About This Book

This book is complete except for irrelevant chapters such ass Relation of Chemical Industry to Chemical Warfare, International Situation, Chemical Technique and Tactics of Cavalry, Military Organization for Chemical Combat, Chemical Techniques and Tactics of Air Corps, etc. Also left out was the extensive bibliography and hundreds of footnotes referring to books long out of print and generally unobtainable. For the most part, their subject matter concerned the historical record of the use of...

Agents

The total number of compounds known to chemical science has been variously estimated at from 300,000 to 500,000. Of these, some 200,000 have la-en studied to the extent that their principal properties are of record (8). As nearly all chemical compounds exert some toxic effects (either local or general) upon the body, it is not possible to estimate with accuracy the total number of toxic substances. However, several thousands of compounds have such pronounced toxic properties as to bring them...

Ale

Undar a magnifying glass it is relatively easy to male* measurements within .01 incb Then a small brass rod was chucked in the lathe and two slots sawed in it sufficiently far apart to make the two pieces. A diamond pointed tool was then adjusted in the lathe tool holder at an angle so that the sides of the point cleared both the lengthwise and crosswise faces. Cuts were taken with great care, using the saw cuts as reference points, and the same scale and magnifying glass were used lor the...

Automobile Generator Power Source

An automobile generator can be used as a means of firing one blasting cap or igniter. (Improvised Igniter. Section V, No. 2, may be used.) Automobile generator (6, 12, or 28 volts). (An alternator will not work.) Copper Wire Strong string or wire, about 5 ft. (150 cm) long and 1 16 in. (1-1 2 mm) Small light bulb requiring same voltage ss generator, (for example, bulb from aame vehicle aa generator). 1. Strip about 1 in. (2-1 2 cm) of coating from both ends of 3 copper wires. Scrape ends with...

Basic Principles Comparison Of Chemical And Explosive Weapons

An understanding of the true character of chemical warfare can best lie approached by a consideration of the action of combat chemicals as compared to that of explosive weai> ons. Certain important differences between the effects of chemical and of explosive munitions emphasize the peculiarity and novelty of chemical warfare and suggest some of its potentialities. These differences are particularly noticeable in the mechanism of the action of chemical agents and their effects in terms of time...

Bolt Assembly

Converting the Hossberg .22 semi-auto rifle to fulI-automatIc is very easily accomplished. The rear bottom of the bolt must be filed flat (see diagram). This hump activates the sear causing engagement of the striker on recoil. Removal of the hump allows continuous firing for the time the trigger is held to the rear full-automatic fire of the weapon until trigger is released. The Atchisson M-I6 AR-15 .22 Ir CONV. MARK II 30-shot magazine is used for the Mossberg in this conversion. The magazine...

Books And Magazines

Basics of Radio Control Modeling by Marks Winter. 4.50-Kalmbach Publishing Co., 1027 North Seventh St., Milwaukee WI, 53233. 2. Handbook of Model Rocketry by Stlne. 6.95-from Follet Publishing Co., Chicago, Illinois. 3. Armies and Weapons Magazine World wide distribution. Excellent product reviews and features on new military weapons including laser guidance hardware. Many illustrated ads from all of the world's larger weapons manufacturers. Subscription information is available from Sky Books...

By Darvis Mccoy

The walking-stick shotgun described In Issue 1 PMA can easily be turned into a yawara stick that is deadlier than any martial arts weapon ever taught in self-defense schools. The materials needed are the same as described in issue I, except that the point of a nail makes a more efficient firing pin than a bolt. The .1*10 shotgun shell fits the half in. size of the pipe very nicely, while 3 4 Inch lead pipe works well as the outside sleeve. Wrap the 1 2 inch section In duct tape until there is...

By Todd W

Anyone who has read The Poor Han's James Bond knows some thing about dynamite. The section on p.6 of the PMJ8 has some good Information on dynamite, however, the part about storage of this high explosive is rather vague, and also somewhat Incorrect. Contrary to what Is written in the PNJB, gelatin dynamite CAN leak nitroglycerine Just like the sawdust-clay type dynamite. Last year, a friend of mine, who is a road construction contractor and uses dynamite In his work, began a series of...

Lacrimatory Agents

The first toxic gases employed in the World War were the lacrimators, i.e., sulwtances having a specific action on the eyes and producing a copious flow of tears and temporary blindness. In the concentrations used in battle, neither the eyeball nor the optic nerve was injured and only in rare eases (as when a soldier was so near a shell burst as to have the liquid chemical splashed in his eyes) was any corneal injury experienced. In fact, so transitory was the effect of these early lacriniatory...

The Effectiveness Of Chemical Warfare

Many factors enter into an evaluation of the relative effectiveness of war weapons. Chief among llinw nw (1) the 1 Wil I ige rent's philosophy of battle (2) the tactical objectives sought., i t> t casualties, destruction of material, the occupation of inqiortant strategic positions, denial to the enemy of the use ol vital land or water areas, etc. (3) the military effort required to achieve the objectives sought (4) the degree of preparation and training of the enemy's armed forces and (5),...

Chemicals In War

Screening smokes may also be generated from candles, shells, bombs, or airplanes. When a smoke screen is generated from candles, the wind must, be in the proper direction to accomplish the desired result. It must usually blow toward the enemy. Here again, and for the same reasons as stated above, the upper velocity limit should not be exceeded. The lower limit is not so important since, even if the wind did reverse itself, the screening smokes are harmless to personnel. Steadiness of the wind...

Fast Burning

Blank Powder Hercules Bullseye Hodgdon HP-38 Dupont Unique Dupont P B Hercules Red Dot Hodgdon Trap-100 Winchester 452AA Winchester 473AA Dupont SR7625 Dupont SR4756 Al can AL5 Hodgdon HS-6 Winchester 540 Winchester 571 Hodgdon HS-7 Hercules 2400 Winchester 296 Hodgdon H-110 Hodgdon H-4227 Dupont IMR-4227 Norma N-200 Hodgdon H-4198 Dupont IMR-4198 Dupont IMR-3031 Norma N-201 Norma N-203 Dupont IMR-4064 Hodgdon BL-C(2) Hodgdon H-335 Hodgdon H-4895 Dupont IMR-4895 Hodgdon H-380 Hodgdon H-414...

Fig Trigger

Note The bullet should be slanted downward with a 1 metal tube extending from It, blocked at the end with paper, so that the flash sets the charge off at the bottom middle. Better yet, put the detonator below the charge so the bullet rests at the bottom. To utilize this device, remove the business end from the bullet and put a small wad of paper In the cartridge to keep the powder in. Then insert the cartridge into the explosive, align the firing pin so it will strike the primer, and set the...

Figure B

Cut the two outside frame pieces from V flat stock. Carefully align edges and clamp together for steps 2 and 3. STEP 2 Cut the cocking notch in the frame pieces at A. Increase the angle of the undercut for rugged field use. Decrease angle to near verticle for a target type hair trigger. STEP 3 The front spacer is cut from k stock and is positioned between frame halves until all three bottom and front edges are aligned. (There should now be a V x V channel along the top edge of the frame.) Clamp...

Future Of Incendiaries

Modern warfare has left little on the field of battle that is combustible hence suitable targets and opportunities for the use of incendiaries iu the Combat Zone are very limited and will become increasingly so as armies are mechanized. On the other hand, the military airplane has opened up a vastly larger field of application for incendiaries in the areas behind the battle front and in the hinterlands of the belligerents. To an ever-increasing degree the successful waging of modern war depends...

Giant Match

Lay the match on the paper, with the match head being about l V a-bove the striker. Then roll the whole thing into a tube and glue it closed. The tube should be tight enough to hold the match in place, but not tight enough to grip the match. When you pull the string, the match will slide over the striker, ignite, and send a violent jet of flame out of the tube. Your cost is about 3< . This detonator should be inserted in a metal tube and is used in manually detonated mines. If you reverse the...

Group Characteristics

In general, the respiratory irritants wer< all solids with high melting points and negligible vapor pressures. They were, therefore, dispersed by heavy explosive charges, in the form of a finely pulverized dust. The particulate clouds thus created lasted only a few minutes in the open, and they were accordingly classed as nonpersistent agents. They were, however, immediately effective and readily penetrated the existing gas masks of the Allies. It was due chiefly to these properties that they...

Hole Must Be Centered In Plug

Position metal trap on stock to that top will hit the head of the 11. String elastic bands from front coupling to notch on each side of the strap. 5. Push nail through plug until pip Plug head of nail is flush with square end. Cut nail off at other end 1 16 (. 158 cm) away from plug. Round off end of nail with file. SAFETY CHECK - TEST FIRE PISTOL BEFOREHAND FIRING Rounded 1 _ - I. Locate a barrier such as a stone wall or large tree which you can stand behind in case the pistol ruptures...

How To Use

Shake the sma.ll bottle to mix contents and pour onto the cloth or paper around the large bottle. Bottle can be used wet or after solution has dried. However, when dry, the sugar - Potassium chlorate mixture is very sensitive to spark or flame and should be handled accordingly. 2. Throw or launch the bottle. When the bottle breaks against a hard surface (target) the fuel will ignite.

Igniter From Book Matches

Is a hot igniter made from paper book matches for use with molotov cocktail and other incendiaries. Use With Molotov Cocktail _ _ ___ . i -- Tape the match end tab of the igniter to the neck of the molotov cocktail. Grasp the cover end tab and pull sharply or quickly to ignite. The book match igniter can be used by itself to ignite flammable liquids, fuse cords and similar items requiring hot ignition,_ Paper book matches. Adhesive or friction tape. 1. Remove the staple(s) from match book and...

Increasing Use Of Gas During World

One of the most convincing evidences of the effectivcn< ss of chemical warfare was its rapidly increasing use as the World War progress . This is strikingly illustrated in Chart XIX, which shows the amount if gas and gas shell used on l> oth sides during each vear of the war. Owing to the large number of casualties which the Germane scored against the British and French with Yellow Cross (mustard) shell in the summer of 1017, and the great success attained against the Russians by their...

Index

Launcher, rocket 25, grenade 81 Machine pistols 74 Magazine as weapon 20 Measuring 26 Metal, to blacken 8 Mine, claymore 40, contact 78, detonator 84, placing 77 Missle, homemade 48 Mortars 18, 24 Ninja tools 20 Nunchaku 8 Pistol, plastic 37 Powder, explode with electricity 6 Reloading 82 water pipe 47 Silencers 10, 11, 14, 22, 33, 41, 57, 58, 63, end cap 35 Speargun, legal Spearguns 31 Submachineguns 64-, 72 Switches 9 Targets 6, 28 Vice, hand 62 Wire drawing 21 Edward L. Allen's system of...

Info

Guns apparently first came into use shortly after the death of Roger Bacon. A manuscript in the Asiatic Museum at Leningrad, probably compiled about 1320 by Shems ed Din Mohammed, shows tubes for shooting arrows and balls by means of powder. In the library of Christ Church, Oxford, there is a manuscript entitled De officiis regum, written by Walter de Millemete in 1325, in which a drawing pictures a man applying a light to the touch-hole of a bottle-shaped gun for firing a dart. On February 11,...

Step T

The 3 4 long piece of drain pipe is used to make a spacer for the area between the rear of the 4 tube and the spiral assembly. Split the edge of the 3 4 tube and overlap the edges, reducing the size until it will Various materials can be used as flexible baffles to fill the endcap. These baffles are intended to allow the bullet to pass, but to partially seal off the end of the silencer and help to slow the release of gas. Flexible plastic, nylon, and red or black rubber may all be used. The...

Doityourself Machine Pistols

Building an SMG from scratch is not an easy job for most people, even though excellent plans are available from various sources. Not everyone has the shop, tools or skill required. Converting a semi-auto pistol would seem to be a more practical approach. These conversions still appear to be difficult to most folks, who believe that complex machine work and hard to get parts are needed. All of these objections are true sometimes, for instance, to change an M-I carbine to M-2 (a favorite)...

Material Required

Carefully remove crimp from shotshell using a screwdriver or knife. V 1 4 in. nominal size iron water or gas pipe 20 in. long threaded ROLL CRIMP ,t end, Twine, heavy 100 yards approx.) 3 wood screws and screwdriver Flat head nail about 1 in. long Hand drill Saw or knife Pipe wrench Shellac or lacquer Elastic bands Solid 3 8 in. pipe plug 3 8 in. to 1 4 in. reducer 3 8 in. x 1-1 2 in. threaded pipe 3 8 in. pipe coupling Metal strap approximately 1 2 in. x 1 16 in. x 4 in. 1. Inspect pipe and...

Means Of Projection

During the World War, chemicals were disseminated by every military arm, although the air corps did not use toxic gases. When chemical warfare made its appearance in 1915, there was already a large variety of high-explosive weapons in use. As chemical warfare was bom during the war and there was no prewar development of its mat riel, the first chemical munitions wTere hasty adaptations of high-explosive weapons, although subsequent experience showed that some of these weapons were not suitable...

Military Effort Expended For Gas Casualties

Having determined the battle casualties caused by gas, our next inquiry logically concerns the military effort expended in securing these casualties, as compared to the military effort expended in securing the sum total of battle casualties. Iu connection with this inquiry, it should be borne in mind that the military effort here referred to is only that part of tlie total combat effort which was expended in securing ptrmuncl los*e> (i.e., battle injuries and deaths), and does not concern...

O

While it appears from the foregoing that many of the World War chemical agents may be classified in accordance with the scheme outlined, it does not follow that all such agents are so classifiable, as there are many known exceptions, and undoubtedly many more exceptions will be found as new chemical agents are discovered. Another chemical classification of combat toxics is indicated by Hederer and Istin as follows 1. Oxydizera, e.g., chlorine, chlorpicrin, or 2. Reducers, e.g., acrolein, ketone...

Pack With Pencil

Next fill with the smoke powder mixture to the end of the casing and tamp down with a dowel the same size as the inside of the engine. (You can first start packing using the pencil, In order to avoid scrunching the fuse.) Fill to the top again and tamp in. We have used either a vise or a hammer in order to Insure that the mix is tightly packed, without a single mishap.Repeat this until there is about I A distance left to the end of the case. Note depending upon a number of variables, which...

Preface

The three outstanding developments of the World War were the military airplane, the combat tank, and chemical warfare. Each of these new instruments of war made its appearance on the battlefield at about the same time, each exerted an important influence in shaping the character of modern combat, and each is destined to play an even greater role in future warfare. Since the World War, all nations have actively pushed the develo > -ment of these new arms and much has been written concerning...

S

Nitroglycerin and 50 soluble nitrocellulose, made without volatile solvent, and sandwiched between two thin strips of powder made, without volatile solvent, from 50 soluble nitrocellulose and 50 crystalline dinitrotoluene. The two compositions were rolled to the desired thicknesses separately between warm rolls, as the burning advances, and, other things in the gun being equal, they produce gas at a rate which accelerates more rapidly and, in conscquence, gives a greater velocity to the...

Short Barreled Version

See your rifle's parts list for ordering instructions from the factory-about 12.00 1 - 3 4 Shaft Collar - 3 4IO-IV'OD This is a V' thick collar with a V NC or NF thread set screw.The collar is used to retain pulleys and gears on a 3 4 diameter arbor shaft. Available from hardware stores and tool suppliers. About 50< t. 1 - pc. Metal Screen - 4V'x24. Found at hardware and plumbing stores. Material from an old screen door may also be used. Plastic screen 1s...

Silencers And Stark Arresters

BOY MECHANIC VOL.3 A Croubow Migtxine Gun A new type of bow gun that a boy into the end of the barrel. The notch can make, and which will give him in which the bowstring- catches, should plenty of good sport, ia one of the re- be cut just under the rear end of the peating or magazine variety. To make magazine. The trigger is an L-shaped, the gun, cut a toft pine board, 40 in. pivoted piece, and pushes the cord oft long and 5 in. wide. With a saw and the notch when ready to fire. As oon knife,...

Smokeless Powder

An account of smokeless powder is, in its main outlines, an account of the various means which have been used to regulate the temperature and the rate of the burning of nitrocellulose. After the degree of nitration of the nitrocellulose, other factors i which influence the character of the powder are the state of aggregation of the nitrocellulose, whether colloidcd or in shreds, the size and shape of the powder grains, and the nature of the materials other than nitrocellulose which enter into...

Step

After final sanding, the stock is wiped down with alcohol and painted with black enamel primer. All small holes should first be filled In with plastic wood putty or body putty. Do not paint the stock tubes or the stock will not be able to sl de freely. It can be blackened with touch-up blue or with one of the formulas on page 11, issue 1. The stock tubes should have a light coat of oil to insure smooth operation. STEP 12 Cut out two grips, using pattern HI. Shape to suit and install on grip...

Step Control

Glue the rubber or plastic strip to the other 1-1 2 x k strip of wood. This will be the bottom of the box. When assembling, the plastic or rubber will be facing up. 2. Screw the hinges to one of the 2-1 2 x V pieces of wood and attach the other side of the hinge to the side of one of the 2-1 2 x J-l 2 pieces of wood. 3. Drill a > l6 bole in the bottom of the other 2-1 2 x 1-1 2 piece of wood, which will be the left side of the box, and a 1 8 hole in the top right hand corner of the other 2-1...

Step I

Cut grip frame out of 5 8 plywood, using pattern 1. It is a good idea to first make this piece out of balsa-wood. This allows you to make changes in grip shape or angle. When the entire stock is completed and you are comfortable with the final shape, it is duplicated in plywood. Drill four 1 8 holes and 7 16 takedown screw hole as shown. Taper the rear of the hole to accomodate the head of the screw. Drill hole for stock latch. STEP 2 Drill seven holes in brass side plates as shown in pattern...

Technique

In considering the chemical technique and tactics of the several arms, we shall follow the organization of the Theater of Operations for chemical warfare, as presented in Chap. Ill, Diagram I, and discuss the chemical technique and tactics of each arm in the order of its proximity to the battle front of an army. In connection with the normal chemical-warfare zones of operation, shown in Diagram 1 of Chap. Ill, it should be borne in mind that these tones are not rigidly delimited, nor are they...

The Silencers

Of all 201h century 9mall arms developments, the firearm silencer is probably the most mysterious and the leasl understood. Invented in 1908 by Hiram Maxim, the firearm silencer was one of Maxim's early contributions to firing. This attendant clatter Is most pronounced In semi and full automatic weapons. Some noise also escapes through the unlocked breech area of these autos. A bolt action rifle will produce the field of noise pollution control. By little If any mechanical noise when the 1930s,...

This Weapon Can Also Be Made Using The Explosive And Fuse Below

Mix three (3) parts Potassium chlorate and one (I) part granulated sugar. Confine in a container (in this case the claymore mine) and use time fuse to set it off. Time Fuse Boil equal parts of potassium chloratc and granulated sugar in water. Dip cotton string in the solution and let dry. Buring rate is approx. sixty (60) seconds per foot. Test some to rctake sure I This weapon can a I so, be used on the side of a truck or tractor. This was done In Vietnam and was found to be highly effective...

Toxicity Of Lacrimators

The toxicity of the World War lacrimators has been previously mentioned in Chap. I. The following table shows their relative toxicity on the basis of 10 minutes' exposure 0.35* 1.50 1.00 2.00* 2.30* 2.30 3.20* In the cases of those compounds marked with an asterisk (*), their volatilities at 20 C. (68 F.) exceed their minimum lethal doses, so that fatal concentrations of these compounds may be encountered in the field at ordinary temperatures. Moreover, it must be remembered that, even in the...

United States Patents

710.660 10 1902 Bennett et al 42 16.3 UX 1.502.676 7 1924 2.297.693 10 1942 2.424.194 7 1947 Sampson et al 42,72 3.039.366 6 1962 linthum el al 42 7 X 3,276.323 10 1966 Primary juim ner Benjamin A. Bore belt Assistant Examiner Stephen C. Bentley Attorney Nolte A Nolte An automatic firearm comprises a frame, a receiver mounted on the frame, a barrel mounted on the receiver, a bolt diiposed in the receiver andteiescopicaily movable relative to the breech end of the barrel against the action of a...

Vacuvise

A plastic container and stored in a cool dry place. Another explosive powder which even surpasses photoflash powder is chlorate flashpowder. Chlorate flashpowder is much more powerful than photoflash powder and also much more sensative. The reason for Its increased strength is the use of potassium chlorate (a very powerful unstable oxidizing agent).The equipment needed for making chlorate flashpowder Is the same as for photof I ash powder with one minor exception. A flat metal pan and a hammer...

Vws

This substance, m.p. 295-300 , results from the direct nitration of oxanilide. It is stable and about as powerful as TNT, and is reported to explode with the production of a temperature which is distinctly lower than that produced by many high explosives. (hexanitrocarbanilide or sym-dipicrylurea) may be prepared by the nitration of carbanilide (sym-diphenylurea) in one, in two, or in three stages. It is of interest because of its explosive properties and because it supplies one way in which...

Do Not Remove Safety Stick Until Ready To Throw Fire Bottle

The safety stick, when in pUce, prevents ignition of the fire bottle if it should accidentally be broken. the end with the matches passes ' the slot in the can. Pass the flat stick or piece of metal Matches through slots in can to hold spring in place. This acts as a safety device. 8. Punch many closely spaced small holes between the lines marked on the can to form a striking surface for the matches. Be careful not to seriously deform can. Section V No. 4.1 CELLED FLAME FUELS LYE SYSTEMS Lye...

Pipe Pistol For Caliber Ammunition

A .45 caliber pistol can be made from 3 8 in. nominal diameter steel gas or water pipe and fittings. Lethal range is about 15 yards (13-1 2 meters*. Steel pipe. 3 8 in. (1 cm) nominal diameter and 6 in. (15 cm) long with threaded ends. 2 threaded couplings to fit pipe Solid pipe plug to fit pipe coupling Hard wood. 8-1 2 in. x 6-1 2 in. x I in. (21 cm x 16-1 2 cm x 2-1 2 cm) Tape or string Flat head nail, approximately 1 16 in. < 1-1 2 mm) in diameter 2 wood screws, approximately 1 16 in. <...

Connect To Explosive

When a vehicle passes over the switch, the two metal plates make contact closing the firing circuit. 3. Wrap a connecting wire around one leg of each U at least 1 4 from the end and solder in place. 4. Place metal ball on block so that it rests in the center hole. 5. Insert the ends of the small MU into two holes in the block. Insert large U into the remaining two hole s. CAUTION Make lure that the metal ball does not touch either MU shaped wire when the switch is standing on its base. If the...

By Fred B

1 -piece of hardwood,about 1VWx3 4 )-piece of hardwood,about 2x lMxl I-strip of tension steel, about 3*l The Bates MFG. Co. of Orange, NJ makes a steel ruler that will do.The stock H is BNR-12. It can be bought in most stores. I-roof ing na iI -nail about 1 long String them 3 8n from the bottom and the other 2 3 V from the bottom. If you are using the ruler there will be no problem. 2. Snip all but V off the roofing nail, and file it to a point. Solder or glue it V' from the tension steel. This...

CiHiAsOI SOa H [CHtAajO HS

Di phenylarsenious oxide was converted to diphenylchlorarsine by chlorination with hydrochloric acid (CJh)iAs sO + 2HC1 2(C6H*)2AsCl + H,0 Diphenylchlorarsine may also be prepared by a much simpler process, as follows 1. Triphenylarsine is formed by acting on chlorbenzene and arsenic trichloride with sodium. 2. The triphenylarsine is then heated under pressure with more arsenic trichloride and diphenylchlorarsine is thus obtained. While the latter was the laboratory method of making...

Pack With Dowel

Of paper (newspaper or magazine stock Is what we prefer) and tamp them down In on top of the powder charge. Use several pieces to bring up the level to about 1 8 from the end of the casing.This paper serves both as a primary end seal and as a heat-sink to prevent possible damage to the mix by the final wax seal. With that done, seal the end by pouring melted wax over the paper allowing It to pool In the recess. We Just let the wax drip from a candle. This is better than using epoxy to seal the...

Flexible Plate Switch

Switch lor electrically initiated explosives, mines and booby This pressure sensitive switch is used tr*Pft- for initiating emplaced mines and explosives. MATERIAL REQUIRED MATERIEL REQUIRED. > Two meUl ,hect Mousetrap nc aPProxim*tely 10 in* (25 cm) quare Hacksaw or File ne proximately 10 in. x 8 in < 20 cm) - Piece of wood 10 in. square by 1 in. thick Connecting wires Four goft woQd block H1 irux in.x 1 4 ifU Eight flat head nails, 1 in. long Connecting wires Adhesive tape 1. Nail 10 in....

Wax Base Seal

Add a drop of wax to the nozzle fuse Junction or store your completed grenades in a zlplock bag, as the mix Is somewhat hygroscopic and may take on some moisture from the air or moist surroundings. For your first test firing It Is best not to hand-hold the grenade, although this Is possible once you can predict its functioning. Not only may it get quite hot, but It may malfunction dangerously If you prepared the filler incorrectly. Wedge it into the ground and stand upwind to watch the action....

Step V

Insert the endcap into the 8 silencer tube. Mark the 8 tube at 4 points top, bottom, and the center of both sides. Each point should be V to the rear of the froot edge of the tube. Drill one of the holes and insert a screw. This will prevent the mount assembly from moving when the other 3 holes are drilled. Drill the 3 remaining holes as marked. Remove the screw, take the endcap off, and remove the mount assembly. The V roll of cardboard in the endcap can now be discarded. Four nuts are now...

Common Source

Sodium hydroxide (lye, solid or concentrated solution) Copper or brsss plate about 4 in. < 10 cm) square and 1 16 in. < 2 mm) thick Soap manufacturing Disinfectants Sewer cleaner Aluminum plate or sheet, same site as copper plate One of the following Potassium permanganate, solid NOTE Be sure sodium hydroxide solution is at least a 45 solution by weight. If not, boil off some of the water. If solid sodium hydroxide Is available, dissolve some sodium hydroxide In about twice as muct. water...

World War Development

To accomplish its mission in war, an army must protect itself it must seek to keep itself intact and avoid an excessive drain in casualties upon its resources and fighting power. Hence there is both an individual and a collective demand for protection in war regardless of what means or weapons are employed. In consequence of this, the history of war might well be viewed as an age-long and continuing struggle between weapon development as a means of taking life, 011 the one hand, and protection...

Control Of Chemical Warfare

Because of this definite relationship betweeti chemical quantities and effective ranges, chemical warfare is susceptible of much closer control than is passible with bullets and H.E. shell. When a bullet or shell once leaves the gun, the gunner cannot tell what its effect will be. It may ricochet or be deflected from its path by striking some intervening obstacle, and its ultimate point of impact may be far removed from the intended target. Even if it strikes within the target area, no one can...

Tape

Drill four 1 16 holes and one 1 8 hole through the wood block as shown. 2. Form two U shaped pieces from 1 16 copper wire to the dimensions shown. J ONE 1 HIGH ONE 1-1 2 HIGH The switch is placed in a hole in the path of expected traffic and covered with a thin layer of dirt or other camouflaging material. The mine or other explosive device connected to the switch can be buried with the switch or emplaced elsewhere as desired.

Summary Op Gases

We have now completed a survey of the 38 compounds which constitute the entire group of World War toxic agents. For convenience of reference, a consolidated list of these compounds is. given below, arranged in groups by physiological classification, in order of their chronological appearance (of the group) in the war, as treated in the foregoing chapters.

Animal Blood Systems

MATERIAL REQUIRED Animal blood can be used to gel gasoline for use as a flanre fuel which will adhere to target surfaces. Small jar with cap Cardboard Adhesive tape How Used Common Source Potassium Chlorate Sugar Motor fuel Gas Station Sulphuric Acid (Battery Acid) Motor vehicles Rubber sheeting (automotive inner tube) white fumes begin to appear, immediately remove the acid from heat and allow to cool to room temperature

Individual Protection Other Than Masks

The gas mask protects only the respiratory organs, the eyes, and face. For protection of the laxly generally against the blistering action of vesicant agents which either in liquid or vapor form will readily pene- irate ordinary cloth, special protective clothing is required. Protective clothing is made of the no called Unwed oil cloth, or cotton fabric treated with vegetable drying oils. The garment is a coverall with elastics at the ankles and wrists to insure tight fit at these places and a

No

During the first World War the Germans used a mixture of trinitroanisol and hexanitrodiphenyl sulfide in bombs. Trinitrophenetol or ethyl picrate, m.p. 78 , is prepared by the same methods as trinitroanisol. The explosive properties of the two substances have been studied by Desparmets and Calinaud, and by Desvergnes, who has reported the results of the earlier workers together with data of his own and discussions of methods of manufacture and of the explosive properties of mixtures with picric...

Nitroamines And Related Substances

The nitroamines are substituted ammonias, substances in which a nitro group is attached directly to a trivalent nitrogen atom. They are prepared in general either by the nitration of a nitrogen base or of one of its salts, or they are prepared by the splitting off of water from the nitrate of the base by the action of concentrated sulfuric acid upon it. At present two nitroamines are of particular interest to the explosives worker, namely, nitro-guanidine and cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine...

Lxx

DD, explosive, 166 DDNP, 443 see also Diazodinitrophenol DNT see Dinitrotoluene DNX see Dinitroxylene Dead pressed explosive, 4, 410, 424, 438, 441, 444, 450, 451 Dearrangement, urea, 373, 384, 385, 386 , 392 237, 266, 267, 452, 453 Decomposition in vacuum, 269 Definition of explosive, 1 Dehydrating press, 299, 300, 302 Density of louding. 24, 132, 169, 172, 175, 182, 267, 286, 337, 391 effect upon explosive decomposition, 390 optimum, 14, 139, 361, 362, 363 Dermatitis, 125 Deterrent, 291, 319,...

Popular Mechanics

A 1-in. hole was bored.in the center of a 2-in. square block. Two finishing- in, as shown in the' sketch. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil'. After everything was ready the . powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. The distance between the nail points which must be bright and clean should be just enough to give a good, fat spark.

Methods Of Projection

Regardless of the technical means employed, there are but three basic methods of placing chemicals on a target area. First, by releasing the chemical from containers installed in one's own front lines, and depending upon the wind to carry it to and over the target area. This may be called the method of release at origin. Second, by releasing from containers projected on the target area by some physical means, such as firing from a gun (chemical shell), dropping from an airplane (chemical bomb),...

W

Water-dried powder, 313 Water-drying, 305, 306, 307, 316 Water fireworks, 56 Water gas, 277 Water glass, 108, 253 Web thickness, 8, 299 Whale oil, 199 Wheel cake, 46 Wheel mill, 45, 46, 51, 290 Wheels, pyrotechnic, 91, 92 Whistling fireworks, 72, 73 Whistling rockets, 72 White fire, 61, 64, 71, 118 White lances, 58, 69 White lights, 64, 68, 71 White powder, Augendre's, 358 Raschig's, 50 White smoke, 123 White stars, 83 Willow tree, 86 Wing-tip flares, 68 Wire dips, 119 Wood cellulose, 259 Wood...

Vesicant Agents

By the term vesicant agents we denote those compounds which vesicate fblister) the human and animal body on any surface, either exterior or interior, with which they come in contact. This type of compound constitutes the fourth class of combat gases used in the World War. Most of them are highly toxic substances and nearly all produce multiple physiological effects. Thus, some are fairly lacrimatory, others exert marked lung-injurant effects, while still others are systemic poisons. However, in...

Properties Of Explosives

An explosive is a material, either a pure single substance or a mixture of substances, which is capable of producing an explosion by its own energy. It seems unnecessary to define an explosion, for everyone knows what it is a loud noise and the sudden going away of things from the place where they have been. Sometimes it may only be the air in the neighborhood of the material or the gas from the explosion which goes away. Our simple definition makes mention of the one single attribute which all...

Bicycle Generator Power Source

1 Tie a 4 to 6 foot (1 meter) length of cord to the grenade. Be sure that the rope will not prevent the grenade handle from coming off. A 6 volt, 3 watt bicycle generator will set off one or two blasting caps (connected in series) or an igniter. Note If improvised grenade is used, tie cord around grenade near the end cap. Tape in place if necessary. 2. Tie a large knot in the other end of the cord for use as a handle. coatin& from both cnds of 2 c0 5pcr 3. Carefully remove safety pin from...

Lunginjurant Agents Group Characteristics

The lung injurants were the second group of agents to make their appearance in the World War. They form a well-defined group, having many properties in common* and for that reason they were designated by the Germans under a siugle generic class Green Cross substances. In general, they were all liquids of relatively low boiling points and high vapor pressures. They, therefore, were volatile substances that formed i ion persistent gases upon release from their containers. Their principal...

Cut So Inner Core Is Exposed

Cut end of fuse cord to expose inner core. 1. If watch has a sweep or large second hand, remove it. If delay time of more than one hour is required, also remove the minute hand If hands are painted, carefully scrape paint from contact edge with knife. 2. Drill a hole through the crystal of the watch or pierce the crystal with a heated nail. The hole must 2. Light cigarette in normal fashion. Place a paper be small enough that the match so that the head is over exposed end of fuse cord and screw...

Conclusion

We have shown that chemical combat is a new mode of warfare which for the first time in recorded history departs from the physical blow as the fundamental principle of battle. Of all modern weapons, chemical-are destined to exert the most far-reaching effect in shaping the future character of warfare, for the action of chemicals over the areas in which they are employed is pervading as to space and is enduring in point of time, no that if aiicraft may be said to have carried war into the third...

Lzt

Which is as good a stabilizer as diphenylamine itself. Since both of these substances may be detected by simple tests upon an alcoholic extract of a sample of the powder, the fitness of the powder for continued storage and use may be easily demon which is as good a stabilizer as diphenylamine itself. Since both of these substances may be detected by simple tests upon an alcoholic extract of a sample of the powder, the fitness of the powder for continued storage and use may be easily demon...

Leather Washer

ALL that was required to make the high-grade hunting knife shown above was a worn-out 10-in. mill file, 10 cents worth of scrap sole leather from a shoe repair shop, and a piece of scrap brass 154 in. in diameter. Place the file in a forge or bury it in a roaring bed of live coals in a furnace or stove and bring to a white heat. Remove and let cool gradually. This will leave just the right temper. , Now place the file in the vise with 5 in. above the jaws, and break it off with a hammer. Grind...

Black Powder

The discovery that a mixture of potassium nitrate, charcoal, and sulfur is capable of doing useful mechanical work is one of the most important chemical discoveries or inventions of all time. It is to be classed with the discovery or invention of pottery, which occurred before the remote beginning of history, and with that of the fixation of nitrogen by reason of which the ecology of the human race wilKbc different in the future from what it has been throughout the time that is past. Three...

Relative Casualty Value Of Gases

In order to determine the relative casualty value of the principal battle gases, it is necessary to take into consideration the amountB of each that were used in battle during the World War. Table XV shows the amounts of battle gases of each class that were manufactured during the War. Of the 150,000 tons of battle gases manufactured during the war, approximately 125,000 tons were used in battle and 25,000 tons were left on hand after the war in filled shell and in bulk storage, as indicated...

Requirements For Ideal Agents

Since wc have now reviewed the requirements for chemical agent at some length, we may summarize this subject by stating the qualities and characteristics of an ideal chemical agent of each type. Offensive Gas. The ideal combat gas for us on the tactical offensive should meet the following requirements Tactical t. High toxicity. - Multiple effortiveneas. X npersistcncy. 4 hfiocts of m ximum duration. V Immediate effectiveness. I . Insidiousness in action. Volatility (maximum field conrcntra-I...

Procedure

Natural form Myrica berries General store Department store Drug store 1. Obtaining wax from Natural Sources Plants and berries, are potential sources of natural waxes. Place the plants and or berries in boiling water. The natural waxes will melt. Let the water cool. The natural waxes will form a solid layer on the water surface. Skim off the solid wax and let it dry. With natural waxes which have suspended matter when melted, screen the wax through a cloth,

Aromatic Nitro Compounds

Aromatic nitro compounds are generally stable but are frequently reactive, especially if they contain groups other than nitro groups in the meta position with respect to one another. As a class they constitute the most important of the military high explosives. They are also used as components of smokeless powder, in compound detonators, and in primer compositions. Liquid nitro compounds, and the mixtures which are produced as by-products from the manufacture of pure nitro compounds for...

General Data

Type surface to surface antitank missile. Configuration length, 24 diameter, 4 wingspan, 18 ' solid balsa cruciform wings, spiral wound paper tube body and nosecone. Propulsion type 4 solid propellaat single stage motors - burning time - three seconds, maximum combined thrust - 36 lbs - average combined thrust - 8 lbs. Payload high explosive shaped charge approx. lbs. of explosive. Guidance type two channel radio control, visually guided to target. 4 movable trim tabs on wings for steering....

Future Of Smoke Agents

During the World War obscuring smoke proved its tactical value on land and sea and won for itself an assured place as a military weapon. Since the war the development of air force has still further enhanced the value of obscuring smoke, for not only are airplanes a means par excellence for putting down smoke Bcreens on the field of battle, but their power of observation has greatly increased the need for obscuration. So greatly has aircraft increased the facility of observing enemy dispositions...

Automatic Firearm

Automatic weapons of the submachine gun type are sometimes referred to as machine pistols and such weapons must be light in weight and efficient u operation. According to this Invention weight cf the weapon is kept to a minimum by constructing certain elements so that they per* ions two or more functions. For example, the trigger guard of this invention is arranged in such manner as to afford protection for the outwardly protruding trigger and also so as to function as guide means whereby...

Plastic Bombs

Hand grenades and antipersonel mines can be easily and cheaply constructed from polyester casting res in, auto body putty, ABS and PVC pipe, plexiglass, vacumn formed styrene sheet etc. These plastic devices won't produce shrapnel fragments or concussions equal to the power of conventional bombs, but they do have two unique and noteworthy features they are both non metallic and x-ray Li.apparent. The first feature allows these devices to be carried through airports, government buildings and...

Osu

Ignition temperature, 3, 21, 165, 189, 206, 446 Impact, sensitivity to, 21, 138, 157, 165, 168, 184 Incendiary compositions, 28, 35, 52 Indigo. 123, 164 Indoor fireworks, 70, 93 Indurite, 296 Inhibitory effect of groups, 128 Initiator, 2, 11 Iodine, 409 Iron, 429 Iron filings. 52, 57, 118 Iron oxide, 61 Iron picrate, 63, 165 Iron scale, 53 Iron wire, 118 Isoamyl phthalate, 322 Isoamyl sebacate, 322 Isonitroacetic acid, 407 Isonitrosoacetaldehyde, 407 Isopropyl alcohol, 207 Isopropyl nitrate,...

Future Of Lacrimators

The future role of the lacrimators in war is uncertain. Their great advantage is the extremely small amounts required to force men to mask with the attendant impairment of their fighting vigor. On the other hand, they produce no real casualties and protection is easily obtained. For these reasons, it seems fairly certain that lacrimators will not be used in any future war between first-class powers, as their armies will be equipped with masks affording adequate protection. At the same time,...

By The Kentucky Rifleman

A stronger recoil spring to insure reliabi1i ty. All that is left is to install the new shoulder stock, give the whole thing a good safety test and you're in business The Sauer M-38 is even easier to alter than the Colt. Start by stripy-ping the gun. The Sauer is stripped by pulling down the latch in the trigger guard, then pulling the slide all the way back and up, then letting it go forward off the frame. Then remove the grips. To start the conversion, remove the trigger bar (see drawing) by...

Wdj

Dynamite Manufacture. (Courtesy Hercules Powder Company.) Hoppers underneath the mixing machine, showing the buggies which carry the mixed dynamite to the packing machines. 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 0 Nitroglycerin 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 Combustible material 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 14 15 16 Sodium nitrate 64 60 56 52 48 44 40 35 29 23 Calcium or magnesium carbonate 1111111111 Figure 86. Dynamite Manufacture. (Courtesy Hercules Powder Company.) Hoppers underneath the mixing...

Physical Classification

The physical classification is very simple and is based upon physical state or form of the substance under ordinary conditiona, i.e., temperature 68 F. (20 C.) and atmospheric pressure (760 mm. Hg). Thus, an agent is a true gas, if its boiling point is below ordinary atmospheric temperature, as is the case with chlorine (b.p. 28 F.). This classification as a true gas is not to be confused with the broad generic term gas, used to refer generally to toxic chemical agents, but means that the...

Tt

a working model and it was an instant sucess. Really though, it couldn't have been anything but a success, as It was so very simple in construction. This first bazooka consisted of nothing more than an aluminum tube six feet long and 3 A to I inch In diameter, a motorcycle battery (power pack), a light switch (trigger), and the necessary wiring and electrical connections. These parts were all taped together for easy assembly and disassembly. The assembly goes as follows The wiring goes from...

Pyrotechnics

The early history of pyrotechnics and the early history of black powder are the same narrative. Incendiary compositions containing saltpeter, and generally sulfur, mixed with combustible materials were used both for amusement and for purposes of war. They developed on the one hand into black powder, first used in crackers for making a noise and later in guns for throwing a projectile, and on the other into pyrotechnic devices. The available evidence indicates that fireworks probably developed...

Hohemaoe Bazooka

The subject of improvised weaponry has been a topic to which much thought has been devoted. However, until recent times in the light of massive anti-gun IegislatIon,it has been somewhat crude and ineffective. Taking these facts into mind I decided to design, build and test a weapon that would be easy to make and highly effective. Ater toying with the idea and encountering a few failures, a friend of mine developed the Idea of the bazooka. He later built

Comparison Of Smoke Agents

On the basis of total obscuring power (T.O.P.), the smoke agents discussed above, as well as other substances that have been U9ed since the War for producing smoke, are arranged below in the descending order of their T.O.P.'s. White Titanium tetrachloride and Sulfur .Sulfur trioxide and chlorsulfonic acid (FS) 2.550 Hydrochloric acid and HC Silicon tetrachloride and Titanium tetrachloride Oleum Tin tetrachloride Phosphorus trichloride and Chlomtlfonic acid and Silicon Sulfur chloride and...

Group II White Phosphorus WP

One of the earliest and by far the most efficient material used in the war for generating artificial smoke was phosphorus. This element exists in two allotropic forms white phosphorus and red phosphorus. White phosphorus, the normal and common form, was discovered in 1669 by the German chemist, Brand, who noted that it is spontaneously inflammable at ordinary temperatures and burns with a dense white smoke. While both white and red phosphorus were used in the war, white phosphorus was by far...

Xvo

No m-nitrotetryl is produced if pure dimethylaniline is used in the usual process for the manufacture of tetryl. The amount of this impurity in the usual process depends upon the amount of monomethylaniline which may be present. A large excess of sulfuric acid tends toward the production of m-nitro compounds, but a reduction in the amount of sulfuric acid is not feasible for this increases the amount of benzene-insoluble material. m-Nitro-tetryl reacts with water, as TNA does the nitro group in...

Dissemination By Projectiles

While the theoretical economy of releasing chemicals on the target area is very large, as indicated above, the practical advantage is not nearly so great, for several deterrant factors enter into the projection and dispersion of chemicals from projectiles. In the first place, projectiles are not very efficient as carriers of chemicals, for their walls must be made thick enough to withstand the shock of discharge, and this greatly limits their chemical capacity. The efficiency of a chemical...

Chapter

Incendiaries, the third member of the chemical arm, are striata nces used to set fire to enemy material in the Theater of War. Unlike gas and smoke, which are directed against personnel and are used chiefly on the field of battle, incendiaries are directed primarily against material, and their employment is not limited to the battle front, but extends to targets anywhere in the Theater of War that can be reached by bombing airplanes. Incendiaries may also be used to a limited extent against...

Safety Check Test Fire Shotgun Before Hand Firing

Locate a barrier such as a stone wall or large tree which you can stand behind in case the weapon explodes when fired. 2. Mount shotgun solidly to a table or other rigid support at least ten feet in front of the barrier. 3. Attach a long cord to the firing strap on the shotgun. 4. Holding the other end of the cord, go behind the barrier. 5. Pull the cord so that the firing strap is held back. groove of stock with shellac or lacquer and, while still wet, place pipe in V groove and wrap 6....

Pulls Instead Of Pushes

SING wh t I lerm a double-action bow and a front-wheel-drive arrow of entirely design, Orville Littleton and I have obtained almost incredible results in a series of flight-shot experiments. Here are the figures BEST TYPE YEW FLIGHT BOW 10-lb. bow. 2S-in. Port Orford cedar arrow GO yd. 30-lb. bow, 28-in. Port OrfoM cedar arrow 209 yd. 65-lb. bow. 28-ln. Port Orford cedar arrow 304 yd. BOW AND ARROW OF NEW DESIGN 10-lb. bow, spring type, front-diSve arrow 160 yd. 30-lb. bow, spring type,...