Vws

This substance, m.p. 295-300 , results from the direct nitration of oxanilide. It is stable and about as powerful as TNT, and is reported to explode with the production of a temperature which is distinctly lower than that produced by many high explosives. (hexanitrocarbanilide or sym-dipicrylurea) may be prepared by the nitration of carbanilide (sym-diphenylurea) in one, in two, or in three stages. It is of interest because of its explosive properties and because it supplies one way in which...

Info

Plosion imparts to the nail is measured. The sand test, in which the detonator is fired in the center of a mass of carefully screened sand contained in a suitable bomb and the sand which has been pulverized is screened off and weighed, is the most precise and significant of the tests on detonators. It is a real test of brisance, and its usefulness is not limited to the study of detonators but may be extended to the study of high explosives as well. Thus, Figure 98. U. S. Bureau of Mines Sand...

By Fb

Take a wine bottle with a concave bottom and ftll it with 30t Sulphuric Acid, 2Q Motor Oil, and SOI Gasoline. Seal the top and thoroughly wipe the bottle clean and dry, especially the concave bottom. Step 2 Pack the bottom full of Potassium Chlorate. Cut a circular piece of cardboard so It snugly fits over the bottom and tape it in place to keep the Potassium Chlorate In. Slip a plastic baggie over the bottom and wrap a rubber band around it. This is to keep moisture out. When the bottle Is...

Do Not Remove Safety Stick Until Ready To Throw Fire Bottle

The safety stick, when in pUce, prevents ignition of the fire bottle if it should accidentally be broken. the end with the matches passes ' the slot in the can. Pass the flat stick or piece of metal Matches through slots in can to hold spring in place. This acts as a safety device. 8. Punch many closely spaced small holes between the lines marked on the can to form a striking surface for the matches. Be careful not to seriously deform can. Section V No. 4.1 CELLED FLAME FUELS LYE SYSTEMS Lye...

Pipe Pistol For Caliber Ammunition

A .45 caliber pistol can be made from 3 8 in. nominal diameter steel gas or water pipe and fittings. Lethal range is about 15 yards (13-1 2 meters*. Steel pipe. 3 8 in. (1 cm) nominal diameter and 6 in. (15 cm) long with threaded ends. 2 threaded couplings to fit pipe Solid pipe plug to fit pipe coupling Hard wood. 8-1 2 in. x 6-1 2 in. x I in. (21 cm x 16-1 2 cm x 2-1 2 cm) Tape or string Flat head nail, approximately 1 16 in. < 1-1 2 mm) in diameter 2 wood screws, approximately 1 16 in. <...

1

.* . 't - - , -. - t -I . .- . sp ' ft.' A- , - *> . AHEAD LOCK can be broken with one sure swift blow. You may frantically pull and tug and twist to release yourself from someone who has an arm tightly wrapped around your neck or by Jiu-Jitsu you may release yourself easily in less than two seconds. There is no question about the effectiveness of this method the effect on the nerve which is struck is instantaneous and severe. This release is very easy to apply and needs comparatively little...

Connect To Explosive

When a vehicle passes over the switch, the two metal plates make contact closing the firing circuit. 3. Wrap a connecting wire around one leg of each U at least 1 4 from the end and solder in place. 4. Place metal ball on block so that it rests in the center hole. 5. Insert the ends of the small MU into two holes in the block. Insert large U into the remaining two hole s. CAUTION Make lure that the metal ball does not touch either MU shaped wire when the switch is standing on its base. If the...

Procedure

Draw or scratch two lines around the can - one 3 4 (19 mm) and the other 1 1 4 (30 mm) from the open end. 2. Cut 2 slots on opposite sides of the tin can at the line farthest from the open end. Make slots large enough for the flat stick or piece of metal to pass through. 9. Fill the jar with gasoline and cap tightly 10, Turn can over and place over the jar so that the safety stick rests on the lid of the jar. 3. Punch 2 small holes just below the rim of the open end of the can. 11. pass wire or...

By Fred B

1 -piece of hardwood,about 1VWx3 4 )-piece of hardwood,about 2x lMxl I-strip of tension steel, about 3*l The Bates MFG. Co. of Orange, NJ makes a steel ruler that will do.The stock H is BNR-12. It can be bought in most stores. I-roof ing na iI -nail about 1 long String them 3 8n from the bottom and the other 2 3 V from the bottom. If you are using the ruler there will be no problem. 2. Snip all but V off the roofing nail, and file it to a point. Solder or glue it V' from the tension steel. This...

CiHiAsOI SOa H [CHtAajO HS

Di phenylarsenious oxide was converted to diphenylchlorarsine by chlorination with hydrochloric acid (CJh)iAs sO + 2HC1 2(C6H*)2AsCl + H,0 Diphenylchlorarsine may also be prepared by a much simpler process, as follows 1. Triphenylarsine is formed by acting on chlorbenzene and arsenic trichloride with sodium. 2. The triphenylarsine is then heated under pressure with more arsenic trichloride and diphenylchlorarsine is thus obtained. While the latter was the laboratory method of making...

Pack With Dowel

Of paper (newspaper or magazine stock Is what we prefer) and tamp them down In on top of the powder charge. Use several pieces to bring up the level to about 1 8 from the end of the casing.This paper serves both as a primary end seal and as a heat-sink to prevent possible damage to the mix by the final wax seal. With that done, seal the end by pouring melted wax over the paper allowing It to pool In the recess. We Just let the wax drip from a candle. This is better than using epoxy to seal the...

How To Use

Add just enough water to completely cover the seeds and place the cap on the jar. 2. Attach connecting wires from ,, -the firing circuit to the two screws 4. Check actual burning rate of fuse by measuring the time it takes for a known length to burn. This it used to determine the length needed for a desired delay time. If 5 in. (12 1 2 cm) burns for 6 seconds, 50 in. (125 cm) of fuse cord will be needed to obtain a one minute (60 second) delay time. WIRES The burnin* f this fuse is...

Info Rdb

In each step several isomers are formed only one of the possibilities in each case is indicated above and the ortho and para compounds both go through similar series of reactions. The product is too sensitive and in the wrong physical state (liquid) for use as a military explosive. In short, for the manufacture of Figure 45. Marina Marqueyrol, Inspecteur-G n ral des Poudres, France. 1919. Author of many researches on aromatic nitro compounds, nitrocellulose, smokeless powder, stabilizers and...

Reactor

Matter of fact, it was not irritant at all, but merely served as a solvent for the arsine. This explanation, however, throws little light upon the subject since ethylcarbazol was itself a solid and was loaded in mixture with solid diphenylchlorarsine as a solid charge in the Blue Cross shell. It is, therefore, not clear as to how it could be used as a solvent. Moreover, it did have a decided irritant effect alone, although much less than any of the other respiratory-irritant substances. The...

Flexible Plate Switch

Switch lor electrically initiated explosives, mines and booby This pressure sensitive switch is used tr*Pft- for initiating emplaced mines and explosives. MATERIAL REQUIRED MATERIEL REQUIRED. > Two meUl ,hect Mousetrap nc aPProxim*tely 10 in* (25 cm) quare Hacksaw or File ne proximately 10 in. x 8 in < 20 cm) - Piece of wood 10 in. square by 1 in. thick Connecting wires Four goft woQd block H1 irux in.x 1 4 ifU Eight flat head nails, 1 in. long Connecting wires Adhesive tape 1. Nail 10 in....

Wax Base Seal

Add a drop of wax to the nozzle fuse Junction or store your completed grenades in a zlplock bag, as the mix Is somewhat hygroscopic and may take on some moisture from the air or moist surroundings. For your first test firing It Is best not to hand-hold the grenade, although this Is possible once you can predict its functioning. Not only may it get quite hot, but It may malfunction dangerously If you prepared the filler incorrectly. Wedge it into the ground and stand upwind to watch the action....

Step V

Insert the endcap into the 8 silencer tube. Mark the 8 tube at 4 points top, bottom, and the center of both sides. Each point should be V to the rear of the froot edge of the tube. Drill one of the holes and insert a screw. This will prevent the mount assembly from moving when the other 3 holes are drilled. Drill the 3 remaining holes as marked. Remove the screw, take the endcap off, and remove the mount assembly. The V roll of cardboard in the endcap can now be discarded. Four nuts are now...

Common Source

Sodium hydroxide (lye, solid or concentrated solution) Copper or brsss plate about 4 in. < 10 cm) square and 1 16 in. < 2 mm) thick Soap manufacturing Disinfectants Sewer cleaner Aluminum plate or sheet, same site as copper plate One of the following Potassium permanganate, solid NOTE Be sure sodium hydroxide solution is at least a 45 solution by weight. If not, boil off some of the water. If solid sodium hydroxide Is available, dissolve some sodium hydroxide In about twice as muct. water...

U

Pedoes were formerly filled with compositions containing chlorate and red phosphorus, similar to those which are used in toy caps but these mixtures are dangerous and much more sensitive than Figure 36. Packing Globe Torpedoes in Wood Shavings. (Courtesy National Fireworks Company and the Boston Globe.) Figure 36. Packing Globe Torpedoes in Wood Shavings. (Courtesy National Fireworks Company and the Boston Globe.) is necessary. At present, safer perchlorate mixtures without phosphorus are used....

World War Development

To accomplish its mission in war, an army must protect itself it must seek to keep itself intact and avoid an excessive drain in casualties upon its resources and fighting power. Hence there is both an individual and a collective demand for protection in war regardless of what means or weapons are employed. In consequence of this, the history of war might well be viewed as an age-long and continuing struggle between weapon development as a means of taking life, 011 the one hand, and protection...

Y

Picramic acid, red needles, m. p. 109 , may be prepared by evaporating ammonium pic rate in alcohol solution with ammonium sulfide. Preparation of Diazodinitrophenol. Ten grams of picramic acid is suspended in 120 cc. of 5 hydrochloric acid in a beaker which stands in a basin of ice water, and the mixture is stirred rapidly with a mechanical stirrer. Sodium nitrite (3.6 grams) dissolved in 10 cc. of water is added all at once, and the stirring is continued for 20 minutes. The product is...

Summary Op Gases

We have now completed a survey of the 38 compounds which constitute the entire group of World War toxic agents. For convenience of reference, a consolidated list of these compounds is. given below, arranged in groups by physiological classification, in order of their chronological appearance (of the group) in the war, as treated in the foregoing chapters.

Animal Blood Systems

MATERIAL REQUIRED Animal blood can be used to gel gasoline for use as a flanre fuel which will adhere to target surfaces. Small jar with cap Cardboard Adhesive tape How Used Common Source Potassium Chlorate Sugar Motor fuel Gas Station Sulphuric Acid (Battery Acid) Motor vehicles Rubber sheeting (automotive inner tube) white fumes begin to appear, immediately remove the acid from heat and allow to cool to room temperature

Dividers

F' ONE'S drafting kit does not include proportional dividers, an efficient substitute for this father expensive instrument may be easily made by the method illustrated. The dividers will be found very useful for enlarging or reducing a drawing or sketch. The blades may be made of cardboard, brass, aluminum, or even thin wood. If Hovr to lay at blades for proportional di* riderj, and a quick acting spring wire pivot of cardboard, cut the two blades to the shape shown in the upper diagram if of...

Individual Protection Other Than Masks

The gas mask protects only the respiratory organs, the eyes, and face. For protection of the laxly generally against the blistering action of vesicant agents which either in liquid or vapor form will readily pene- irate ordinary cloth, special protective clothing is required. Protective clothing is made of the no called Unwed oil cloth, or cotton fabric treated with vegetable drying oils. The garment is a coverall with elastics at the ankles and wrists to insure tight fit at these places and a

Chemicals In War

Acrolein, 139 Adamite, 211 Agent*, classification, 107 according to degree, 119 according to persistencyr 116 American, postwar, 113 World War, 112 British, postwar, 114 World War, 113 chemical, 107 French, postwar, 114 World War, 115 military, 121 physical, 111 physiological, 112 smoke agents, 220 tactical, 121 incendiary, 3. 248 lacrimatory, 120 lung injurant 147 nomenclature, respiratory irritant, 201 smoke, 3. 220 systemic toxic, 170 vesicant, 177 Ammunition, artillery, used jn War, 658...

No

During the first World War the Germans used a mixture of trinitroanisol and hexanitrodiphenyl sulfide in bombs. Trinitrophenetol or ethyl picrate, m.p. 78 , is prepared by the same methods as trinitroanisol. The explosive properties of the two substances have been studied by Desparmets and Calinaud, and by Desvergnes, who has reported the results of the earlier workers together with data of his own and discussions of methods of manufacture and of the explosive properties of mixtures with picric...

Nitroamines And Related Substances

The nitroamines are substituted ammonias, substances in which a nitro group is attached directly to a trivalent nitrogen atom. They are prepared in general either by the nitration of a nitrogen base or of one of its salts, or they are prepared by the splitting off of water from the nitrate of the base by the action of concentrated sulfuric acid upon it. At present two nitroamines are of particular interest to the explosives worker, namely, nitro-guanidine and cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine...

Lxx

DD, explosive, 166 DDNP, 443 see also Diazodinitrophenol DNT see Dinitrotoluene DNX see Dinitroxylene Dead pressed explosive, 4, 410, 424, 438, 441, 444, 450, 451 Dearrangement, urea, 373, 384, 385, 386 , 392 237, 266, 267, 452, 453 Decomposition in vacuum, 269 Definition of explosive, 1 Dehydrating press, 299, 300, 302 Density of louding. 24, 132, 169, 172, 175, 182, 267, 286, 337, 391 effect upon explosive decomposition, 390 optimum, 14, 139, 361, 362, 363 Dermatitis, 125 Deterrent, 291, 319,...

Popular Mechanics

A 1-in. hole was bored.in the center of a 2-in. square block. Two finishing- in, as shown in the' sketch. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil'. After everything was ready the . powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. The distance between the nail points which must be bright and clean should be just enough to give a good, fat spark.

Methods Of Projection

Regardless of the technical means employed, there are but three basic methods of placing chemicals on a target area. First, by releasing the chemical from containers installed in one's own front lines, and depending upon the wind to carry it to and over the target area. This may be called the method of release at origin. Second, by releasing from containers projected on the target area by some physical means, such as firing from a gun (chemical shell), dropping from an airplane (chemical bomb),...

W

Water-dried powder, 313 Water-drying, 305, 306, 307, 316 Water fireworks, 56 Water gas, 277 Water glass, 108, 253 Web thickness, 8, 299 Whale oil, 199 Wheel cake, 46 Wheel mill, 45, 46, 51, 290 Wheels, pyrotechnic, 91, 92 Whistling fireworks, 72, 73 Whistling rockets, 72 White fire, 61, 64, 71, 118 White lances, 58, 69 White lights, 64, 68, 71 White powder, Augendre's, 358 Raschig's, 50 White smoke, 123 White stars, 83 Willow tree, 86 Wing-tip flares, 68 Wire dips, 119 Wood cellulose, 259 Wood...

Properties Of Explosives

An explosive is a material, either a pure single substance or a mixture of substances, which is capable of producing an explosion by its own energy. It seems unnecessary to define an explosion, for everyone knows what it is a loud noise and the sudden going away of things from the place where they have been. Sometimes it may only be the air in the neighborhood of the material or the gas from the explosion which goes away. Our simple definition makes mention of the one single attribute which all...

Bicycle Generator Power Source

1 Tie a 4 to 6 foot (1 meter) length of cord to the grenade. Be sure that the rope will not prevent the grenade handle from coming off. A 6 volt, 3 watt bicycle generator will set off one or two blasting caps (connected in series) or an igniter. Note If improvised grenade is used, tie cord around grenade near the end cap. Tape in place if necessary. 2. Tie a large knot in the other end of the cord for use as a handle. coatin& from both cnds of 2 c0 5pcr 3. Carefully remove safety pin from...

Lunginjurant Agents Group Characteristics

The lung injurants were the second group of agents to make their appearance in the World War. They form a well-defined group, having many properties in common* and for that reason they were designated by the Germans under a siugle generic class Green Cross substances. In general, they were all liquids of relatively low boiling points and high vapor pressures. They, therefore, were volatile substances that formed i ion persistent gases upon release from their containers. Their principal...

Cut So Inner Core Is Exposed

Cut end of fuse cord to expose inner core. 1. If watch has a sweep or large second hand, remove it. If delay time of more than one hour is required, also remove the minute hand If hands are painted, carefully scrape paint from contact edge with knife. 2. Drill a hole through the crystal of the watch or pierce the crystal with a heated nail. The hole must 2. Light cigarette in normal fashion. Place a paper be small enough that the match so that the head is over exposed end of fuse cord and screw...

S

S-Type smoke mixture, British, 233 Salve, protective, 505 Shell, chemical, artillery, gas, used in World War, H5H incendiary, development, 47 Shelters, gasproof, 568-571 Silicon tetrachloride, 239 SK, 138 Smoke, candles and pots, development and use, 303-309 clouds, nature of, 61 nature of, 224 ulwcuring power, 226 production, principle* of, 229 screens, 27, 220 Smoke agent, classification, 220 comparison, 246 definition, 4 future of, 247 history, 220 nature of, 224 obscuring power, 45, 22fi...

Lzt

Which is as good a stabilizer as diphenylamine itself. Since both of these substances may be detected by simple tests upon an alcoholic extract of a sample of the powder, the fitness of the powder for continued storage and use may be easily demon which is as good a stabilizer as diphenylamine itself. Since both of these substances may be detected by simple tests upon an alcoholic extract of a sample of the powder, the fitness of the powder for continued storage and use may be easily demon...

Leather Washer

ALL that was required to make the high-grade hunting knife shown above was a worn-out 10-in. mill file, 10 cents worth of scrap sole leather from a shoe repair shop, and a piece of scrap brass 154 in. in diameter. Place the file in a forge or bury it in a roaring bed of live coals in a furnace or stove and bring to a white heat. Remove and let cool gradually. This will leave just the right temper. , Now place the file in the vise with 5 in. above the jaws, and break it off with a hammer. Grind...

Relative Casualty Value Of Gases

In order to determine the relative casualty value of the principal battle gases, it is necessary to take into consideration the amountB of each that were used in battle during the World War. Table XV shows the amounts of battle gases of each class that were manufactured during the War. Of the 150,000 tons of battle gases manufactured during the war, approximately 125,000 tons were used in battle and 25,000 tons were left on hand after the war in filled shell and in bulk storage, as indicated...

Requirements For Ideal Agents

Since wc have now reviewed the requirements for chemical agent at some length, we may summarize this subject by stating the qualities and characteristics of an ideal chemical agent of each type. Offensive Gas. The ideal combat gas for us on the tactical offensive should meet the following requirements Tactical t. High toxicity. - Multiple effortiveneas. X npersistcncy. 4 hfiocts of m ximum duration. V Immediate effectiveness. I . Insidiousness in action. Volatility (maximum field conrcntra-I...

Aromatic Nitro Compounds

Aromatic nitro compounds are generally stable but are frequently reactive, especially if they contain groups other than nitro groups in the meta position with respect to one another. As a class they constitute the most important of the military high explosives. They are also used as components of smokeless powder, in compound detonators, and in primer compositions. Liquid nitro compounds, and the mixtures which are produced as by-products from the manufacture of pure nitro compounds for...

Capchur Equipment

The world famous system for immobilizing or medicating wild or domestic animals. A patented method for Injecting Any fluid drug into an animal from distances up to 80 yards - safely, accurately and instantaneously. The drug we offer is for ttie purpose of immobilizing an animal for easy capture or handling, but any liquid medicine or drug recommended by your veterinarian may be used with this equipment. The weapons propel a unique patented syringe which carries the drug. On impact with the...

General Data

Type surface to surface antitank missile. Configuration length, 24 diameter, 4 wingspan, 18 ' solid balsa cruciform wings, spiral wound paper tube body and nosecone. Propulsion type 4 solid propellaat single stage motors - burning time - three seconds, maximum combined thrust - 36 lbs - average combined thrust - 8 lbs. Payload high explosive shaped charge approx. lbs. of explosive. Guidance type two channel radio control, visually guided to target. 4 movable trim tabs on wings for steering....

Future Of Smoke Agents

During the World War obscuring smoke proved its tactical value on land and sea and won for itself an assured place as a military weapon. Since the war the development of air force has still further enhanced the value of obscuring smoke, for not only are airplanes a means par excellence for putting down smoke Bcreens on the field of battle, but their power of observation has greatly increased the need for obscuration. So greatly has aircraft increased the facility of observing enemy dispositions...

Automatic Firearm

Automatic weapons of the submachine gun type are sometimes referred to as machine pistols and such weapons must be light in weight and efficient u operation. According to this Invention weight cf the weapon is kept to a minimum by constructing certain elements so that they per* ions two or more functions. For example, the trigger guard of this invention is arranged in such manner as to afford protection for the outwardly protruding trigger and also so as to function as guide means whereby...

Plastic Bombs

Hand grenades and antipersonel mines can be easily and cheaply constructed from polyester casting res in, auto body putty, ABS and PVC pipe, plexiglass, vacumn formed styrene sheet etc. These plastic devices won't produce shrapnel fragments or concussions equal to the power of conventional bombs, but they do have two unique and noteworthy features they are both non metallic and x-ray Li.apparent. The first feature allows these devices to be carried through airports, government buildings and...

Osu

Ignition temperature, 3, 21, 165, 189, 206, 446 Impact, sensitivity to, 21, 138, 157, 165, 168, 184 Incendiary compositions, 28, 35, 52 Indigo. 123, 164 Indoor fireworks, 70, 93 Indurite, 296 Inhibitory effect of groups, 128 Initiator, 2, 11 Iodine, 409 Iron, 429 Iron filings. 52, 57, 118 Iron oxide, 61 Iron picrate, 63, 165 Iron scale, 53 Iron wire, 118 Isoamyl phthalate, 322 Isoamyl sebacate, 322 Isonitroacetic acid, 407 Isonitrosoacetaldehyde, 407 Isopropyl alcohol, 207 Isopropyl nitrate,...

By The Kentucky Rifleman

A stronger recoil spring to insure reliabi1i ty. All that is left is to install the new shoulder stock, give the whole thing a good safety test and you're in business The Sauer M-38 is even easier to alter than the Colt. Start by stripy-ping the gun. The Sauer is stripped by pulling down the latch in the trigger guard, then pulling the slide all the way back and up, then letting it go forward off the frame. Then remove the grips. To start the conversion, remove the trigger bar (see drawing) by...

Physical Classification

The physical classification is very simple and is based upon physical state or form of the substance under ordinary conditiona, i.e., temperature 68 F. (20 C.) and atmospheric pressure (760 mm. Hg). Thus, an agent is a true gas, if its boiling point is below ordinary atmospheric temperature, as is the case with chlorine (b.p. 28 F.). This classification as a true gas is not to be confused with the broad generic term gas, used to refer generally to toxic chemical agents, but means that the...

Note

Common dry cigarettes burn about 1 inch every 7 or 8 minutes in still air. If the fuse cord is placed 1 inch from the burning end of a cigarette a time delay of 7 or 8 minute will result. Delay time will vary depending upon type of cigarette, wind, moisture, and other atmospheric conditions. DELAY IGNITER FROM CIGARETTE A simple and economical time delay can be made with a common cigarette. To obtain accurate delay time, a test run should be made under use11 conditions.

Explosive

If an exploaive charge other than a atandard TNT block ia uaed, make a hole in the center of the charge for inaerting the blaating cap. TNT can be drilled with relative safety. With plaatic explosives, a hole can be made by preaaing a round atick into the center of the charge. The hole ahould be deep enough that the blaating cap ia totally within the exploaive. 2. Tape, tie or glue one or two rows of closely packed naila to sides of explosive block. Nails should completely cover the four...

L

Lachrymator, 140, 144 Lactose, 65, 123, 208, 238, 240 Lactose Hexanitrate, 242 Lactose octonitrate, 241 Lady crackers, 111 Laevulosan, 243 Laminated powder, 298, 318 Lamium, oil of, 34 Lampblack, 57, 61, 64, 65, 70, 71, 72, 84, 85, 86, 90, 108, 118, 289, 356 Lampblack effect, 98 Lampblack stars, 86, 87 Lances, 57, 58, 63, 69 Lead acetate, 425, 440 Lead azide, 3, 4, 8,169, 183, 209, 281, 391, 420, 421, 424 ff., 431, 434, 440, 450 density, 430, 434 drop test, 209 efficiency as initiator, 280...

Tt

a working model and it was an instant sucess. Really though, it couldn't have been anything but a success, as It was so very simple in construction. This first bazooka consisted of nothing more than an aluminum tube six feet long and 3 A to I inch In diameter, a motorcycle battery (power pack), a light switch (trigger), and the necessary wiring and electrical connections. These parts were all taped together for easy assembly and disassembly. The assembly goes as follows The wiring goes from...

Pyrotechnics

The early history of pyrotechnics and the early history of black powder are the same narrative. Incendiary compositions containing saltpeter, and generally sulfur, mixed with combustible materials were used both for amusement and for purposes of war. They developed on the one hand into black powder, first used in crackers for making a noise and later in guns for throwing a projectile, and on the other into pyrotechnic devices. The available evidence indicates that fireworks probably developed...

Hohemaoe Bazooka

The subject of improvised weaponry has been a topic to which much thought has been devoted. However, until recent times in the light of massive anti-gun IegislatIon,it has been somewhat crude and ineffective. Taking these facts into mind I decided to design, build and test a weapon that would be easy to make and highly effective. Ater toying with the idea and encountering a few failures, a friend of mine developed the Idea of the bazooka. He later built

Comparison Of Smoke Agents

On the basis of total obscuring power (T.O.P.), the smoke agents discussed above, as well as other substances that have been U9ed since the War for producing smoke, are arranged below in the descending order of their T.O.P.'s. White Titanium tetrachloride and Sulfur .Sulfur trioxide and chlorsulfonic acid (FS) 2.550 Hydrochloric acid and HC Silicon tetrachloride and Titanium tetrachloride Oleum Tin tetrachloride Phosphorus trichloride and Chlomtlfonic acid and Silicon Sulfur chloride and...

Group II White Phosphorus WP

One of the earliest and by far the most efficient material used in the war for generating artificial smoke was phosphorus. This element exists in two allotropic forms white phosphorus and red phosphorus. White phosphorus, the normal and common form, was discovered in 1669 by the German chemist, Brand, who noted that it is spontaneously inflammable at ordinary temperatures and burns with a dense white smoke. While both white and red phosphorus were used in the war, white phosphorus was by far...

Xvo

No m-nitrotetryl is produced if pure dimethylaniline is used in the usual process for the manufacture of tetryl. The amount of this impurity in the usual process depends upon the amount of monomethylaniline which may be present. A large excess of sulfuric acid tends toward the production of m-nitro compounds, but a reduction in the amount of sulfuric acid is not feasible for this increases the amount of benzene-insoluble material. m-Nitro-tetryl reacts with water, as TNA does the nitro group in...

Dissemination By Projectiles

While the theoretical economy of releasing chemicals on the target area is very large, as indicated above, the practical advantage is not nearly so great, for several deterrant factors enter into the projection and dispersion of chemicals from projectiles. In the first place, projectiles are not very efficient as carriers of chemicals, for their walls must be made thick enough to withstand the shock of discharge, and this greatly limits their chemical capacity. The efficiency of a chemical...

Fundamental Considerations

Basic Comparison of Chemical and Explosive Weapons 3 Effect of Weather on Chemical Warfare 23 Military Technical and Tactical Requirements 35 Technical Requirements . . 35 Tactical Requirements. . . 41 Requirements for Ideal Agents 47 Dissemination of Chemical Agents 51 Means of Projection. 31 Methods of Projection . 64 Methods of Gas Smoke Relation between Quantity and Range 62 Dissemination by Projectiles 75 Control of Chemical Warfare 77

Safety Check Test Fire Shotgun Before Hand Firing

Locate a barrier such as a stone wall or large tree which you can stand behind in case the weapon explodes when fired. 2. Mount shotgun solidly to a table or other rigid support at least ten feet in front of the barrier. 3. Attach a long cord to the firing strap on the shotgun. 4. Holding the other end of the cord, go behind the barrier. 5. Pull the cord so that the firing strap is held back. groove of stock with shellac or lacquer and, while still wet, place pipe in V groove and wrap 6....

Source

Soil containing old decayed vegetable or animal matter Old cellars and or farm grounds Decayed stone or mortar building foundations Totally burned whitish wood ash powder Totally burned paper (black) 4. Place bucket over shallow container. Bucket may be sup-ported on sticks if necessary. Bucket or similar container, about 5 gallons (19 liters) in volume (Plastic, metal, or wood) 2 pieces of finely woven cloth, each slightly larger than bottom of bucket large as bottom of bucket Shallow heat...

Caution

Store matches and completed igniters in mois-tureproof containers such as rubber or plastic bags until ready for use. Damp or wet paper book matches will not ignite. 3. Shape the cover into a tube with striking surface on the inside and tape. Make sure the folded cover will fit tightly around the taped match heads. Leave cover open at opposite end for insertion of the matches. 4. Push the taped matches into the tube until the bottom ends are exposed about 3 4 in, (2 cm).

Command Post

Place your manually detonated mines in spots that can be readily identified by you. If you put one in a tree stump, run the string into your command post, put a little tag on the pulling end that says 'tree stump'. If you have a big project like a long wall that you want to dot with mines, put numbers on the wall facing you and tag your strings accordingly. By doing this, you just sit back and wait for someone to take his position, and then finish him off. If you are being stormed, pull all the...

Future Of The Vesicants

The vesicants introduced a new principle in chemical-warfare offense in that they readily penetrated clothing and produced casualties by body bums. Masks, therefore, were wholly inadequate for protection against these agents, and special protective clothing was resorted to. Such clothing is very uncomfortable, especially in hot weather, and greatly lowers the combat ability of troops. It also enormously increases the problem of protection from contamination, not only for men and animals but...

Pulls Instead Of Pushes

SING wh t I lerm a double-action bow and a front-wheel-drive arrow of entirely design, Orville Littleton and I have obtained almost incredible results in a series of flight-shot experiments. Here are the figures BEST TYPE YEW FLIGHT BOW 10-lb. bow. 2S-in. Port Orford cedar arrow GO yd. 30-lb. bow, 28-in. Port OrfoM cedar arrow 209 yd. 65-lb. bow. 28-ln. Port Orford cedar arrow 304 yd. BOW AND ARROW OF NEW DESIGN 10-lb. bow, spring type, front-diSve arrow 160 yd. 30-lb. bow, spring type,...

Bargain Bugging

When it is necessary to record your conversation with another person or his conversation with a third party after your departure, a bug can be hidden In your pocket and may be left at the scene. The bug transmits to a receiver tape recorder setup In your nerarby parked car or carried by your associate who places himself as close to the scene of conversation as possible outside an office, in an adjoining room, etc. walkie talkies. Adequate ones are available for about 25 from any radio and...

Comparison Op The Vesicants

Considering the factors (1) rapidity of action (2) extension of rube-faction, swelling, and edema and (3) time of healing of lesions, the World War vesicants and those compounds having subsidiary vesicant action may be arranged in descending order of their skin-irritant efficiency as follows On the basis of relative toxicity, the above agents would rank as Minimum Lethal Dose (10 Minutes' Exposure) 0.120 0.150 0.200 0.200 0.500 0.560

Hammer Pattern

Will not be filled, a wad of paper should be used to ensure that a , quantity of filler is held in place around the fuse. The spark cannot be counted on to make a jump. If a nore sophlsticated explosive filler is to be used, be sure to use the correct companion booster or igni-tor charge. Most high explosives cannot be detonated by fuse only. When the epoxy is dry coat the threads of the grenade body with Permatex or a similar non drying gasket sealer. This will form a waterprooF seal between...

Physiological Classification

This classification arranges chemical agenfs according to the effects they produce upon the living body. Both during and since the late war, the physiological classification systems of the principal countries has differed considerably in order to compare these systems, we shall review briefly the salient points of each. American Classification (World War) In this system, the toxic substanccsare classified according to the predominant effects which they exert, with the understanding, however,...

Figs

In accordance with the invention, therefore, the chamber has at its front end a section of reduced cross-sectional area. Weight, size and cost are reduced without seriously affecting the efficiency of noise reduction. The silencer may be built as an attachment or, preferably, the rear portion of the chamber may be built around the barrel of the firearm, with communicating holes through the barrel. The heat absorbing material may be metal screen , which may take the form of apertured discs,...

Index Tm

Armor materials 160 Battery, short lasting 154, two hour 157 Carbine, 7.62 mm 46 Cartridge, rifle 61 Cone charge, wine bottle 23 Dust explosions 12 Explosions, dust 12 Fertilizer explosive 14 Fire bottle, chemical 84, mechanically initiated 88 Fuse cords, fast burning 118 slow burning 119 Gelled flame fuels, alcohol-lye 94 alcohol-soap 96 blood 102 egg 97 latex 99 lye 93 wax 101 Generator, automobile 152 Igniter, fuse, from book matches 108 from book matches 86 Igniter, delay, cigarette 110...

SiCl HjO Si OH i HCI

At a concentration of 0.20 mg. per liter, no further hydrolysis takes place, but an equilibrium seems to be established in which the hydrochloric acid liberated prevents further decomposition. In fact, when the hydrochloric acid becomes too great the above reaction may even be reversed and the amount of smoke actually diminished. If, however, the excess hydrochloric acid is neutralized by reaction with ammonia, hydrolysis of the silicon tetrachloride proceeds smoothly SiCL + 4NHi + 4H,0 - Si...

Electric Pullrelease Switch

Them tightly around the two jaws of the two nails. the clothespin. The bare wires should f the wire is pulled in a trip wire touch and close the circuit when the fashion, the metal strip will touch nail clothespin is In a relaxed position. To d but if the wire is discovered and cut hold the circuit in an open position, a . it will spring open and contact nail E. wedge of some non-conductive Either way, the circuit will be material such as wood or plastic is completed. This Is a popular antl...

Chlorine

Chlorine gas is generated when chlorine bleach is mixed with sodium bisulfate (Sani-Flush). Pour a can of Sani-Flush in a baking pan, and level off the top of the pile. Punch a hole near Che bottom of the plastic bleach jug and place the jug in the center of the pan. A steady cloud of gas will be generated, the actual duration depending upon the rate of bleach flow. If it is necessary to direct the gas to a specific area, the generator can be covered with an airtight top fitted with a hose.

Figure

Just got PMA. 05 and saw your little article on Caltrops. There's an even easier way to make them out of about 1 32 sheet steel that needs only a pair of tinsnips (although compound leverage aviator's snips would be easier to use ). Just cut a piece of sheet steel to the shape shown in Figure I, then twist 90 across the narrow waist, see Figure 2. The Caltrop will sit on one edge and one point with the remaining point sticking up. See Figure 3. The 1 32 thickness is okay for passenger cars, but...

Projectors

RANCE PROJECTOR - RIFLE TTPE (CO, powered) 1. Specially designed pneumatic rifle that fires patented Cap-Chnr syringe. The 2 small CO, cylinders inserted into the rifle will discharge the rifle approximately 10 times. Can be successfully used at distances up to about 35 yard*, but most effective at 25 to 30 yard range. The lower velocity of this unit minimizes danger of injury to animals resulting from the physical impact of the syringe. Bolt Action. Specially designed barrel. Sh. wt. 8Yi...

Capchur Sol Immobilizing Drug

Cap-Chur Sot is the most rapid actms immobilizer available. Total immobilization usually occurs in from 2 to 10 minutes. Dizziness and lack of visual coordination may occur in as short a time as 30 seconds so that the animal will normally not move far after injection. Best results are usually obtained by mak-ins ihe injection in the muscular area of the hindquarters on larger animals. The dosases prescribed are for intramuscular or intraperitoneal Injection. Cap-Chur Sol contains nicotine...

Cross Strips

Tween the rollers of. a wringer, by flattening them with a lawn roller, or in anv other convenient way. If the target 4S to be no larger than 2 ft. in diameter, it is now necessary only to roll the strip* as tightly as possible under your knee and bind with wire aa described a little later on, It will improve the target to brush the pasteboard heavily with a solution of sodium silicate (water glass). If a standard 4-ft. target is to be made, prepare a frame as shown in the drawing. Bore the...

Iiv

Davis Pamks 191-458 CorvuHJHTKD as Volume II, 19-4 1 I Properties of Classification of A Complete Round of Propagation of Detonating Velocity of Munroe Sensitivity Tests of Explosive Power and Brisance 23 II Black Berthold Boerhaave on Black Greek Marcus Roger Development of Black Burning of Black Uses of Black Blasting Other Related Propellent III Development of Pyrotechnic Mixtures 53 Colored Railway Scratch Marine Parade Aluminum and Magnesium Picrate Picrate Non-Picrate Roman...

Fertilizer Explosive

An explosive munition can lie made from fertilizer grade ammonium nitrate and either fuel oil or a mixture of equal parts of motor oil and gasoline. When properly prciwrcd, this explosive munition can be detonated with a blasting cup. 4. Place the aluminum metal on top of the explosive. 5. Just before use, insert the blasting cap into the cavity made by the rod. The initiator is now ready for use. Cardboard Disk Insert For Handling Purposes NOTE If it is desired to carry the initiator some...

Split Fuse And Glue To Bottom

First cut a number of discs from cardboard that are the same size as the inside diameter of your mortar. Next obtain sone empty (fired) 16 ga. and empty 12 ga. shotgun shells Punch the primer out of the 16 ge. shell, Insert a length of firecracker fuse and fill the remainder of the primer hole with tissue paper. Seal the fuse in with glue. Be sure the fuse comes back into the empty shotgun shell 1 2 or so. Fill the 16 ga. shell with black powder, or better yet, flash powder. Slide the empty 12...

The Handy No Impact Required Firebomb

1 came up with this devilish little device one day while pondering the best way to torch piles of hay. It uses a minimum amount of fuel, is silent (no bottles breaking), and cheap to build. Take an empty soft drink can and remove the top. Stuff with some sort of absorbant material. Pour in a few ounces of gas and pour out excess. To use, all you have to do is light the top and throw on a flammable substance. A little sand in the bottom of the can helps it throw farther. Finally, their use is as...

Push Dagger Full Size Pattern

Sewn to the inside of your boot or the scabbard supplied with the knife can be shortened to fit the new blade length. The push dagger, like the derringer, was a popular b ckup or hideout weapon for the American traveler in the 18008. Rlverboat gamblers would often produce a push dagger to settle a gambling argument, and many gentlemen carried a dagger as a discrete means of protection for encounters with the local riff-raff. Many of these early push daggers were works of art. One of the more...

Coke Bottle Shaped Charge

This shaped charge will penetrate 3 in. (7-1 2 cm) of armor. (It will disable a vehicle if placed on the engine or engine compartment). Glass Coke bottle. 6-1 2 oz. size Plastic or castable explosive, about 1 lb. (454 gm) Metal cylinder, open at both ends, about 6 in. (IS cm) long and 2 in. (5 cm) inside diameter. Cylinder should be heavy walled for best results. Non-metal rod about 1 4 in. (6 mm) in diameter and 8 in. (20 cm) or more in length. 2 tin cans if castable explosive is used (See...

New Subminiature Fm Wireless Microphone

Wireless Mike

If left on the scene the wireless mike will continue to transmit for about 80 hours. It can be attached to the bottom of a desk or chair with a piece of tape or ribbon epoxy or hidden in a paper bag and placed in a convenient waste basket. The one drawback to this transmitter Is the short battery life. This Is a result of the unit being constantly on as long as the battery is in place. Anyone with a fair amount ol electronic skill can tap inlo the battery circuit of the mike and install a voice...

A D C Ranford

Here's a neat little device that can launch a 2 lb. pipe bomb 100 yards or more, depending upon the thrower. Use a pipe bomb with a 10-15 second fuse and tie a string 2-3 feet long around one end, as shown in Fig.I. Using this method of launching, you shouldn't find it too difficult to throw accurately at surprisingly long distances. The grenade that wouldn't reach a nearby hill can now be thrown over1 the next one as well. There are several times when you'll need a grenade to reach something...

Edward L Allen

Edward Allen began teaching Jiu-Jitsu twenty years ago he has taught thousands of law enforcement officers and law abiding citizens. He gives private lessons to single pupils and class lessons to hundreds. He teaches business men interested in Jiu-Jitsu as a means of keeping order in their establishments and officers eager to have this additional weapon at their commond. Housewives making certain that they can repel possible intruders in their homes and soldiers preparing for foreign...

By Darvis Mccoy

In feudal Japan there existed an organization Qf assassins known as Ninja. They were adept in the use of all weapons of their day. The one we are Interested in here is the weighted chain, or manrikigusarl. Different versions of this weapon existed, such as the long rope, with a ring on one end and a knife on the other, or the chain with a weight on each end. The most appropriate for modern street defense Is the latter. The weighted chain is a versatile fighting tool. It can be snapped at the...

Use Of Vesicants In The World

The vesicants rank second in the extent of use in the war, being exceeded in tonnage by the lung injurants only. Altogether, about 12,000 tons of vesicants were used in battle, and of this quantity it is estimated that mustard was fully 95 per cent. No separate records are available as to the exact quantities of the minor vesicants that were used, or as to the casualties produced by them. Mustard gas so nearly completely dominated the vesicant field that all such casualties are generally...

Info Tfx

Readily soluble in acetone, acetic acid, and in methyl and ethyl alcohol, and is relatively stable. It reduces Fehling's solution on warming. l-Rhamnose trinitrate, CoHo02 ON02 3, results from the action of mixed acid on i-rhamnosc. It is a white amorphous material, melting below 100 , readily soluble in alcohol and in soluble in water. It explodes feebly under a hammer blow. a-Methylglucoside tetranitrate,89 C7Hi002 0N02 4, crystallizes from alcohol in quadrilateral plates which melt at 49-50...

Mannose Pentanitrate

Nitroglucose d-Glucose pentanitrate , CJEirOfONOub d-Glucosc pentanitrate 00 is a colorless viscous syrup, insoluble in water and in ligroin, readily soluble in alcohol. It becomes hard at 0 . It is unstable above 50 , and if heated slowly to a higher temperature decomposes rapidly at about 135 . It reduces Fehling's solution on warming. Ghicosan trinitrate, CUH7O2 0N02 3, is produced by the nitration of cr-glucosan and by the action for several days of mixed acid on d-glucose. It is readily...

Bolas

For centuries, the Indians of South America have used a weapon called the bola, or bolsadero, for hunting and warfare. It was used widely in tribal disputes, and was very effective a-gainst the Spanish cavalry. Today the gauchos who inhabit the pampas use them to snare the feet of livestock on the run, but their value as a weapon has not diminished. The bola of old was made by wrapping a stone in a leather pouch, tying a leather thong about three feet long to the pouch, then tying three of...

Nitric Acid

Nitric acid is used in the preparation of many explosives, incendiary mixtures, and acid Delay timers. It may be prepared by distilling a mixture of potassium nitrate and concentrated sulfuric acid. MATERIAL REQUIRED SOURCES Improvised Section I. No. 2 Motor vehicle batteries Industrial plants Potassium nitrate 2 parts by volume by volume 2 bottles or ceramic jugs narrow necks are preferable Pot or frying pan Heat source wood, coal, or charcoal etc. but not cellophane Paper or rags IMPORTANT If...

P

PETN see Pentaerythrite tetranitrate Palm tree set piece, 58, 60 Panclastites, 355 Paper, nitrated, 245, 246, 247, 251 Paper caps, 105, 106, 107 Parachute, 78 Paracyanogen, 119, 387 Parade torches, 67 Paraffin, 70, 71, 90, 118, 124, 167, 289, 333, 336, 338, 350, 361, 364, 366, 391 Paraffin oil, 276, 289 sec also Hydrocarbons, heavy also Petroleum Paraldehyde, 407 Paranitraniline red, 123 Paranitraniline yellow, 123 Parazol, 140 Paris green, 64, 65, 67, 70, 81, 85, 86, 122 Pastilles, 93 ff....

Shotgun Shell

Set guns are a dandy way to protect yourself and your property. Correctly rigged, they can kill or malm an intruder , and, If you are around, announce the Intruder's tresspasses. If push ever comes to shove In our uncertain future, set guns will provide c eap, they can be improvised reliable, and effective insurance for a broad variety of security problems. For the present, they must be used with the greatest discretion. The authorities and their minions frown upon the use of firearms In...

Aa

All these isomers occur in commercial trinitronaphthalene, known as naphtite, which melts at about 110 . lt The nitration of a-, and ytrinitronaphthalene yields y- or 1,3,5,8-tetranitronaphthaiene glistening tetrahedrons, m.p. 194-195 . The nitration of the -compound also yields or 1.3,6,8-tetranitronaphthalene m.p. 203 , and that of the S-trinitro compound yields S- or 1,2,5,8-tetranitronaphthalene glistening prisms which decompose at 270 without melting , a substance which may be formed also...

Zx

Bury at least 1 2 of the launcher pipe in the ground at desired angle Open end should face the expected path of the enemy. Muzzle may be covered with cardboard and a thin layer of dirt and or leaves as camouflage. Be sure cardboard prevents dirt from entering pipe. NOTE The 14 in. launcher may be hand held against the ground instead of being buried. METHOD II - If Electrical Igniter is Used NOTE Be sure that bulb is in good operating condition. 1. Prepare electric bulb initiator as described...

Gil

266, 320, 321, 327 Cadmium azide. 183, 411, 412 Cadmium fulminate, 183, 411, 412 Cadmium picrate, 164 Calcium azide, 411 Calcium carbide, 377 Calcium carbonate, 66, 86, 105, 106, 122, 124, 185, 189, 276, 308, 333, 339, 311. 345, 454 Calcium chloride muriate , 60, 133, 377 Calcium cyanamide, 377 Calcium fluoride, 71 Calcium hydroxide, 278 Calcium nitrate, 200, 201, 229 Calcium picrate, 63, 164 Calcium silicide, 458 Calcium sulfate, 353 Calomel. 64, 65, 67, 70, 72, 85, 86 Calx, 38 Camphor, 40,...