properties and because it supplies one way in which...

Info

Plosion imparts to the nail is measured. The sand test, in which the detonator is fired in the center of a mass of carefully screened sand contained in a suitable bomb and the sand which has been pulverized is screened off and weighed, is the most precise and significant of the tests on detonators. It is a real test of brisance, and its usefulness is not limited to the study of detonators but may be extended to the study of high explosives as well. Thus, Figure 98. U. S. Bureau of Mines Sand...

By Fb

Take a wine bottle with a concave bottom and ftll it with 30t Sulphuric Acid, 2Q Motor Oil, and SOI Gasoline. Seal the top and thoroughly wipe the bottle clean and dry, especially the concave bottom. Step 2 Pack the bottom full of Potassium Chlorate. Cut a circular piece of cardboard so It snugly fits over the bottom and tape it in place to keep the Potassium Chlorate In. Slip a plastic baggie over the bottom and wrap a rubber band around it. This is to keep moisture out. When the bottle Is...

Sulphuric Acid

If battery acid or other dilute acid is used, concentrate it by boiling. Container used hould be of enamelware or oven glass. When dense IMPORTANT Wash outside of jar thoroughly with clear water. If this is not done, the jar may be dangerous to handle during use 1. Place the tube containing the Sugar Chlorate crystals on an incendiary or flammable material taped end down. 3. Fit the tube to the bulb ba and tape in place. Meke sure that the tube doee not cover that portion of...

Substances Used As Smoke Agents

The substances that have been successfully used as smoke agents fall into five main groups, viz., smokes that owe their obscuring power to (I) particles of colloidal carbon suspended in air (II) particles of ph'osphorie acid (III) sulfuric acid (IV) hydrochloric acid and (V) zinc chloride. F.ach of these groups appeared about in the order named and, except for phosphorus (the l> est of all smoke producers), each was an improvement upon its predecessor. The earliest modern method of producing...

Do Not Remove Safety Stick Until Ready To Throw Fire Bottle

The safety stick, when in pUce, prevents ignition of the fire bottle if it should accidentally be broken. the end with the matches passes ' the slot in the can. Pass the flat stick or piece of metal Matches through slots in can to hold spring in place. This acts as a safety device. 8. Punch many closely spaced small holes between the lines marked on the can to form a striking surface for the matches. Be careful not to seriously deform can. Section V No. 4.1 CELLED FLAME FUELS LYE SYSTEMS Lye...

Pipe Pistol For Caliber Ammunition

A .45 caliber pistol can be made from 3 8 in. nominal diameter steel gas or water pipe and fittings. Lethal range is about 15 yards (13-1 2 meters*. Steel pipe. 3 8 in. (1 cm) nominal diameter and 6 in. (15 cm) long with threaded ends. 2 threaded couplings to fit pipe Solid pipe plug to fit pipe coupling Hard wood. 8-1 2 in. x 6-1 2 in. x I in. (21 cm x 16-1 2 cm x 2-1 2 cm) Tape or string Flat head nail, approximately 1 16 in. < 1-1 2 mm) in diameter 2 wood screws, approximately 1 16 in. <...

1

.* . 't - - , -. - t -I . .- . sp ' ft.' A- , - *> . AHEAD LOCK can be broken with one sure swift blow. You may frantically pull and tug and twist to release yourself from someone who has an arm tightly wrapped around your neck or by Jiu-Jitsu you may release yourself easily in less than two seconds. There is no question about the effectiveness of this method the effect on the nerve which is struck is instantaneous and severe. This release is very easy to apply and needs comparatively little...

Oa

World War, 049-055 Casualty, definition 0f, 049 CB, 174 Ce, 174 OG, 154 OlieniiuM agoutis, lioiling point. 39 rlastfifiratinn. 107 American, postwar. 113 World Wnr. 112 Chemical agents, classification, British, postwar, 114 World War, 113 degree of action. 119 French, postwar, 114 World War, 114 Oornum. jntstwar,. IKS World War, 115 military, 121 persistency, lift physical, 111 physiological, 112 tactical, 121 concent ration, 5 intolerable, R irritating, 8 lethal. 8, 1 consolidated list of. 217...

Connect To Explosive

When a vehicle passes over the switch, the two metal plates make contact closing the firing circuit. 3. Wrap a connecting wire around one leg of each U at least 1 4 from the end and solder in place. 4. Place metal ball on block so that it rests in the center hole. 5. Insert the ends of the small MU into two holes in the block. Insert large U into the remaining two hole s. CAUTION Make lure that the metal ball does not touch either MU shaped wire when the switch is standing on its base. If the...

Procedure

Draw or scratch two lines around the can - one 3 4 (19 mm) and the other 1 1 4 (30 mm) from the open end. 2. Cut 2 slots on opposite sides of the tin can at the line farthest from the open end. Make slots large enough for the flat stick or piece of metal to pass through. 9. Fill the jar with gasoline and cap tightly 10, Turn can over and place over the jar so that the safety stick rests on the lid of the jar. 3. Punch 2 small holes just below the rim of the open end of the can. 11. pass wire or...

By Fred B

1 -piece of hardwood,about 1VWx3 4 )-piece of hardwood,about 2x lMxl I-strip of tension steel, about 3*l The Bates MFG. Co. of Orange, NJ makes a steel ruler that will do.The stock H is BNR-12. It can be bought in most stores. I-roof ing na iI -nail about 1 long String them 3 8n from the bottom and the other 2 3 V from the bottom. If you are using the ruler there will be no problem. 2. Snip all but V off the roofing nail, and file it to a point. Solder or glue it V' from the tension steel. This...

J

WHILE the chances are that you'll never be attacked by anyone wielding a knife, the Jiu-Jitsu defense against such a person is so easy that you cannot afford to neglect it. When practicing, use a knife of the proper weight and shape, but have the blade covered by some protective sheath so that there is no possibility of anyone This number requires o lot of proctice before you can know thai you have really mastered 1. But when you can apply it as shown in the following pictures you own a real...

CiHiAsOI SOa H [CHtAajO HS

Di phenylarsenious oxide was converted to diphenylchlorarsine by chlorination with hydrochloric acid (CJh)iAs sO + 2HC1 2(C6H*)2AsCl + H,0 Diphenylchlorarsine may also be prepared by a much simpler process, as follows 1. Triphenylarsine is formed by acting on chlorbenzene and arsenic trichloride with sodium. 2. The triphenylarsine is then heated under pressure with more arsenic trichloride and diphenylchlorarsine is thus obtained. While the latter was the laboratory method of making...

Pack With Dowel

Of paper (newspaper or magazine stock Is what we prefer) and tamp them down In on top of the powder charge. Use several pieces to bring up the level to about 1 8 from the end of the casing.This paper serves both as a primary end seal and as a heat-sink to prevent possible damage to the mix by the final wax seal. With that done, seal the end by pouring melted wax over the paper allowing It to pool In the recess. We Just let the wax drip from a candle. This is better than using epoxy to seal the...

Hs Ca Ba

Thc*c jgaaea, having a very high boiling point, are but little vaporised at the moment of explosion. A small portion of the contents of the shell w atomised and gives immediate effcet, but by far the greater part if* projected on the ground in the form of droplet which slowly vaporise and continue the action of the initial cloud. Other Classifications. The British, French, and Germans, neither during nor since the war, adopted any shnrplv defined classification of

How To Use

Add just enough water to completely cover the seeds and place the cap on the jar. 2. Attach connecting wires from ,, -the firing circuit to the two screws 4. Check actual burning rate of fuse by measuring the time it takes for a known length to burn. This it used to determine the length needed for a desired delay time. If 5 in. (12 1 2 cm) burns for 6 seconds, 50 in. (125 cm) of fuse cord will be needed to obtain a one minute (60 second) delay time. WIRES The burnin* f this fuse is...

T

Dynamite Manufacture. (Courtesy Hercules Powder Company.) Rubbing the dry ingredients of dynamite through a screen into the bowl of a mixing machine. Figure 85. Dynamite Manufacture. (Courtesy Hercules Powder Company.) Rubbing the dry ingredients of dynamite through a screen into the bowl of a mixing machine. Europe. It is made simply by mixing the explosive oil with the absorbent materials the resulting loose, moist-appearing or greasy mass, from which oil ought not to exude under...

Info Rdb

In each step several isomers are formed only one of the possibilities in each case is indicated above and the ortho and para compounds both go through similar series of reactions. The product is too sensitive and in the wrong physical state (liquid) for use as a military explosive. In short, for the manufacture of Figure 45. Marina Marqueyrol, Inspecteur-G n ral des Poudres, France. 1919. Author of many researches on aromatic nitro compounds, nitrocellulose, smokeless powder, stabilizers and...

Reactor

Matter of fact, it was not irritant at all, but merely served as a solvent for the arsine. This explanation, however, throws little light upon the subject since ethylcarbazol was itself a solid and was loaded in mixture with solid diphenylchlorarsine as a solid charge in the Blue Cross shell. It is, therefore, not clear as to how it could be used as a solvent. Moreover, it did have a decided irritant effect alone, although much less than any of the other respiratory-irritant substances. The...

Flexible Plate Switch

Switch lor electrically initiated explosives, mines and booby This pressure sensitive switch is used tr*Pft- for initiating emplaced mines and explosives. MATERIAL REQUIRED MATERIEL REQUIRED. > Two meUl ,hect Mousetrap nc aPProxim*tely 10 in* (25 cm) quare Hacksaw or File ne proximately 10 in. x 8 in < 20 cm) - Piece of wood 10 in. square by 1 in. thick Connecting wires Four goft woQd block H1 irux in.x 1 4 ifU Eight flat head nails, 1 in. long Connecting wires Adhesive tape 1. Nail 10 in....

Wax Base Seal

Add a drop of wax to the nozzle fuse Junction or store your completed grenades in a zlplock bag, as the mix Is somewhat hygroscopic and may take on some moisture from the air or moist surroundings. For your first test firing It Is best not to hand-hold the grenade, although this Is possible once you can predict its functioning. Not only may it get quite hot, but It may malfunction dangerously If you prepared the filler incorrectly. Wedge it into the ground and stand upwind to watch the action....

M V

This is another of those Jiu-Jitsu numbers which you should be coreful about in your practice. Hit your partner easily reserve the vicious blows for a rcot enemy. Looking at this number again, note that you pay no attention to the attacker's hands at your throat. Raise your hands above his elbows. Hit hard Hit at about the fifth ribs with the knife edge of your hands.

Step V

Insert the endcap into the 8 silencer tube. Mark the 8 tube at 4 points top, bottom, and the center of both sides. Each point should be V to the rear of the froot edge of the tube. Drill one of the holes and insert a screw. This will prevent the mount assembly from moving when the other 3 holes are drilled. Drill the 3 remaining holes as marked. Remove the screw, take the endcap off, and remove the mount assembly. The V roll of cardboard in the endcap can now be discarded. Four nuts are now...

Common Source

Sodium hydroxide (lye, solid or concentrated solution) Copper or brsss plate about 4 in. < 10 cm) square and 1 16 in. < 2 mm) thick Soap manufacturing Disinfectants Sewer cleaner Aluminum plate or sheet, same site as copper plate One of the following Potassium permanganate, solid NOTE Be sure sodium hydroxide solution is at least a 45 solution by weight. If not, boil off some of the water. If solid sodium hydroxide Is available, dissolve some sodium hydroxide In about twice as muct. water...

Directions

Tear off top by putting tape sharply upwards. Ignite flare by rubbing red disk on tape sharply but firmly across the black blob on the center of the top of flare Black shellac paint Sec+ion Elevation Fig. 14. United States smoke-substitute eandlr. conjunction with their gas operations at that time (12, page 56). These candles were known as Smoke Candle, Mark I L Type S. When the United States entered the war, it adopted a smoke candle, which was very similar to the British Type S Smoke Candle,...

Jjs

In analyzing this hold I discussed the severol steps vuch as blocking the blow, getting rid of the knife and throwing the man,, as if ihuy were separate parts of the number. Of course they are all port of one smooth flowing action which accomplishes the final goal. When you block a blow don't merely slow it down. Hit as hard as you can. The instant you block this blow your hand moves down and grips his hand with your thumb to the back of his hand. Your left hand then re-in-forces your right and...

U

Pedoes were formerly filled with compositions containing chlorate and red phosphorus, similar to those which are used in toy caps but these mixtures are dangerous and much more sensitive than Figure 36. Packing Globe Torpedoes in Wood Shavings. (Courtesy National Fireworks Company and the Boston Globe.) Figure 36. Packing Globe Torpedoes in Wood Shavings. (Courtesy National Fireworks Company and the Boston Globe.) is necessary. At present, safer perchlorate mixtures without phosphorus are used....

World War Development

To accomplish its mission in war, an army must protect itself it must seek to keep itself intact and avoid an excessive drain in casualties upon its resources and fighting power. Hence there is both an individual and a collective demand for protection in war regardless of what means or weapons are employed. In consequence of this, the history of war might well be viewed as an age-long and continuing struggle between weapon development as a means of taking life, 011 the one hand, and protection...

Info Eba

Becomes colorless again when the reduction is complete. After all the zinc has disappeared, 1 niol of concentrated nitric acid is added, then 1 mol of benzaldehyde, and the mixture is shaken and scratched to facilitate the separation of the heavy granular precipitate of benzal-aminoguanidine nitrate. The product, recrystallized from water or from alcohol, melts when pure at 100.5 . Nitroguanidine and nitrosoguanidine both give a blue color with the diphenylamine reagent, and both give the tests...

O

It is immersed in an acetone solution of calcium nitrate which is kept continuously saturated with ethylene which is bubbled through in such manner that it sweeps over the surface of the platinum gauze. An aluminum cathode is used, in a catholyte consisting of a nitric acid solution of calcium nitrate, and the cathode compartment is filled to a higher level since the liquid moves into the anode compartment as the electrolysis progresses. After the electrolysis,...

Y

Picramic acid, red needles, m. p. 109 , may be prepared by evaporating ammonium pic rate in alcohol solution with ammonium sulfide. Preparation of Diazodinitrophenol. Ten grams of picramic acid is suspended in 120 cc. of 5 hydrochloric acid in a beaker which stands in a basin of ice water, and the mixture is stirred rapidly with a mechanical stirrer. Sodium nitrite (3.6 grams) dissolved in 10 cc. of water is added all at once, and the stirring is continued for 20 minutes. The product is...

Tape

Drill four 1 16 holes and one 1 8 hole through the wood block as shown. 2. Form two U shaped pieces from 1 16 copper wire to the dimensions shown. J ONE 1 HIGH ONE 1-1 2 HIGH The switch is placed in a hole in the path of expected traffic and covered with a thin layer of dirt or other camouflaging material. The mine or other explosive device connected to the switch can be buried with the switch or emplaced elsewhere as desired.

Summary Op Gases

We have now completed a survey of the 38 compounds which constitute the entire group of World War toxic agents. For convenience of reference, a consolidated list of these compounds is. given below, arranged in groups by physiological classification, in order of their chronological appearance (of the group) in the war, as treated in the foregoing chapters.

Animal Blood Systems

MATERIAL REQUIRED Animal blood can be used to gel gasoline for use as a flanre fuel which will adhere to target surfaces. Small jar with cap Cardboard Adhesive tape How Used Common Source Potassium Chlorate Sugar Motor fuel Gas Station Sulphuric Acid (Battery Acid) Motor vehicles Rubber sheeting (automotive inner tube) white fumes begin to appear, immediately remove the acid from heat and allow to cool to room temperature

Dividers

F' ONE'S drafting kit does not include proportional dividers, an efficient substitute for this father expensive instrument may be easily made by the method illustrated. The dividers will be found very useful for enlarging or reducing a drawing or sketch. The blades may be made of cardboard, brass, aluminum, or even thin wood. If Hovr to lay at blades for proportional di* riderj, and a quick acting spring wire pivot of cardboard, cut the two blades to the shape shown in the upper diagram if of...

Ci

Temperature in the presence of a catalyst (whereby chlorine is substituted both in the side chain and on the nucleus), then nitrating, then hvdrolvzing (whereby both chlorines are repiaced by hydroxyl groups, the nuclear chlorine being activated by the nitro groups), and finally nitrating once more.

Individual Protection Other Than Masks

The gas mask protects only the respiratory organs, the eyes, and face. For protection of the laxly generally against the blistering action of vesicant agents which either in liquid or vapor form will readily pene- irate ordinary cloth, special protective clothing is required. Protective clothing is made of the no called Unwed oil cloth, or cotton fabric treated with vegetable drying oils. The garment is a coverall with elastics at the ankles and wrists to insure tight fit at these places and a

Chemicals In War

Acrolein, 139 Adamite, 211 Agent*, classification, 107 according to degree, 119 according to persistencyr 116 American, postwar, 113 World War, 112 British, postwar, 114 World War, 113 chemical, 107 French, postwar, 114 World War, 115 military, 121 physical, 111 physiological, 112 smoke agents, 220 tactical, 121 incendiary, 3. 248 lacrimatory, 120 lung injurant 147 nomenclature, respiratory irritant, 201 smoke, 3. 220 systemic toxic, 170 vesicant, 177 Ammunition, artillery, used jn War, 658...

No

During the first World War the Germans used a mixture of trinitroanisol and hexanitrodiphenyl sulfide in bombs. Trinitrophenetol or ethyl picrate, m.p. 78 , is prepared by the same methods as trinitroanisol. The explosive properties of the two substances have been studied by Desparmets and Calinaud, and by Desvergnes, who has reported the results of the earlier workers together with data of his own and discussions of methods of manufacture and of the explosive properties of mixtures with picric...

F

Flame-projector liquids, 260 Flammable materials, 259 Frvixch cliwd Micnvt h mwalvw f FS. 238 Un*, battle manufacture during World War, (> 61 used in World War, 56, 602 characteristics, , defensive, ideal requirement of. 48 680-084 insidiousncHs of, 43 intolerable limit, 15 invisibility of, 44 multiple effects of, 42 mustard, 178 odorless, 45 offensive, ideal requirements, 47 penetrability, 44 persistency, 43 pure, liquid and solids, 19 toxic, used in battle, 656 toxicity of, 41 volatility...

Nitroamines And Related Substances

The nitroamines are substituted ammonias, substances in which a nitro group is attached directly to a trivalent nitrogen atom. They are prepared in general either by the nitration of a nitrogen base or of one of its salts, or they are prepared by the splitting off of water from the nitrate of the base by the action of concentrated sulfuric acid upon it. At present two nitroamines are of particular interest to the explosives worker, namely, nitro-guanidine and cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine...

Lxx

DD, explosive, 166 DDNP, 443 see also Diazodinitrophenol DNT see Dinitrotoluene DNX see Dinitroxylene Dead pressed explosive, 4, 410, 424, 438, 441, 444, 450, 451 Dearrangement, urea, 373, 384, 385, 386 , 392 237, 266, 267, 452, 453 Decomposition in vacuum, 269 Definition of explosive, 1 Dehydrating press, 299, 300, 302 Density of louding. 24, 132, 169, 172, 175, 182, 267, 286, 337, 391 effect upon explosive decomposition, 390 optimum, 14, 139, 361, 362, 363 Dermatitis, 125 Deterrent, 291, 319,...

Popular Mechanics

A 1-in. hole was bored.in the center of a 2-in. square block. Two finishing- in, as shown in the' sketch. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil'. After everything was ready the . powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. The distance between the nail points which must be bright and clean should be just enough to give a good, fat spark.

Methods Of Projection

Regardless of the technical means employed, there are but three basic methods of placing chemicals on a target area. First, by releasing the chemical from containers installed in one's own front lines, and depending upon the wind to carry it to and over the target area. This may be called the method of release at origin. Second, by releasing from containers projected on the target area by some physical means, such as firing from a gun (chemical shell), dropping from an airplane (chemical bomb),...

W

Water-dried powder, 313 Water-drying, 305, 306, 307, 316 Water fireworks, 56 Water gas, 277 Water glass, 108, 253 Web thickness, 8, 299 Whale oil, 199 Wheel cake, 46 Wheel mill, 45, 46, 51, 290 Wheels, pyrotechnic, 91, 92 Whistling fireworks, 72, 73 Whistling rockets, 72 White fire, 61, 64, 71, 118 White lances, 58, 69 White lights, 64, 68, 71 White powder, Augendre's, 358 Raschig's, 50 White smoke, 123 White stars, 83 Willow tree, 86 Wing-tip flares, 68 Wire dips, 119 Wood cellulose, 259 Wood...

Properties Of Explosives

An explosive is a material, either a pure single substance or a mixture of substances, which is capable of producing an explosion by its own energy. It seems unnecessary to define an explosion, for everyone knows what it is a loud noise and the sudden going away of things from the place where they have been. Sometimes it may only be the air in the neighborhood of the material or the gas from the explosion which goes away. Our simple definition makes mention of the one single attribute which all...

Bicycle Generator Power Source

1 Tie a 4 to 6 foot (1 meter) length of cord to the grenade. Be sure that the rope will not prevent the grenade handle from coming off. A 6 volt, 3 watt bicycle generator will set off one or two blasting caps (connected in series) or an igniter. Note If improvised grenade is used, tie cord around grenade near the end cap. Tape in place if necessary. 2. Tie a large knot in the other end of the cord for use as a handle. coatin& from both cnds of 2 c0 5pcr 3. Carefully remove safety pin from...

Lunginjurant Agents Group Characteristics

The lung injurants were the second group of agents to make their appearance in the World War. They form a well-defined group, having many properties in common* and for that reason they were designated by the Germans under a siugle generic class Green Cross substances. In general, they were all liquids of relatively low boiling points and high vapor pressures. They, therefore, were volatile substances that formed i ion persistent gases upon release from their containers. Their principal...

Cut So Inner Core Is Exposed

Cut end of fuse cord to expose inner core. 1. If watch has a sweep or large second hand, remove it. If delay time of more than one hour is required, also remove the minute hand If hands are painted, carefully scrape paint from contact edge with knife. 2. Drill a hole through the crystal of the watch or pierce the crystal with a heated nail. The hole must 2. Light cigarette in normal fashion. Place a paper be small enough that the match so that the head is over exposed end of fuse cord and screw...

Conclusion

We have shown that chemical combat is a new mode of warfare which for the first time in recorded history departs from the physical blow as the fundamental principle of battle. Of all modern weapons, chemical-are destined to exert the most far-reaching effect in shaping the future character of warfare, for the action of chemicals over the areas in which they are employed is pervading as to space and is enduring in point of time, no that if aiicraft may be said to have carried war into the third...

S

S-Type smoke mixture, British, 233 Salve, protective, 505 Shell, chemical, artillery, gas, used in World War, H5H incendiary, development, 47 Shelters, gasproof, 568-571 Silicon tetrachloride, 239 SK, 138 Smoke, candles and pots, development and use, 303-309 clouds, nature of, 61 nature of, 224 ulwcuring power, 226 production, principle* of, 229 screens, 27, 220 Smoke agent, classification, 220 comparison, 246 definition, 4 future of, 247 history, 220 nature of, 224 obscuring power, 45, 22fi...

Lzt

Which is as good a stabilizer as diphenylamine itself. Since both of these substances may be detected by simple tests upon an alcoholic extract of a sample of the powder, the fitness of the powder for continued storage and use may be easily demon which is as good a stabilizer as diphenylamine itself. Since both of these substances may be detected by simple tests upon an alcoholic extract of a sample of the powder, the fitness of the powder for continued storage and use may be easily demon...

Leather Washer

ALL that was required to make the high-grade hunting knife shown above was a worn-out 10-in. mill file, 10 cents worth of scrap sole leather from a shoe repair shop, and a piece of scrap brass 154 in. in diameter. Place the file in a forge or bury it in a roaring bed of live coals in a furnace or stove and bring to a white heat. Remove and let cool gradually. This will leave just the right temper. , Now place the file in the vise with 5 in. above the jaws, and break it off with a hammer. Grind...

Relative Casualty Value Of Gases

In order to determine the relative casualty value of the principal battle gases, it is necessary to take into consideration the amountB of each that were used in battle during the World War. Table XV shows the amounts of battle gases of each class that were manufactured during the War. Of the 150,000 tons of battle gases manufactured during the war, approximately 125,000 tons were used in battle and 25,000 tons were left on hand after the war in filled shell and in bulk storage, as indicated...

Requirements For Ideal Agents

Since wc have now reviewed the requirements for chemical agent at some length, we may summarize this subject by stating the qualities and characteristics of an ideal chemical agent of each type. Offensive Gas. The ideal combat gas for us on the tactical offensive should meet the following requirements Tactical t. High toxicity. - Multiple effortiveneas. X npersistcncy. 4 hfiocts of m ximum duration. V Immediate effectiveness. I . Insidiousness in action. Volatility (maximum field conrcntra-I...

Aromatic Nitro Compounds

Aromatic nitro compounds are generally stable but are frequently reactive, especially if they contain groups other than nitro groups in the meta position with respect to one another. As a class they constitute the most important of the military high explosives. They are also used as components of smokeless powder, in compound detonators, and in primer compositions. Liquid nitro compounds, and the mixtures which are produced as by-products from the manufacture of pure nitro compounds for...

Capchur Equipment

The world famous system for immobilizing or medicating wild or domestic animals. A patented method for Injecting Any fluid drug into an animal from distances up to 80 yards - safely, accurately and instantaneously. The drug we offer is for ttie purpose of immobilizing an animal for easy capture or handling, but any liquid medicine or drug recommended by your veterinarian may be used with this equipment. The weapons propel a unique patented syringe which carries the drug. On impact with the...

Use Of Respiratory Irritants In The World

Based upon the total amount used in battle, the respiratory irritants constitute the third largest group of chemical agents used in the war. The Germans loaded no less than 14,000,000 Blue Cross shells, of which only a very small part remained on hand at the time of the Armistice. It is estimated that a total of 6,500 tons of respiratory irritants were used in the war and produced 20,000 casualties, among which the deaths were negligible. On the basis of casualties, therefore, it required 650...

General Data

Type surface to surface antitank missile. Configuration length, 24 diameter, 4 wingspan, 18 ' solid balsa cruciform wings, spiral wound paper tube body and nosecone. Propulsion type 4 solid propellaat single stage motors - burning time - three seconds, maximum combined thrust - 36 lbs - average combined thrust - 8 lbs. Payload high explosive shaped charge approx. lbs. of explosive. Guidance type two channel radio control, visually guided to target. 4 movable trim tabs on wings for steering....

Future Of Smoke Agents

During the World War obscuring smoke proved its tactical value on land and sea and won for itself an assured place as a military weapon. Since the war the development of air force has still further enhanced the value of obscuring smoke, for not only are airplanes a means par excellence for putting down smoke Bcreens on the field of battle, but their power of observation has greatly increased the need for obscuration. So greatly has aircraft increased the facility of observing enemy dispositions...

Automatic Firearm

Automatic weapons of the submachine gun type are sometimes referred to as machine pistols and such weapons must be light in weight and efficient u operation. According to this Invention weight cf the weapon is kept to a minimum by constructing certain elements so that they per* ions two or more functions. For example, the trigger guard of this invention is arranged in such manner as to afford protection for the outwardly protruding trigger and also so as to function as guide means whereby...

Military Classification

From the six classifications described above may be worked out a single mixed classification which is useful in military operations. This mixed or military classification groups all chemical agents into categories most useful to the using troops. As the two things which are of paramount importance to commanders in the field are (1) persistency and (2) nature of effects produced upon the uemy, the most logical military classification is as follows Military Classification- of Combat Oases I. ,...

Plastic Bombs

Hand grenades and antipersonel mines can be easily and cheaply constructed from polyester casting res in, auto body putty, ABS and PVC pipe, plexiglass, vacumn formed styrene sheet etc. These plastic devices won't produce shrapnel fragments or concussions equal to the power of conventional bombs, but they do have two unique and noteworthy features they are both non metallic and x-ray Li.apparent. The first feature allows these devices to be carried through airports, government buildings and...

Osu

Ignition temperature, 3, 21, 165, 189, 206, 446 Impact, sensitivity to, 21, 138, 157, 165, 168, 184 Incendiary compositions, 28, 35, 52 Indigo. 123, 164 Indoor fireworks, 70, 93 Indurite, 296 Inhibitory effect of groups, 128 Initiator, 2, 11 Iodine, 409 Iron, 429 Iron filings. 52, 57, 118 Iron oxide, 61 Iron picrate, 63, 165 Iron scale, 53 Iron wire, 118 Isoamyl phthalate, 322 Isoamyl sebacate, 322 Isonitroacetic acid, 407 Isonitrosoacetaldehyde, 407 Isopropyl alcohol, 207 Isopropyl nitrate,...

Future Of Lacrimators

The future role of the lacrimators in war is uncertain. Their great advantage is the extremely small amounts required to force men to mask with the attendant impairment of their fighting vigor. On the other hand, they produce no real casualties and protection is easily obtained. For these reasons, it seems fairly certain that lacrimators will not be used in any future war between first-class powers, as their armies will be equipped with masks affording adequate protection. At the same time,...

By The Kentucky Rifleman

A stronger recoil spring to insure reliabi1i ty. All that is left is to install the new shoulder stock, give the whole thing a good safety test and you're in business The Sauer M-38 is even easier to alter than the Colt. Start by stripy-ping the gun. The Sauer is stripped by pulling down the latch in the trigger guard, then pulling the slide all the way back and up, then letting it go forward off the frame. Then remove the grips. To start the conversion, remove the trigger bar (see drawing) by...

Wdj

Dynamite Manufacture. (Courtesy Hercules Powder Company.) Hoppers underneath the mixing machine, showing the buggies which carry the mixed dynamite to the packing machines. 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 0 Nitroglycerin 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 Combustible material 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 14 15 16 Sodium nitrate 64 60 56 52 48 44 40 35 29 23 Calcium or magnesium carbonate 1111111111 Figure 86. Dynamite Manufacture. (Courtesy Hercules Powder Company.) Hoppers underneath the mixing...

WaterTipe

The walking stick shotgun made from water pipe which was featured in PMA could be a very handy weapon, except that it's unsafe to carry. Besides the danger, it could be very embarrassing as well as a detriment to your continued freedom to have your'walking stick' either fail apart or go off at the wrong t i me. You can eliminate this potential hazard by putting in a pin type saf-ty lock.This Is simply a piece of 1 8 or 3 16 drill rod slightly longer than the diameter of piece number th ree and...

Physical Classification

The physical classification is very simple and is based upon physical state or form of the substance under ordinary conditiona, i.e., temperature 68 F. (20 C.) and atmospheric pressure (760 mm. Hg). Thus, an agent is a true gas, if its boiling point is below ordinary atmospheric temperature, as is the case with chlorine (b.p. 28 F.). This classification as a true gas is not to be confused with the broad generic term gas, used to refer generally to toxic chemical agents, but means that the...

Note

Common dry cigarettes burn about 1 inch every 7 or 8 minutes in still air. If the fuse cord is placed 1 inch from the burning end of a cigarette a time delay of 7 or 8 minute will result. Delay time will vary depending upon type of cigarette, wind, moisture, and other atmospheric conditions. DELAY IGNITER FROM CIGARETTE A simple and economical time delay can be made with a common cigarette. To obtain accurate delay time, a test run should be made under use11 conditions.

Explosive

If an exploaive charge other than a atandard TNT block ia uaed, make a hole in the center of the charge for inaerting the blaating cap. TNT can be drilled with relative safety. With plaatic explosives, a hole can be made by preaaing a round atick into the center of the charge. The hole ahould be deep enough that the blaating cap ia totally within the exploaive. 2. Tape, tie or glue one or two rows of closely packed naila to sides of explosive block. Nails should completely cover the four...

L

Lachrymator, 140, 144 Lactose, 65, 123, 208, 238, 240 Lactose Hexanitrate, 242 Lactose octonitrate, 241 Lady crackers, 111 Laevulosan, 243 Laminated powder, 298, 318 Lamium, oil of, 34 Lampblack, 57, 61, 64, 65, 70, 71, 72, 84, 85, 86, 90, 108, 118, 289, 356 Lampblack effect, 98 Lampblack stars, 86, 87 Lances, 57, 58, 63, 69 Lead acetate, 425, 440 Lead azide, 3, 4, 8,169, 183, 209, 281, 391, 420, 421, 424 ff., 431, 434, 440, 450 density, 430, 434 drop test, 209 efficiency as initiator, 280...

Humanity Of Chemical Warfare

Much has l> een written lx th during and since the World War concerning the horrors of gas warfare and the cruel and inhuman consequence* resulting from its uses. Afier a careful study of this matter and a close analysis of the casualties produced in the war. we now know the facts concerning the effects of pas and see that much of the alleged horrors of gas warfare wore pure propogauda, deliberately disseminated during the World War for the pnr > oso of influencing neutral world opinion,...

Tt

a working model and it was an instant sucess. Really though, it couldn't have been anything but a success, as It was so very simple in construction. This first bazooka consisted of nothing more than an aluminum tube six feet long and 3 A to I inch In diameter, a motorcycle battery (power pack), a light switch (trigger), and the necessary wiring and electrical connections. These parts were all taped together for easy assembly and disassembly. The assembly goes as follows The wiring goes from...

Pyrotechnics

The early history of pyrotechnics and the early history of black powder are the same narrative. Incendiary compositions containing saltpeter, and generally sulfur, mixed with combustible materials were used both for amusement and for purposes of war. They developed on the one hand into black powder, first used in crackers for making a noise and later in guns for throwing a projectile, and on the other into pyrotechnic devices. The available evidence indicates that fireworks probably developed...

Hohemaoe Bazooka

The subject of improvised weaponry has been a topic to which much thought has been devoted. However, until recent times in the light of massive anti-gun IegislatIon,it has been somewhat crude and ineffective. Taking these facts into mind I decided to design, build and test a weapon that would be easy to make and highly effective. Ater toying with the idea and encountering a few failures, a friend of mine developed the Idea of the bazooka. He later built

Comparison Of Smoke Agents

On the basis of total obscuring power (T.O.P.), the smoke agents discussed above, as well as other substances that have been U9ed since the War for producing smoke, are arranged below in the descending order of their T.O.P.'s. White Titanium tetrachloride and Sulfur .Sulfur trioxide and chlorsulfonic acid (FS) 2.550 Hydrochloric acid and HC Silicon tetrachloride and Titanium tetrachloride Oleum Tin tetrachloride Phosphorus trichloride and Chlomtlfonic acid and Silicon Sulfur chloride and...

Group II White Phosphorus WP

One of the earliest and by far the most efficient material used in the war for generating artificial smoke was phosphorus. This element exists in two allotropic forms white phosphorus and red phosphorus. White phosphorus, the normal and common form, was discovered in 1669 by the German chemist, Brand, who noted that it is spontaneously inflammable at ordinary temperatures and burns with a dense white smoke. While both white and red phosphorus were used in the war, white phosphorus was by far...

Xvo

No m-nitrotetryl is produced if pure dimethylaniline is used in the usual process for the manufacture of tetryl. The amount of this impurity in the usual process depends upon the amount of monomethylaniline which may be present. A large excess of sulfuric acid tends toward the production of m-nitro compounds, but a reduction in the amount of sulfuric acid is not feasible for this increases the amount of benzene-insoluble material. m-Nitro-tetryl reacts with water, as TNA does the nitro group in...

Dissemination By Projectiles

While the theoretical economy of releasing chemicals on the target area is very large, as indicated above, the practical advantage is not nearly so great, for several deterrant factors enter into the projection and dispersion of chemicals from projectiles. In the first place, projectiles are not very efficient as carriers of chemicals, for their walls must be made thick enough to withstand the shock of discharge, and this greatly limits their chemical capacity. The efficiency of a chemical...

Chapter

Incendiaries, the third member of the chemical arm, are striata nces used to set fire to enemy material in the Theater of War. Unlike gas and smoke, which are directed against personnel and are used chiefly on the field of battle, incendiaries are directed primarily against material, and their employment is not limited to the battle front, but extends to targets anywhere in the Theater of War that can be reached by bombing airplanes. Incendiaries may also be used to a limited extent against...

Fundamental Considerations

Basic Comparison of Chemical and Explosive Weapons 3 Effect of Weather on Chemical Warfare 23 Military Technical and Tactical Requirements 35 Technical Requirements . . 35 Tactical Requirements. . . 41 Requirements for Ideal Agents 47 Dissemination of Chemical Agents 51 Means of Projection. 31 Methods of Projection . 64 Methods of Gas Smoke Relation between Quantity and Range 62 Dissemination by Projectiles 75 Control of Chemical Warfare 77

Collective Protection General Considerations

Measures of protection against chemical agents which apply generally to a group of persons, as distinguished from those measures which pertain solely to an individual, are classed under the heading of Collect itr Protection, (38) and comprise the following 1. Provision and use of gasproof shelters where personnel may work, sleep, rcsi. nd cnt their meals in a gas-free atmosphere during ga* attacks. 2. Removal of gas from enclosed spaces. 3. Decontamination of ground, building , clothing. md...

Safety Check Test Fire Shotgun Before Hand Firing

Locate a barrier such as a stone wall or large tree which you can stand behind in case the weapon explodes when fired. 2. Mount shotgun solidly to a table or other rigid support at least ten feet in front of the barrier. 3. Attach a long cord to the firing strap on the shotgun. 4. Holding the other end of the cord, go behind the barrier. 5. Pull the cord so that the firing strap is held back. groove of stock with shellac or lacquer and, while still wet, place pipe in V groove and wrap 6....

Source

Soil containing old decayed vegetable or animal matter Old cellars and or farm grounds Decayed stone or mortar building foundations Totally burned whitish wood ash powder Totally burned paper (black) 4. Place bucket over shallow container. Bucket may be sup-ported on sticks if necessary. Bucket or similar container, about 5 gallons (19 liters) in volume (Plastic, metal, or wood) 2 pieces of finely woven cloth, each slightly larger than bottom of bucket large as bottom of bucket Shallow heat...

Caution

Store matches and completed igniters in mois-tureproof containers such as rubber or plastic bags until ready for use. Damp or wet paper book matches will not ignite. 3. Shape the cover into a tube with striking surface on the inside and tape. Make sure the folded cover will fit tightly around the taped match heads. Leave cover open at opposite end for insertion of the matches. 4. Push the taped matches into the tube until the bottom ends are exposed about 3 4 in, (2 cm).

Command Post

Place your manually detonated mines in spots that can be readily identified by you. If you put one in a tree stump, run the string into your command post, put a little tag on the pulling end that says 'tree stump'. If you have a big project like a long wall that you want to dot with mines, put numbers on the wall facing you and tag your strings accordingly. By doing this, you just sit back and wait for someone to take his position, and then finish him off. If you are being stormed, pull all the...

Future Of The Vesicants

The vesicants introduced a new principle in chemical-warfare offense in that they readily penetrated clothing and produced casualties by body bums. Masks, therefore, were wholly inadequate for protection against these agents, and special protective clothing was resorted to. Such clothing is very uncomfortable, especially in hot weather, and greatly lowers the combat ability of troops. It also enormously increases the problem of protection from contamination, not only for men and animals but...

Pulls Instead Of Pushes

SING wh t I lerm a double-action bow and a front-wheel-drive arrow of entirely design, Orville Littleton and I have obtained almost incredible results in a series of flight-shot experiments. Here are the figures BEST TYPE YEW FLIGHT BOW 10-lb. bow. 2S-in. Port Orford cedar arrow GO yd. 30-lb. bow, 28-in. Port OrfoM cedar arrow 209 yd. 65-lb. bow. 28-ln. Port Orford cedar arrow 304 yd. BOW AND ARROW OF NEW DESIGN 10-lb. bow, spring type, front-diSve arrow 160 yd. 30-lb. bow, spring type,...

Bargain Bugging

When it is necessary to record your conversation with another person or his conversation with a third party after your departure, a bug can be hidden In your pocket and may be left at the scene. The bug transmits to a receiver tape recorder setup In your nerarby parked car or carried by your associate who places himself as close to the scene of conversation as possible outside an office, in an adjoining room, etc. walkie talkies. Adequate ones are available for about 25 from any radio and...

Comparison Op The Vesicants

Considering the factors (1) rapidity of action (2) extension of rube-faction, swelling, and edema and (3) time of healing of lesions, the World War vesicants and those compounds having subsidiary vesicant action may be arranged in descending order of their skin-irritant efficiency as follows On the basis of relative toxicity, the above agents would rank as Minimum Lethal Dose (10 Minutes' Exposure) 0.120 0.150 0.200 0.200 0.500 0.560

Hammer Pattern

Will not be filled, a wad of paper should be used to ensure that a , quantity of filler is held in place around the fuse. The spark cannot be counted on to make a jump. If a nore sophlsticated explosive filler is to be used, be sure to use the correct companion booster or igni-tor charge. Most high explosives cannot be detonated by fuse only. When the epoxy is dry coat the threads of the grenade body with Permatex or a similar non drying gasket sealer. This will form a waterprooF seal between...

Physiological Classification

This classification arranges chemical agenfs according to the effects they produce upon the living body. Both during and since the late war, the physiological classification systems of the principal countries has differed considerably in order to compare these systems, we shall review briefly the salient points of each. American Classification (World War) In this system, the toxic substanccsare classified according to the predominant effects which they exert, with the understanding, however,...

Index Tm

Armor materials 160 Battery, short lasting 154, two hour 157 Carbine, 7.62 mm 46 Cartridge, rifle 61 Cone charge, wine bottle 23 Dust explosions 12 Explosions, dust 12 Fertilizer explosive 14 Fire bottle, chemical 84, mechanically initiated 88 Fuse cords, fast burning 118 slow burning 119 Gelled flame fuels, alcohol-lye 94 alcohol-soap 96 blood 102 egg 97 latex 99 lye 93 wax 101 Generator, automobile 152 Igniter, fuse, from book matches 108 from book matches 86 Igniter, delay, cigarette 110...

SiCl HjO Si OH i HCI

At a concentration of 0.20 mg. per liter, no further hydrolysis takes place, but an equilibrium seems to be established in which the hydrochloric acid liberated prevents further decomposition. In fact, when the hydrochloric acid becomes too great the above reaction may even be reversed and the amount of smoke actually diminished. If, however, the excess hydrochloric acid is neutralized by reaction with ammonia, hydrolysis of the silicon tetrachloride proceeds smoothly SiCL + 4NHi + 4H,0 - Si...

Electric Pullrelease Switch

Them tightly around the two jaws of the two nails. the clothespin. The bare wires should f the wire is pulled in a trip wire touch and close the circuit when the fashion, the metal strip will touch nail clothespin is In a relaxed position. To d but if the wire is discovered and cut hold the circuit in an open position, a . it will spring open and contact nail E. wedge of some non-conductive Either way, the circuit will be material such as wood or plastic is completed. This Is a popular antl...

Chlorine

Chlorine gas is generated when chlorine bleach is mixed with sodium bisulfate (Sani-Flush). Pour a can of Sani-Flush in a baking pan, and level off the top of the pile. Punch a hole near Che bottom of the plastic bleach jug and place the jug in the center of the pan. A steady cloud of gas will be generated, the actual duration depending upon the rate of bleach flow. If it is necessary to direct the gas to a specific area, the generator can be covered with an airtight top fitted with a hose.

Figure

Just got PMA. 05 and saw your little article on Caltrops. There's an even easier way to make them out of about 1 32 sheet steel that needs only a pair of tinsnips (although compound leverage aviator's snips would be easier to use ). Just cut a piece of sheet steel to the shape shown in Figure I, then twist 90 across the narrow waist, see Figure 2. The Caltrop will sit on one edge and one point with the remaining point sticking up. See Figure 3. The 1 32 thickness is okay for passenger cars, but...

Projectors

RANCE PROJECTOR - RIFLE TTPE (CO, powered) 1. Specially designed pneumatic rifle that fires patented Cap-Chnr syringe. The 2 small CO, cylinders inserted into the rifle will discharge the rifle approximately 10 times. Can be successfully used at distances up to about 35 yard*, but most effective at 25 to 30 yard range. The lower velocity of this unit minimizes danger of injury to animals resulting from the physical impact of the syringe. Bolt Action. Specially designed barrel. Sh. wt. 8Yi...